אֵלּוּ הֵן הַגּוֹלִין, הַהוֹרֵג נֶפֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָה. הָיָה מְעַגֵּל בְּמַעְגִּילָה וְנָפְלָה עָלָיו וַהֲרָגַתּוּ, הָיָה מְשַׁלְשֵׁל בְּחָבִית וְנָפְלָה עָלָיו וַהֲרָגַתּוּ, הָיָה יוֹרֵד בְּסֻלָּם וְנָפַל עָלָיו וַהֲרָגוֹ, הֲרֵי זֶה גוֹלֶה. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה מוֹשֵׁךְ בְּמַעְגִּילָה וְנָפְלָה עָלָיו וַהֲרָגַתּוּ, הָיָה דוֹלֶה בְחָבִית וְנִפְסַק הַחֶבֶל וְנָפְלָה עָלָיו וַהֲרָגַתּוּ, הָיָה עוֹלֶה בְסֻלָּם וְנָפַל עָלָיו וַהֲרָגוֹ, הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁבְּדֶרֶךְ יְרִידָתוֹ, גּוֹלֶה. וְשֶׁלֹּא בְדֶרֶךְ יְרִידָתוֹ, אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. נִשְׁמַט הַבַּרְזֶל מִקַּתּוֹ וְהָרַג, רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, גּוֹלֶה. מִן הָעֵץ הַמִּתְבַּקֵּעַ, רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, גּוֹלֶה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה: These are the people who are exiled: Anyone who kills a person unintentionally. Whether one is liable to be exiled depends on the particular circumstances of the case: If one was rolling a roller to smooth the covering of mortar that he applied to seal his roof and the roller fell upon a person and killed him, or if one was lowering a barrel from the roof and it fell on a person and killed him, or if he was descending a ladder and he fell on a person and killed him, in all of these cases, he is exiled. But if one was pulling a roller toward him and it fell from his hands upon a person and killed him, or if one was lifting a barrel and the rope was severed and it fell upon a person and killed him, or if one was climbing a ladder and he fell upon a person and killed him, that unintentional murderer is not exiled. This is the principle: Any murderer who kills unintentionally through his downward motion is exiled, and one who kills not through his downward motion is not exiled. If the blade of an ax or hatchet was displaced from its handle, and it flew through the air and killed a person, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: He is not exiled, and the Rabbis say: He is exiled. If part of a tree that is being split flew through the air and killed a person, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: The murderer is exiled, and the Rabbis say: He is not exiled.
הַזּוֹרֵק אֶבֶן לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהָרַג, הֲרֵי זֶה גּוֹלֶה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, אִם מִכְּשֶׁיָּצְאתָה הָאֶבֶן מִיָּדוֹ הוֹצִיא הַלָּז אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ וְקִבְּלָהּ, הֲרֵי זֶה פָטוּר. זָרַק אֶת הָאֶבֶן לַחֲצֵרוֹ וְהָרַג, אִם יֵשׁ רְשׁוּת לַנִּזָּק לִכָּנֵס לְשָׁם, גּוֹלֶה. וְאִם לָאו, אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יט) וַאֲשֶׁר יָבֹא אֶת רֵעֵהוּ בַיַּעַר, מַה הַיַּעַר רְשׁוּת לַנִּזָּק וְלַמַּזִּיק לִכָּנֵס לְשָׁם, יָצָא חֲצַר בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁאֵין רְשׁוּת לַנִּזָּק וְלַמַּזִּיק לִכָּנֵס לְשָׁם. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל אוֹמֵר, מַה חֲטָבַת עֵצִים רְשׁוּת, יָצָא הָאָב הַמַּכֶּה אֶת בְּנוֹ, וְהָרַב הָרוֹדֶה אֶת תַּלְמִידוֹ, וּשְׁלִיחַ בֵּית דִּין: One who threw a stone into the public domain and killed a person is exiled. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: If after the stone left his hand the other person placed his head out into the public domain and received a blow from the stone, he is exempt, as when he cast the stone into the public domain there was no one there. In the case of one who threw the stone into his courtyard and killed a person, if the victim had permission to enter into there, the murderer is exiled, but if not, he is not exiled, as it is stated with regard to the cities of refuge: “And as one who goes with his neighbor into the forest” (Deuteronomy 19:5), from which it is derived: Just as with regard to a forest, the victim and the assailant both have equal permission to enter there, so too, with regard to all places that the victim and the assailant have permission to enter there, the killer is liable. This serves to exclude the courtyard of the homeowner, where the victim and the assailant do not both have permission to enter there. Since the victim had no right to enter his courtyard, the unintentional murderer is exempt from exile. Abba Shaul says: Another halakha can be derived from that verse: Just as the cutting of wood that is mentioned in the verse is optional, so too, all those liable to be exiled are examples of cases where the unintentional murderer was engaged in an activity that is optional. This serves to exclude a father who strikes his son, and a teacher who oppresses his student, and an agent of the court deputized to flog transgressors. If, in the course of performing the mitzva with which they are charged, they unintentionally murdered the son, the student, or the person being flogged, respectively, they are exempt.
