10י׳
1 א

רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, הָעֹמֶר הָיָה בָא בְשַׁבָּת מִשָּׁלשׁ סְאִין, וּבְחֹל מֵחָמֵשׁ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת וְאֶחָד בְּחֹל, מִשָּׁלשׁ הָיָה בָא. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא סְגָן הַכֹּהֲנִים אוֹמֵר, בְּשַׁבָּת הָיָה נִקְצָר בְּיָחִיד וּבְמַגָּל אֶחָד וּבְקֻפָּה אַחַת. וּבְחֹל, בִּשְׁלשָׁה וּבְשָׁלשׁ קֻפּוֹת וּבְשָׁלשׁ מַגָּלוֹת. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת וְאֶחָד בְּחֹל, בִּשְׁלשָׁה וּבְשָׁלשׁ קֻפּוֹת וּבְשָׁלשׁ מַגָּלוֹת:

Rabbi Ishmael says: On Shabbat the omer [The special barley offering, offered the day after Pesach, which permits grain harvested in the last year to be eaten] would come from three se'im [a specific measure of volume] and on a weekday from five; the Sages say: whether on Shabbat or on a weekday it would come from three se'im. Rabbi Hanina Segan HaKohanim says: on Shabbat it was reaped by one person with one sickle into one basket, and on a weekday it was reaped by three people into three baskets and with three sickles; the Sages say: whether on Shabbat or on a weekday it was reaped by three people into three baskets and with three sickles.

2 ב

מִצְוַת הָעֹמֶר לָבֹא מִן הַקָּרוֹב. לֹא בִכֵּר הַקָּרוֹב לִירוּשָׁלַיִם, מְבִיאִים אוֹתוֹ מִכָּל מָקוֹם. מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁבָּא מִגַּגּוֹת צְרִיפִין, וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם מִבִּקְעַת עֵין סוֹכֵר:

The [best fulfillment of the] commandment of the omer is [that it] come from a nearby land. If [the areas] close to Jerusalem were not yet ripe they could bring them from any place. It once happened that it came from Gaggot Tzrifin and the two loaves came from the valley of Ein Socher.

3 ג

כֵּיצַד הָיוּ עוֹשִׂים. שְׁלוּחֵי בֵית דִּין יוֹצְאִים מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, וְעוֹשִׂים אוֹתוֹ כְרִיכוֹת בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נוֹחַ לִקְצֹר. וְכָל הָעֲיָרוֹת הַסְּמוּכוֹת לְשָׁם, מִתְכַּנְּסוֹת לְשָׁם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נִקְצָר בְּעֵסֶק גָּדוֹל. כֵּיוָן שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה, אוֹמֵר לָהֶם, בָּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ, אוֹמְרִים, הֵן. בָּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. מַגָּל זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. מַגָּל זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. קֻפָּה זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. קֻפָּה זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹמֵר לָהֶם, שַׁבָּת זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. שַׁבָּת זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. אֶקְצֹר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. אֶקְצֹר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. שָׁלשׁ פְּעָמִים עַל כָּל דָּבָר וְדָבָר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ הֵן, הֵן, הֵן. וְכָל כָּךְ לָמָּה. מִפְּנֵי הַבַּיְתוֹסִים, שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים, אֵין קְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר בְּמוֹצָאֵי יוֹם טוֹב:

How would they do [the reaping of the omer]? The agents of the court would go out on the eve of the holiday and they would make them into bundles while they were still attached to the ground so that they would be easy to cut. And all cities that were near there would come so that it would be cut with a great fanfare. Once it got dark, [the reaper] would say to them, "Has the sun set?" and they would answer "Yes!". Has the sun set? and they would answer "Yes!" "With this a sickle?" and they would answer "Yes!", "With this a sickle?" and they would answer "Yes!" "Into this a basket?", and they would answer "Yes!", "Into this a basket?" and they would answer "Yes!" On Shabbat, he would say to them, "Is it Shabbat?" and they would answer "Yes!", "Is it Shabbat?" and they would answer "Yes!" "Shall I reap?" and they would answer "Reap!" "Shall I reap?" and they would answer "Reap!" Three times for each question and they would answer, "Yes! Yes! Yes!" Why so much? To prove wrong the Baitusim [a sect akin to the Sadducees, who rejected the Oral Torah] who would say that the omer was only reaped on [the day] after [the first day of the Pesach] holiday.

