Mishnah Maasrot
1א׳
1 א

כְּלָל אָמְרוּ בַּמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, כָּל שֶׁהוּא אֹכֶל, וְנִשְׁמָר, וְגִדּוּלָיו מִן הָאָרֶץ, חַיָּב בַּמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. וְעוֹד כְּלָל אַחֵר אָמְרוּ, כָּל שֶׁתְּחִלָּתוֹ אֹכֶל וְסוֹפוֹ אֹכֶל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא שׁוֹמְרוֹ לְהוֹסִיף אֹכֶל, חַיָּב קָטָן וְגָדוֹל. וְכָל שֶׁאֵין תְּחִלָּתוֹ אֹכֶל אֲבָל סוֹפוֹ אֹכֶל, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיֵּעָשֶׂה אֹכֶל:

They said a general principle concerning tithes: whatever is food, and is looked after, and grows from the land, is liable for tithes. And they have further stated another general principle [concerning tithes]: whatever is considered food both at the beginning and at the conclusion [of its growth] even though he holds on to it in order to increase the quantity of food, is liable [to tithe] whether [it is harvested] in its earlier or later stages. But whatever is not considered food in the earlier stages [of its growth] but only in its later stages, is not liable [to tithe] until it can be considered food.

2 ב

מֵאֵימָתַי הַפֵּרוֹת חַיָּבוֹת בַּמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. הַתְּאֵנִים, מִשֶּׁיַּבְחִילוּ. הָעֲנָבִים וְהָאֳבָשִׁים, מִשֶּׁהִבְאִישׁוּ. הָאוֹג וְהַתּוּתִים, מִשֶּׁיַּאְדִּימוּ. וְכָל הָאֲדֻמִּים, מִשֶּׁיַּאְדִּימוּ. הָרִמּוֹנִים, מִשֶּׁיִּמַּסּוּ. הַתְּמָרִים, מִשֶּׁיָּטִּילוּ שְׂאֹר. הָאֲפַרְסְקִים, מִשֶּׁיָּטִּילוּ גִידִים. הָאֱגוֹזִים, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשׂוּ מְגוּרָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הָאֱגוֹזִים וְהַשְּׁקֵדִים, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשׂוּ קְלִפָּה:

When do fruits become liable for tithes?Figs from the time they begin to ripe. Grapes and wild grapes in the early stages of ripening. Sumac and mulberries after they become red; [similarly] all red fruits, after they become red. Pomegranates, when the insides become soft. Dates when they begin to swell. Peaches when [red] veins begin to show. Walnuts when the nuts are separate from the shell. Rabbi Judah says: walnuts and almonds, after their inner skins have been formed.

3 ג

הֶחָרוּבִין, מִשֶּׁיִּנָּקֵדוּ. וְכָל הַשְּׁחוֹרִים, מִשֶּׁיִּנָּקְדוּ. הָאֲגָסִים וְהַקְּרֻסְטוֹמֵלִין וְהַפָּרִישִׁין וְהָעֻזְרָדִים, מִשֶּׁיִּקָּרֵחוּ. וְכָל הַלְּבָנִים, מִשֶּׁיִּקָּרֵחוּ. הַתִּלְתָּן, מִשֶּׁתְּצַמֵּחַ. הַתְּבוּאָה וְהַזֵּיתִים, מִשֶּׁיַּכְנִיסוּ שְׁלִישׁ:

Carobs [are liable to] tithes after they form dark spots; similarly all black fruits after they form dark spots. Pears and crustumenian pears, quinces, and medlars [are liable to tithes] after their surface begins to grow smooth; similarly all white fruits, after their surface begins to grow smooth. Fenugreek [is liable to tithe] when the seeds [can be planted and] will grow. Grain and olives after they are one-third ripe.

4 ד

וּבַיָּרָק, הַקִּשּׁוּאִין וְהַדְּלוּעִים וְהָאֲבַטִּיחִים וְהַמְּלָפְפוֹנוֹת, הַתַּפּוּחִים וְהָאֶתְרוֹגִין, חַיָּבִים גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן פּוֹטֵר אֶת הָאֶתְרוֹגִים בְּקָטְנָן. הַחַיָּב בַּשְּׁקֵדִים הַמָּרִים, פָּטוּר בַּמְּתוּקִים, הַחַיָּב בַּמְּתוּקִים, פָּטוּר בַּמָּרִים:

With regard to when vegetables [are liable to tithes]:Cucumbers, gourds, water-melons, cucumber-melons, apples and etrogs are liable [for tithes], whether gathered in the earlier or later stages of ripening. Rabbi Shimon exempts the etrog in the earlier stages. The condition in which bitter almonds are liable [to tithes] is exempt in the case of sweet almonds, and the condition in which sweet almonds are liable [to tithe] is exempt in the case of bitter almonds.

