Mishnah Maasrot
1א׳
1 א

כְּלָל אָמְרוּ בַּמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, כָּל שֶׁהוּא אֹכֶל, וְנִשְׁמָר, וְגִדּוּלָיו מִן הָאָרֶץ, חַיָּב בַּמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. וְעוֹד כְּלָל אַחֵר אָמְרוּ, כָּל שֶׁתְּחִלָּתוֹ אֹכֶל וְסוֹפוֹ אֹכֶל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא שׁוֹמְרוֹ לְהוֹסִיף אֹכֶל, חַיָּב קָטָן וְגָדוֹל. וְכָל שֶׁאֵין תְּחִלָּתוֹ אֹכֶל אֲבָל סוֹפוֹ אֹכֶל, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיֵּעָשֶׂה אֹכֶל:

They stated a rule with regard to tithes: Anything which is food, and is guarded, and grows from the earth, requires tithes. And they stated another rule: Anything that is in its beginning is food, and in its end is food, even if one guards it [and does not pick it when it is small] in order to add food, requires tithes whether it is small or large. And anything that is not in its beginning food, but is in its end is food, does not require tithes until it becomes food.

2 ב

מֵאֵימָתַי הַפֵּרוֹת חַיָּבוֹת בַּמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. הַתְּאֵנִים, מִשֶּׁיַּבְחִילוּ. הָעֲנָבִים וְהָאֳבָשִׁים, מִשֶּׁהִבְאִישׁוּ. הָאוֹג וְהַתּוּתִים, מִשֶּׁיַּאְדִּימוּ. וְכָל הָאֲדֻמִּים, מִשֶּׁיַּאְדִּימוּ. הָרִמּוֹנִים, מִשֶּׁיִּמַּסּוּ. הַתְּמָרִים, מִשֶּׁיָּטִּילוּ שְׂאֹר. הָאֲפַרְסְקִים, מִשֶּׁיָּטִּילוּ גִידִים. הָאֱגוֹזִים, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשׂוּ מְגוּרָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הָאֱגוֹזִים וְהַשְּׁקֵדִים, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשׂוּ קְלִפָּה:

From when are fruits required to be tithed? Figs from when they begin to ripen. Grapes and raisins, from when the seed can be seen through the skin. Sumac and strawberries, from when they redden. And all the red [fruit], from when they redden. And pomegranates, from when [their seeds] can be crushed. Dates, from when they begin to swell like leaven. Peaches, from when they develop [the appearance of] veins. Nuts, from when they become like a storehouse [for the separated nutmeat within]. Rabbi Yehudah says, nuts and almonds, from when they develop an [inner] husk.

3 ג

הֶחָרוּבִין, מִשֶּׁיִּנָּקֵדוּ. וְכָל הַשְּׁחוֹרִים, מִשֶּׁיִּנָּקְדוּ. הָאֲגָסִים וְהַקְּרֻסְטוֹמֵלִין וְהַפָּרִישִׁין וְהָעֻזְרָדִים, מִשֶּׁיִּקָּרֵחוּ. וְכָל הַלְּבָנִים, מִשֶּׁיִּקָּרֵחוּ. הַתִּלְתָּן, מִשֶּׁתְּצַמֵּחַ. הַתְּבוּאָה וְהַזֵּיתִים, מִשֶּׁיַּכְנִיסוּ שְׁלִישׁ:

Carobs, from when they form [dark] spots. All dark fruits, from when they form [dark] spots. And pears and Crustumenian pears and quinces and crab-apples, from when they lose their fuzz. All white fruits, from when they lose their fuzz. Fenugreek, from when [its seeds] will grow [if planted]. Grain and olives, from when they have produced one-third [of what they can produce].

4 ד

וּבַיָּרָק, הַקִּשּׁוּאִין וְהַדְּלוּעִים וְהָאֲבַטִּיחִים וְהַמְּלָפְפוֹנוֹת, הַתַּפּוּחִים וְהָאֶתְרוֹגִין, חַיָּבִים גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן פּוֹטֵר אֶת הָאֶתְרוֹגִים בְּקָטְנָן. הַחַיָּב בַּשְּׁקֵדִים הַמָּרִים, פָּטוּר בַּמְּתוּקִים, הַחַיָּב בַּמְּתוּקִים, פָּטוּר בַּמָּרִים:

And regarding vegetables: Cucumbers, gourds, melons, cucumber-melons, apples, and citrons require tithes whether large or small. Rabbi Shimon exempts the citron when small. That which requires [tithes] for bitter almonds [which require tithes only when young], is exempt [from tithes] for sweet [almonds, which require tithes only when fully grown]. That which requires for sweet, is exempt for bitter.