4 ד

קְצָרוּהוּ וּנְתָנוּהוּ בְקֻפּוֹת, הֱבִיאוּהוּ לָעֲזָרָה, הָיוּ מְהַבְהְבִין אוֹתוֹ בָאוּר, כְּדֵי לְקַיֵּם בּוֹ מִצְוַת קָלִי, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בְּקָנִים וּבִקְלִיחוֹת חוֹבְטִים אוֹתוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְמָעֵךְ. נְתָנוּהוּ לָאַבּוּב, וְאַבּוּב הָיָה מְנֻקָּב, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא הָאוּר שׁוֹלֵט בְּכֻלּוֹ. שְׁטָחוּהוּ בָעֲזָרָה, וְהָרוּחַ מְנַשֶּׁבֶת בּוֹ. נְתָנוּהוּ בְרֵחַיִם שֶׁל גָּרוֹסוֹת, וְהוֹצִיאוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עִשָּׂרוֹן שֶׁהוּא מְנֻפֶּה מִשְּׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה נָפָה, וְהַשְּׁאָר נִפְדֶּה וְנֶאֱכָל לְכָל אָדָם. וְחַיָּב בַּחַלָּה, וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא מְחַיֵּב בַּחַלָּה וּבַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. בָא לוֹ לָעִשָּׂרוֹן, וְנָתַן שַׁמְנוֹ וּלְבוֹנָתוֹ, יָצַק, וּבָלַל, הֵנִיף, וְהִגִּישׁ, וְקָמַץ, וְהִקְטִיר, וְהַשְּׁאָר נֶאֱכָל לַכֹּהֲנִים:

They would reap it and place it in baskets. It would be brought into the Temple courtyard and they would singe it over the fire to fulfill the commandment [that it be brought from] parched grain, [[these are] the words of Rabbi Meir; the Sages say they would beat it with reeds and stems [to remove the husks] so that [the grains] would not be crushed; they [would then] put it into a tube which was perforated so that the fire could reach all of it. They would spread it out in the courtyard and the wind would blow through it [removing the chaff], it would then be placed in a the mill and an issaron [specific measure of volume] of flour would be taken from it which was then sifted through thirteen sieves; the rest of the flour would be redeemed and [could then] be eaten by anyone, it was obligated regarding challah, but exempt from tithing. Rabbi Akiva said it was obligated regarding challah [a portion of a batch of bread dough given to a Kohen which becomes holy upon separation, and can only be consumed by Kohanim or their household] and tithing. [The priest engaged in offering the omer came to the issaron and place its oil and frankincense [in the vessel], he poured [the rest of the oil] and mixed [the flour with the oil], waved [the offering] and brought it close [to the corner of the alter], took a handful and burned it, and the remainder could be eaten by the priests.

5 ה

מִשֶּׁקָּרַב הָעֹמֶר, יוֹצְאִין וּמוֹצְאִין שׁוּק יְרוּשָׁלַיִם שֶׁהוּא מָלֵא קֶמַח וְקָלִי, שֶׁלֹּא בִרְצוֹן חֲכָמִים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בִּרְצוֹן חֲכָמִים הָיוּ עוֹשִׂים. מִשֶּׁקָּרַב הָעֹמֶר, הֻתַּר הֶחָדָשׁ מִיָּד, וְהָרְחוֹקִים מֻתָּרִים מֵחֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם וּלְהַלָּן. מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, שֶׁיְּהֵא יוֹם הָנֵף כֻּלּוֹ אָסוּר. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, וַהֲלֹא מִן הַתּוֹרָה הוּא אָסוּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג), עַד עֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה. מִפְּנֵי מָה הָרְחוֹקִים מֻתָּרִים מֵחֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם וּלְהַלָּן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן יוֹדְעִין שֶׁאֵין בֵּית דִּין מִתְעַצְּלִין בּוֹ:

Once the omer was offered, they used to go out and find the market of Jerusalem already full of flour and parched grain [of the new produce], [though this was] against the will of the Sages, [these are] the words of Rabbi Meir; Rabbi Judah says: they were acting [in accordance with] the will of the Sages. Once the omer was offered, the new grain was permitted immediately, but for those that lived far off it was permitted only after midday. After the Temple was destroyed Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai decreed that it should be forbidden throughout the day of the waving. Rabbi Judah said: Is it not forbidden [in such a case] by the Torah, for it is said, “Until this very day?” (Leviticus 23:14) So why was it permitted for those that lived far away from midday [when the Temple stood]? Because they know that the court would not be lazy regarding it.

