4ד׳
1 א

עֲשָׂרָה יוֹחֲסִין עָלוּ מִבָּבֶל, כַּהֲנֵי, לְוִיֵּי, יִשְׂרְאֵלֵי, חֲלָלֵי, גֵּרֵי, וַחֲרוּרֵי, מַמְזֵרֵי, נְתִינֵי, שְׁתוּקֵי, וַאֲסוּפֵי. כַּהֲנֵי, לְוִיֵּי וְיִשְׂרְאֵלֵי, מֻתָּרִים לָבֹא זֶה בָזֶה. לְוִיֵּי, יִשְׂרְאֵלֵי, חֲלָלֵי, גֵּרֵי וַחֲרוּרֵי, מֻתָּרִים לָבֹא זֶה בָזֶה. גֵּרֵי וַחֲרוּרֵי, מַמְזֵרֵי וּנְתִינֵי שְׁתוּקֵי וַאֲסוּפֵי, כֻּלָּם מֻתָּרִין לָבֹא זֶה בָזֶה:

Ten [familial] statuses rose[came up] from Babylonia [to Israel]: Kohanim, Levites, Israelites, chalalim [offspring of a union prohibited to Kohanim, and who is thereby disqualified for the priesthood for marriage and Temple service.], proselytes, freed slaves, mamzerim [the offspring of certain prohibited relationships who may not marry into the general Jewish population], netinim [Gibeonites], shetukim and asufim. Kohanim, Levites and Israelites are permitted to [marry] with one another. Levites, Israelites, chalalim, proselytes, and are permitted to marry one another. Proselytes, freed slaves, mamzerim, netinim, shetukim and asufim are permitted to marry one another.

2 ב

וְאֵלּוּ הֵם שְׁתוּקֵי, כֹּל שֶׁהוּא מַכִּיר אֶת אִמּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מַכִּיר אֶת אָבִיו. אֲסוּפֵי, כֹּל שֶׁנֶּאֱסַף מִן הַשּׁוּק וְאֵינוֹ מַכִּיר לֹא אָבִיו וְלֹא אִמּוֹ. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל הָיָה קוֹרֵא לִשְׁתוּקֵי, בְּדוּקֵי:

And which are the shetukim? Anyone who knows [who] his mother [is], but does not know [who] his father [is]. And which are the asufim? Anyone who was gathered in from the market, and does not know [who] either his father or his mother [is]. Abba Shaul would call the shetukei, "investigated ones."

3 ג

כָּל הָאֲסוּרִים לָבֹא בַקָּהָל, מֻתָּרִים לָבֹא זֶה בָזֶה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹסֵר. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, וַדָּאָן בְּוַדָּאָן, מֻתָּר. וַדָּאָן בִּסְפֵקָן, (וּסְפֵקָן בְּוַדָּאָן), וּסְפֵקָן בִּסְפֵקָן, אָסוּר. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַסְּפֵקוֹת, שְׁתוּקִי, אֲסוּפִי וְכוּתִי:

All who are forbidden to marry within the [regular Jewish] community, are permitted to marry each other. Rabbi Yehudah forbids [this]. Rabbi Eliezer says, "[Those with] certain [status marrying others] with certain status is permitted; [those with] certain [status marrying others] with uncertain status, [those with] uncertain [status marrying others] with certain status, and [those with] uncertain [status marrying others] with uncertain status is [all] forbidden." And which are the uncertain ones? shetukim, asufim, and Samaritans.

4 ד

הַנּוֹשֵׂא אִשָּׁה כֹהֶנֶת צָרִיךְ לִבְדֹּק אַחֲרֶיהָ אַרְבַּע אִמָּהוֹת שֶׁהֵן שְׁמֹנֶה, אִמָּהּ וְאֵם אִמָּהּ, וְאֵם אֲבִי אִמָּהּ וְאִמָּהּ, וְאֵם אָבִיהָ וְאִמָּהּ, וְאֵם אֲבִי אָבִיהָ וְאִמָּהּ. לְוִיָּה וְיִשְׂרְאֵלִית, מוֹסִיפִין עֲלֵיהֶן עוֹד אֶחָת:

One who marries a Kohenet [the daughter of a kohen] needs to investigate her [status with regard to] four mothers, which are eight: Her mother; and her mother's mother; and her mother's father's mother, and her mother; and her father's mother, and her mother; and her father's father's mother, and her mother. [If a Kohen wants to marry] a Levite or an Israelite [woman], we add on to these another one.