הָאָב גּוֹלֶה עַל יְדֵי הַבֵּן, וְהַבֵּן גּוֹלֶה עַל יְדֵי הָאָב. הַכֹּל גּוֹלִין עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְיִשְׂרָאֵל גּוֹלִין עַל יְדֵיהֶן, חוּץ מֵעַל יְדֵי גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב. וְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב. הַסּוּמָא אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, גּוֹלֶה. הַשּׂוֹנֵא אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הַשּׂוֹנֵא נֶהֱרָג, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְמוּעָד. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, יֵשׁ שׂוֹנֵא גוֹלֶה וְיֵשׁ שׂוֹנֵא שֶׁאֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל לוֹמַר לְדַעַת הָרַג, אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. וְשֶׁלֹּא לְדַעַת הָרַג, הֲרֵי זֶה גוֹלֶה: The father is exiled to a city of refuge due to his unintentional murder of his son. And the son is exiled due to his unintentional murder of his father. Everyone is exiled due to their unintentional murder of a Jew, and a Jew is exiled due to his unintentional murder of any of them, except for the unintentional murder of a gentile who resides in Eretz Yisrael and observes the seven Noahide mitzvot [ger toshav]. And a ger toshav is exiled only due to his unintentional murder of a ger toshav. A blind person who unintentionally murdered another is not exiled; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Meir says: He is exiled. The enemy of the victim is not exiled, as presumably it was not a completely unintentional act. Rabbi Yosei says: Not only is an enemy not exiled, but he is executed by the court, because his halakhic status is like that of one who is forewarned by witnesses not to perform the action, as presumably he performed the action intentionally. Rabbi Shimon says: There is an enemy who is exiled and there is an enemy who is not exiled. This is the principle: In any case where an observer could say he killed knowingly, where circumstances lead to the assumption that it was an intentional act, the enemy is not exiled, even if he claims that he acted unintentionally. And if it is clear that he killed unknowingly, as circumstances indicate that he acted unintentionally, he is exiled, even though the victim is his enemy.
לְהֵיכָן גּוֹלִין, לְעָרֵי מִקְלָט. לַשָּׁלשׁ שֶׁבְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן וְלַשָּׁלשׁ שֶׁבְּאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר לה) אֵת שְׁלשׁ הֶעָרִים תִּתְּנוּ מֵעֵבֶר לַיַּרְדֵּן וְאֵת שְׁלשׁ הֶעָרִים תִּתְּנוּ בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וְגוֹ'. עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִבְחֲרוּ שָׁלשׁ שֶׁבְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, לֹא הָיוּ שָׁלשׁ שֶׁבְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן קוֹלְטוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) שֵׁשׁ עָרֵי מִקְלָט תִּהְיֶינָה, עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שֶׁשְׁתָּן קוֹלְטוֹת כְּאֶחָד: To where are the unintentional murderers exiled? They are exiled to cities of refuge, to three cities that were in the east bank of the Jordan and to three cities that were in the land of Canaan, i.e., Eretz Yisrael, as it is stated: “Three cities shall you give beyond the Jordan and three cities shall you give in the land of Canaan; they shall be cities of refuge” (Numbers 35:14). The mishna comments: Until the three cities of refuge that were in Eretz Yisrael were selected, an unintentional murderer would not be admitted to the three that were in the east bank of the Jordan, even though the latter three were already selected by Moses (see Deuteronomy 4:41), as it is stated: “Six cities of refuge shall they be” (Numbers 35:13), from which it is derived that they do not become cities of refuge until all six of them admit unintentional murderers as one.
וּמְכֻוָּנוֹת לָהֶן דְּרָכִים מִזּוֹ לָזוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יט) תָּכִין לְךָ הַדֶּרֶךְ וְשִׁלַּשְׁתָּ וְגוֹ'. וּמוֹסְרִין לָהֶן שְׁנֵי תַלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים, שֶׁמָּא יַהַרְגֶנּוּ בַדֶּרֶךְ, וִידַבְּרוּ אֵלָיו. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אַף הוּא מְדַבֵּר עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) וְזֶה דְּבַר הָרֹצֵחַ: The mishna continues: And roads were aligned for them from this city, i.e., all cities, to that city, i.e., they would pave and straighten the access roads to the cities of refuge, as it is stated: “Prepare for you the road, and divide the borders of your land, which the Lord your God causes you to inherit, into three parts, that every murderer may flee there” (Deuteronomy 19:3). And the court would provide the unintentional murderers fleeing to a city of refuge with two Torah scholars, due to the concern that perhaps the blood redeemer, i.e., a relative of the murder victim seeking to avenge his death, will seek to kill him in transit, and in that case they, the scholars, will talk to the blood redeemer and dissuade him from killing the unintentional murderer. Rabbi Meir says: The unintentional murderer also speaks [medabber] on his own behalf to dissuade the blood redeemer, as it is stated: “And this is the matter [devar] of the murderer, who shall flee there and live” (Deuteronomy 19:4), indicating that the murderer himself speaks.
רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בַּתְּחִלָּה, אֶחָד שׁוֹגֵג וְאֶחָד מֵזִיד מַקְדִּימִין לְעָרֵי מִקְלָט, וּבֵית דִּין שׁוֹלְחִין וּמְבִיאִין אוֹתוֹ מִשָּׁם. מִי שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב מִיתָה בְּבֵית דִּין, הֲרָגוּהוּ. וְשֶׁלֹּא נִתְחַיֵּב מִיתָה, פְּטָרוּהוּ. מִי שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב גָּלוּת, מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ לִמְקוֹמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר לה) וְהֵשִׁיבוּ אֹתוֹ הָעֵדָה אֶל עִיר מִקְלָטוֹ וְגוֹ'. אֶחָד מָשׁוּחַ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וְאֶחָד הַמְרֻבֶּה בִבְגָדִים וְאֶחָד שֶׁעָבַר מִמְּשִׁיחָתוֹ, מַחֲזִירִין אֶת הָרוֹצֵחַ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף מְשׁוּחַ מִלְחָמָה מַחֲזִיר אֶת הָרוֹצֵחַ. לְפִיכָךְ אִמּוֹתֵיהֶן שֶׁל כֹּהֲנִים מְסַפְּקוֹת לָהֶן מִחְיָה וּכְסוּת, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְפַּלְּלוּ עַל בְּנֵיהֶם שֶׁיָּמוּתוּ. מִשֶּׁנִּגְמַר דִּינוֹ מֵת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל, הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמַר דִּינוֹ מֵת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל וּמִנּוּ אַחֵר תַּחְתָּיו, וּלְאַחַר מִכֵּן נִגְמַר דִּינוֹ, חוֹזֵר בְּמִיתָתוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁנִי: Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: Initially, either one who killed another unintentionally or one who killed another intentionally would hurry and flee to the cities of refuge, and the court in his city would send for him and would bring him from there to stand trial. For one who was found liable to receive the death penalty in court for intentional murder, the court would execute him, and for one who was not found liable to receive the death penalty, e.g., if they deemed that the death occurred due to circumstances beyond his control, they would free him. For one who was found liable to be exiled, the court would restore him to his place in the city of refuge, as it is stated: “And the congregation shall judge between the murderer and the blood redeemer…and the congregation shall restore him to his city of refuge, that he fled there” (Numbers 35:24–25), indicating that he had been in a city of refuge before his trial. The Torah states that an unintentional murderer is required to remain in the city of refuge to which he fled until the death of the High Priest. The mishna elaborates: With regard to High Priests, who were appointed in several different manners, one anointed with the anointing oil, which was the method through which High Priests were consecrated until the oil was sequestered toward the end of the First Temple period; and one consecrated by donning multiple garments, the eight vestments unique to the High Priest, which was the practice during the Second Temple period; and one who received a temporary appointment due to the unfitness of the serving High Priest, who departed from his anointment with the restoration of the serving High Priest to active service, their deaths facilitate the return of the murderer from the city of refuge to his home. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even the death of a priest anointed for war to address the soldiers (see Deuteronomy 20:1–7) facilitates the return of the murderer. The mishna continues: Therefore, the mothers of High Priests would provide those exiled to cities of refuge with sustenance and garments so that they would not pray that their sons would die.