5 ה

אֵיזֶהוּ גָּרְנָן לַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. הַקִּשּׁוּאִים וְהַדְּלוּעִים, מִשֶּׁיְּפַקְסוּ. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְפַקֵּס, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲמִיד עֲרֵמָה. אֲבַטִּיחַ, מִשֶּׁיְּשַׁלֵּק. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּק, עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה מֻקְצֶה. יָרָק הַנֶּאֱגָד, מִשֶּׁיֹּאגַד. אִם אֵינוֹ אוֹגֵד, עַד שֶׁיְּמַלֵּא אֶת הַכְּלִי. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְמַלֵּא אֶת הַכְּלִי, עַד שֶׁיְּלַקֵּט כָּל צָרְכּוֹ. כַּלְכָּלָה, עַד שֶׁיְּחַפֶּה. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְחַפֶּה, עַד שֶׁיְמַלֵּא אֶת הַכְּלִי. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְמַלֵּא אֶת הַכְּלִי, עַד שֶׁיְּלַקֵּט כָּל צָרְכּוֹ. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בְּמוֹלִיךְ לַשּׁוּק. אֲבָל בְּמוֹלִיךְ לְבֵיתוֹ, אוֹכֵל מֵהֶם עֲרַאי עַד שֶׁהוּא מַגִּיעַ לְבֵיתוֹ:

What is the [stage at which different items require tithes, just as wheat does when it reaches the] granary [stage and] requires tithes? Cucumbers and pumpkins, from when their blossoms are removed. If he doesn't remove their blossoms, from when he stacks a pile. Melons, from when they are trimmed. If they are not trimmed, from when they are stored away. Vegetables that are bundled, from when he bundles them. If he does not bundle them, from when he fills the vessel. If he does not fill the vessel, from when he has collected as much as one needs. [If collecting into] a basket, once he covers it. If he does not cover it, once he fills up the vessel. If he does not fill the vessel, once he has collected as much as he needs. In what situation does this apply? When bringing to the market. But when bringing to his house, he may eat casually from them until he reaches his house.

6 ו

הַפֶּרֶד וְהַצִּמּוּקִין וְהֶחָרוּבִין, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲמִיד עֲרֵמָה. הַבְּצָלִים, מִשֶּׁיְּפַקֵּל. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְפַקֵּל, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲמִיד עֲרֵמָה. הַתְּבוּאָה, מִשֶּׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְמָרֵחַ, עַד שֶׁיַּעֲמִיד עֲרֵמָה. הַקִּטְנִיּוֹת, מִשֶּׁיִּכְבֹּר. וְאִם אֵינוֹ כוֹבֵר, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֵּרַח, נוֹטֵל מִן הַקֻּטָּעִים וּמִן הַצְּדָדִים וּמִמַּה שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַתֶּבֶן, וְאוֹכֵל:

Dried pomegranate, raisins, and carobs, [require tithes] from when he stacks a pile. Onions, from when he peels [them]. If he does not peel, from when he stacks a pile. Grain, from when he smoothes [it] even. If he does not smooth even, from when he stacks a pile. Beans, from when he sifts [it]. If he does not sift, from when he smoothes even. Even though he has sifted, he may take from the broken and from the sides and from what is in the midst of the grain and eat [it].

7 ז

הַיַּיִן, מִשֶּׁיְּקַפֶּה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקִּפָּה, קוֹלֵט מִן הַגַּת הָעֶלְיוֹנָה וּמִן הַצִּנּוֹר, וְשׁוֹתֶה. הַשֶּׁמֶן, מִשֶּׁיֵּרֵד לָעוּקָה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּרַד, נוֹטֵל מִן הֶעָקָל וּמִבֵּין הַמָּמָל וּמִבֵּין הַפַּצִּים, וְנוֹתֵן לַחֲמִטָּה וְלַתַּמְחוּי, אֲבָל לֹא יִתֵּן לַקְּדֵרָה וְלַלְּפָס כְּשֶׁהֵן רוֹתְחִין. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לַכֹּל הוּא נוֹתֵן, חוּץ מִדָּבָר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ חֹמֶץ וְצִיר:

Wine, from when he skims [the scum from its surface]. Even though he has skimmed, he may collect from the upper winepress and from the pipe and drink. Oil, from when it falls into the trough. Even though it has fallen, he may take from the olive pulp bale and from between the olive press-stone and from between the board and put it on the batter-cake or on the plate, but he may not put it in the pot or in the stew-pot when they are boiling. Rabbi Yehudah says, he may put it in anything, except for something that has in it vinegar and brine.

8 ח

הָעִגּוּל, מִשֶּׁיַּחֲלִיקֶנּוּ. מַחֲלִיקִים בִּתְאֵנִים וּבַעֲנָבִים שֶׁל טֶבֶל. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹסֵר. הַמַּחֲלִיק בַּעֲנָבִים, לֹא הֻכְשָׁר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הֻכְשָׁר. הַגְּרוֹגָרוֹת, מִשֶּׁיָּדוּשׁ. וּמְגוּרָה מִשֶּׁיְּעַגֵּל. הָיָה דָשׁ בֶּחָבִית וּמְעַגֵּל בַּמְּגוּרָה, נִשְׁבְּרָה הֶחָבִית וְנִפְתְּחָה הַמְּגוּרָה, לֹא יֹאכַל מֵהֶם עֲרָאי. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי מַתִּיר:

A round fig cake, [requires tithes] from when we smooth it out. It may be smoothed out by [the juices of] non-tithed figs or grapes. Rabbi Yehudah forbids [this]. One who smoothes out by [the juice of] grapes, does not make it susceptible to impurity. Rabbi Yehudah says that it is made susceptible to impurity. Dried figs, [require tithes] from when they are pressed. Storehouse [dried figs], from when they are rounded [into cakes]. If one was pressing [figs] with a barrel or rounding storehouse [figs], and the barrel broke or the storehouse [figs] became defective, he may not eat casually from them. Rabbi Yose permits.