5 ה

אֵיזֶהוּ גָּרְנָן לַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. הַקִּשּׁוּאִים וְהַדְּלוּעִים, מִשֶּׁיְּפַקְסוּ. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְפַקֵּס, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲמִיד עֲרֵמָה. אֲבַטִּיחַ, מִשֶּׁיְּשַׁלֵּק. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּק, עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה מֻקְצֶה. יָרָק הַנֶּאֱגָד, מִשֶּׁיֹּאגַד. אִם אֵינוֹ אוֹגֵד, עַד שֶׁיְּמַלֵּא אֶת הַכְּלִי. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְמַלֵּא אֶת הַכְּלִי, עַד שֶׁיְּלַקֵּט כָּל צָרְכּוֹ. כַּלְכָּלָה, עַד שֶׁיְּחַפֶּה. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְחַפֶּה, עַד שֶׁיְמַלֵּא אֶת הַכְּלִי. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְמַלֵּא אֶת הַכְּלִי, עַד שֶׁיְּלַקֵּט כָּל צָרְכּוֹ. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בְּמוֹלִיךְ לַשּׁוּק. אֲבָל בְּמוֹלִיךְ לְבֵיתוֹ, אוֹכֵל מֵהֶם עֲרַאי עַד שֶׁהוּא מַגִּיעַ לְבֵיתוֹ:

What is considered a “threshing floor” for tithes [i.e. when does produce become liable for tithes]?Cucumbers and gourds [are liable for tithes] once he removes their fuzz. And if he doesn’t remove it, once he makes a pile. Melons once he removes the fuzz with hot water. And if they he does not remove the fuzz, once he stores them in the muktzeh. Vegetables which are tied in bundles, from the time he ties them up in bundles. If he does not tie them up in bundles, until he fills the vessel with them. And if he does not fill the vessel, after he has gathered all that he wishes to gather. [Produce which is packed in] a basket [is liable for tithes] after he has covered it. If he is not going to cover it, until he fills the vessel with them. And if he does not fill the vessel, after he has gathered all that he wishes to gather. When does this apply? When one brings [the produce] to the market. But when he brings it to his own house, he may make a chance meal of it, until he reaches his house.

6 ו

הַפֶּרֶד וְהַצִּמּוּקִין וְהֶחָרוּבִין, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲמִיד עֲרֵמָה. הַבְּצָלִים, מִשֶּׁיְּפַקֵּל. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְפַקֵּל, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲמִיד עֲרֵמָה. הַתְּבוּאָה, מִשֶּׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְמָרֵחַ, עַד שֶׁיַּעֲמִיד עֲרֵמָה. הַקִּטְנִיּוֹת, מִשֶּׁיִּכְבֹּר. וְאִם אֵינוֹ כוֹבֵר, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֵּרַח, נוֹטֵל מִן הַקֻּטָּעִים וּמִן הַצְּדָדִים וּמִמַּה שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַתֶּבֶן, וְאוֹכֵל:

Dried pomegranate seeds, raisins and carobs, [are liable for tithes] after he has made a pile. Onions, once he removes the onion seeds. If he does not remove the onion seeds, after he makes a pile. Grain, once he smoothes out the pile. If he does not smooth the pile, after he makes a pile. Pulse, after he has sifted it. If he does not sift, after he smoothes out a pile. Even after he has smoothed out the pile, he may [without tithing] take from the broken ears, from the sides of the piles, and from that which is mixed in with the chaff, and eat.

7 ז

הַיַּיִן, מִשֶּׁיְּקַפֶּה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקִּפָּה, קוֹלֵט מִן הַגַּת הָעֶלְיוֹנָה וּמִן הַצִּנּוֹר, וְשׁוֹתֶה. הַשֶּׁמֶן, מִשֶּׁיֵּרֵד לָעוּקָה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּרַד, נוֹטֵל מִן הֶעָקָל וּמִבֵּין הַמָּמָל וּמִבֵּין הַפַּצִּים, וְנוֹתֵן לַחֲמִטָּה וְלַתַּמְחוּי, אֲבָל לֹא יִתֵּן לַקְּדֵרָה וְלַלְּפָס כְּשֶׁהֵן רוֹתְחִין. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לַכֹּל הוּא נוֹתֵן, חוּץ מִדָּבָר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ חֹמֶץ וְצִיר:

Wine [is liable for tithes] after it has been skimmed [in the lower part of the winepress]. Even though it has been skimmed, he may take from the upper winepress, or from the duct, and drink [without taking out tithe]. Oil [is liable for tithes] after it has gone down into the trough. But even after it has gone down into the trough he may still take oil from the pressing bale, or from the press beam, or from the boards between the press [without tithing,] And he may put such oil on a cake, or large plate. But he should not put the oil in a dish or stewpot, while they are boiling. Rabbi Judah says: he may put it into anything except that which contains vinegar or brine.

8 ח

הָעִגּוּל, מִשֶּׁיַּחֲלִיקֶנּוּ. מַחֲלִיקִים בִּתְאֵנִים וּבַעֲנָבִים שֶׁל טֶבֶל. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹסֵר. הַמַּחֲלִיק בַּעֲנָבִים, לֹא הֻכְשָׁר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הֻכְשָׁר. הַגְּרוֹגָרוֹת, מִשֶּׁיָּדוּשׁ. וּמְגוּרָה מִשֶּׁיְּעַגֵּל. הָיָה דָשׁ בֶּחָבִית וּמְעַגֵּל בַּמְּגוּרָה, נִשְׁבְּרָה הֶחָבִית וְנִפְתְּחָה הַמְּגוּרָה, לֹא יֹאכַל מֵהֶם עֲרָאי. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי מַתִּיר:

A cake of pressed figs [is liable for tithes] from the moment it has been smoothed out [with fruit juice]. They may smooth them out with [the juice of] untithed figs or grapes. Rabbi Judah forbids this. If one smoothed with grapes, it is not susceptible to uncleanness. Rabbi Judah says it is susceptible. Dried figs [are liable to tithe] after they have been pressed [into a jar]. And [figs] stored in a bin [are liable to tithe] after they have been pressed. If one was pressing [the figs] into a jar, or pressing them in a storage bin, and the jar was broken or the storage bin opened, he may not make a chance meal of them. Rabbi Yose permits this.