6 ו

הָעֹמֶר הָיָה מַתִּיר בַּמְּדִינָה, וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. אֵין מְבִיאִין מְנָחוֹת וּבִכּוּרִים וּמִנְחַת בְּהֵמָה קֹדֶם לָעֹמֶר. וְאִם הֵבִיא, פָּסוּל. קֹדֶם לִשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם, לֹא יָבִיא. וְאִם הֵבִיא, כָּשֵׁר:

The omer permitted [new grain] in the rest of the country and the two loaves [offered on Shavuot, permitted new grain] in the Temple. Grain offerings and first fruits [from the new produce] could not be brought before the omer, and if they were, they were invalid. They should not be brought before the two loaves, but if they were they are still valid.

7 ז

הַחִטִּים וְהַשְּׂעֹרִים וְהַכֻּסְּמִין וְשִׁבֹּלֶת שׁוּעָל וְהַשִּׁיפוֹן חַיָּבִין בַּחַלָּה, וּמִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה, וַאֲסוּרִים בֶּחָדָשׁ מִלִּפְנֵי הַפֶּסַח, וּמִלִּקְצֹר מִלִּפְנֵי הָעֹמֶר. וְאִם הִשְׁרִישׁוּ קֹדֶם לָעֹמֶר, הָעֹמֶר מַתִּירָן. וְאִם לָאו, אֲסוּרִים עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא עֹמֶר הַבָּא:

Wheat, barley, spelt, oats and rye are obligated regarding challah. And they combine [to make up the minimum obligated amount]. They are forbidden [to be eaten] as new grain before Pesach, and to be reaped before the omer [is brought]. If they had taken root before the omer [is brought, bringing] the omer permits them, and if not, they are forbidden until the next omer [is brought].

8 ח

קוֹצְרִים בֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִים שֶׁבָּעֲמָקִים, אֲבָל לֹא גוֹדְשִׁין. אַנְשֵׁי יְרִיחוֹ קוֹצְרִין בִּרְצוֹן חֲכָמִים, וְגוֹדְשִׁין שֶׁלֹּא בִרְצוֹן חֲכָמִים, וְלֹא מִחוּ בְיָדָם חֲכָמִים. קוֹצֵר לַשַּׁחַת, וּמַאֲכִיל לַבְּהֵמָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהִתְחִיל עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיאָה שְׁלִישׁ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף יִקְצֹר וְיַאֲכִיל אַף מִשֶּׁהֵבִיאָה שְׁלִישׁ:

They may reap in irrigated fields in the valley [before the omer is brought], but they may not stack it. The people of Jericho used to reap [before the omer was brought in accordance] with the will of the Sages, and used to stack it against the will of the Sages, but the Sages did not protest. One may reap hay to feed livestock; Rabbi Judah said: When is this so? If one had begun to reap it before it had brought forth a third [of its growth]. Rabbi Shimon says: one may even reap it and feed [his livestock with it] even after it has brought forth a third [of its growth].

9 ט

קוֹצְרִין מִפְּנֵי הַנְּטִיעוֹת, מִפְּנֵי בֵית הָאֵבֶל, מִפְּנֵי בִטּוּל בֵּית הַמִּדְרָשׁ. לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה אוֹתָן כְּרִיכוֹת, אֲבָל מַנִּיחָן צְבָתִים. מִצְוַת הָעֹמֶר לָבֹא מִן הַקָּמָה. לֹא מָצָא, יָבִיא מִן הָעֳמָרִים. מִצְוָתוֹ לָבֹא מִן הַלַּח. לֹא מָצָא, יָבִיא מִן הַיָּבֵשׁ. מִצְוָתוֹ לִקְצֹר בַּלַּיְלָה. נִקְצַר בַּיּוֹם, כָּשֵׁר. וְדוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת:

One may harvest for the sake of the saplings [i.e., to promote their growth], for the sake of a house of morning, and for the sake of a house of study, [but in such cases], one should not bind them but rather leave them in loose bunches. The [best fulfillment of the] commandment of the omer is that is come from standing grain; if he did not find any, he may bring from bundled grain. [The best fulfillment of] its commandment is that it come green; if he did not find any, he may bring it dry. [The best fulfillment of] its commandment is that it be reaped at night; if it was reaped during the day, it is still valid; and its [reaping] overrides Shabbat [prohibitions].