נִגְמַר דִּינוֹ בְלֹא כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, הַהוֹרֵג כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל, וְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁהָרַג, אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִשָּׁם לְעוֹלָם. וְאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא לֹא לְעֵדוּת מִצְוָה וְלֹא לְעֵדוּת מָמוֹן וְלֹא לְעֵדוּת נְפָשׁוֹת. וַאֲפִלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל צְרִיכִים לוֹ, וַאֲפִלּוּ שַׂר צְבָא יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּיוֹאָב בֶּן צְרוּיָה, אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִשָּׁם לְעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר לה) אֲשֶׁר נָס שָׁמָּה, שָׁם תְּהֵא דִירָתוֹ, שָׁם תְּהֵא מִיתָתוֹ, שָׁם תְּהֵא קְבוּרָתוֹ. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהָעִיר קוֹלֶטֶת, כָּךְ תְּחוּמָהּ קוֹלֵט. רוֹצֵחַ שֶׁיָּצָא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם וּמְצָאוֹ גוֹאֵל הַדָּם, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי אוֹמֵר, מִצְוָה בְיַד גּוֹאֵל הַדָּם, וּרְשׁוּת בְּיַד כָּל אָדָם. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, רְשׁוּת בְּיַד גּוֹאֵל הַדָּם, וְכָל אָדָם אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו. אִילָן שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם וְנוֹפוֹ נוֹטֶה חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, אוֹ עוֹמֵד חוּץ לַתְּחוּם וְנוֹפוֹ נוֹטֶה לְתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם, הַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַנּוֹף. הָרַג בְּאוֹתָהּ הָעִיר, גּוֹלֶה מִשְּׁכוּנָה לִשְׁכוּנָה. וּבֶן לֵוִי, גוֹלֶה מֵעִיר לְעִיר: The more comfortable their lives in the city of refuge, the less urgency they would feel to leave, and the less likely it would be that they would pray for the death of the High Priests. If, after the unintentional murderer’s verdict was decided and he was sentenced to exile, the High Priest died, he is not exiled, as the death of the High Priest exempts him from exile. If it was before his verdict was decided that the High Priest died and they appointed another in his place, and thereafter his verdict was decided, he returns from exile with the death of the second High Priest. If the verdict of a murderer was decided at a time when there was no High Priest, and likewise in the cases of one who unintentionally killed a High Priest and in the case of a High Priest who killed unintentionally, the unintentional murderer never leaves the city of refuge. And one who is exiled may not leave the city at all, either for testimony relating to a mitzva, or for testimony relating to monetary matters, or for testimony relating to capital matters. And even if the Jewish people require his services, and even if he is the general of the army of Israel like Joab ben Zeruiah, he never leaves the city of refuge, as it is stated: “And the congregation shall restore him to his city of refuge, that he fled there” (Numbers 35:25), from which it is derived: There shall be his dwelling, there shall be his death, there shall be his burial. The mishna continues: Just as an unintentional murderer is admitted to the city of refuge, so is he admitted to its outskirts, located within the Shabbat boundary. Once he entered the outskirts of the city, the blood redeemer may not kill him. In a case where a murderer emerged beyond the Shabbat boundary of the city of refuge and the blood redeemer found him there, Rabbi Yosei HaGelili says: It is a mitzva for the blood redeemer to kill him, and it is optional for every other person to do so. Rabbi Akiva says: It is optional for the blood redeemer, and every other person is liable for killing him. The previous mishna teaches that the halakhic status of the outskirts of the city is like that of the city itself in terms of the unintentional murderer being provided refuge there. The mishna adds: With regard to a tree that stands within the Shabbat boundary of a city of refuge, whose boughs extend outside the boundary, or a tree that stands outside the boundary and its boughs extend inside the boundary, the status of the tree, whether it is considered inside or outside the boundary, in all cases follows the boughs. If an unintentional murderer, exiled to a city of refuge, unintentionally killed a person in the same city, he is exiled from that neighborhood where he resided to another neighborhood within that city. And a Levite who is a permanent resident of a city of refuge and unintentionally killed a person is exiled from that city to another city.
כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, רוֹצֵחַ שֶׁגָּלָה לְעִיר מִקְלָטוֹ וְרָצוּ אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר לְכַבְּדוֹ, יֹאמַר לָהֶם רוֹצֵחַ אָנִי. אָמְרוּ לוֹ אַף עַל פִּי כֵן, יְקַבֵּל מֵהֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יט) וְזֶה דְּבַר הָרֹצֵחַ. מַעֲלִים הָיוּ שָׂכָר לַלְוִיִּם, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, לֹא הָיוּ מַעֲלִים לָהֶן שָׂכָר. וְחוֹזֵר לַשְּׂרָרָה שֶׁהָיָה בָהּ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לֹא הָיָה חוֹזֵר לַשְּׂרָרָה שֶׁהָיָה בָהּ: Similarly, in the case of a murderer who was exiled to a city of refuge and the people of the city sought to honor him due to his prominence, he shall say to them: I am a murderer. If the residents of the city say to him: We are aware of your status and nevertheless, we wish to honor you, he may accept the honor from them, as it is stated: “And this is the matter [devar] of the murderer” (Deuteronomy 19:4), from which it is derived that the murderer is required to say [ledabber] to them that he is a murderer. He is not required to tell them any more than that. The unintentional murderers would pay a fee to the Levites as rent for their living quarters in the cities of refuge, which were Levite cities; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Meir says: They would not pay a fee to them, but would reside rent free, as they are required to live there by Torah law. They also disagreed with regard to the status of the unintentional murderer when he returns home after the death of the High Priest. He returns to the same public office that he occupied prior to his exile; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: He does not return to the office that he occupied.