5 ה

אֵין בּוֹדְקִין לֹא מִן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּלְמַעְלָה, וְלֹא מִן הַדּוּכָן וּלְמַעְלָה, וְלֹא מִן סַנְהֶדְרִין וּלְמָעְלָה. וְכֹל שֶׁהֻחְזְקוּ אֲבוֹתָיו מִשּׁוֹטְרֵי הָרַבִּים וְגַבָּאֵי צְדָקָה, מַשִּׂיאִין לַכְּהֻנָּה וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִבְדֹּק אַחֲרֵיהֶן. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אַף מִי שֶׁהָיָה חָתוּם עֵד בָּעַרְכֵי הַיְשָׁנָה שֶׁל צִפּוֹרִי. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אוֹמֵר, אַף מִי שֶׁהָיָה מֻכְתָּב בְּאִסְטְרַטְיָא שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ:

We do not investigate neither from the altar and above, nor from the platform and above, nor from the Sanhedrin [highest court, charged with deciding cases and appeals that had national significance. It was comprised of 71 scholars who had received the full traditional rabbinical ordination, and its decisions fixed Jewish practice for subsequent generations.] and above. Anyone whose fathers were established [i.e., known] to be officers of the masses, [or] collector of charity may marry into the priesthood, and there is no need to investigate them. Rabbi Yossi says, "Even one who was signed as a witness in the old court of Zippori." Rabbi Hanina, son of Antigonos says, "Even one who was written in the King's military roster."

6 ו

בַּת חָלָל זָכָר, פְּסוּלָה מִן הַכְּהֻנָּה לְעוֹלָם. יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנָּשָׂא חֲלָלָה, בִּתּוֹ כְשֵׁרָה לַכְּהֻנָּה. חָלָל שֶׁנָּשָׂא בַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, בִּתּוֹ פְסוּלָה לַכְּהֻנָּה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בַּת גֵּר זָכָר כְּבַת חָלָל זָכָר:

The daughter of a chalal is disqualified to [marry into] the priesthood forever. [With regard to] an Israelite who married a chalalah, his daughter is valid. [With regard to] a chalal who married the daughter of an Israelite, his daughter is disqualified to [marry into] the priesthood. Rabbi Yehuda says, "The daughter of a male convert is like the daughter of a chalal.

7 ז

רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנָּשָׂא גִיּוֹרֶת, בִּתּוֹ כְשֵׁרָה לַכְּהֻנָּה. וְגֵר שֶׁנָּשָׂא בַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, בִּתּוֹ כְשֵׁרָה לַכְּהֻנָּה. אֲבָל גֵּר שֶׁנָּשָׂא גִיּוֹרֶת, בִּתּוֹ פְסוּלָה לַכְּהֻנָּה. אֶחָד גֵּר וְאֶחָד עֲבָדִים מְשֻׁחְרָרִים, אֲפִלּוּ עַד עֲשָׂרָה דוֹרוֹת, עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא אִמּוֹ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אַף גֵּר שֶׁנָּשָׂא גִיּוֹרֶת, בִּתּוֹ כְשֵׁרָה לַכְּהֻנָּה:

Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov says, "[With regard to] an Israelite who married a female proselyte, his daughter is fit to [marry into] the priesthood. And [with regard to] a male proselyte who married the daughter of an Israelite, his daughter is fit to [marry into] the priesthood. But [with regard to] a male proselyte who married a female proselyte— his daughter is disqualified [from marrying into] the priesthood. [This is true] both for proselytes and for freed slaves, even for ten generations, until one's mother is a [naturally-born] Jew." Rabbi Yossi says, "Even [with regard to] a male proselyte who married a female proselyte, his daughter is fit to [marry into] the priesthood.

8 ח

הָאוֹמֵר, בְּנִי זֶה מַמְזֵר, אֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן. וַאֲפִלּוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם אוֹמְרִים עַל הָעֻבָּר שֶׁבְּמֵעֶיהָ מַמְזֵר הוּא, אֵינָם נֶאֱמָנִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, נֶאֱמָנִים:

One who says, "This son of mine is a mamzer," is not believed. Even if both [parents] say regarding a fetus which is in her womb, "It is a mamzer," they are not believed. Rabbi Yehudah says, "They are believed."

9 ט

מִי שֶׁנָּתַן רְשׁוּת לִשְׁלוּחוֹ לְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת בִּתּוֹ וְהָלַךְ הוּא וְקִדְּשָׁהּ, אִם שֶׁלּוֹ קָדְמוּ, קִדּוּשָׁיו קִדּוּשִׁין. וְאִם שֶׁל שְׁלוּחוֹ קָדְמוּ, קִדּוּשָׁיו קִדּוּשִׁין. וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָדוּעַ, שְׁנֵיהֶם נוֹתְנִים גֵּט. וְאִם רָצוּ, אֶחָד נוֹתֵן גֵּט וְאֶחָד כּוֹנֵס. וְכֵן הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁנָּתְנָה רְשׁוּת לִשְׁלוּחָהּ לְקַדְּשָׁהּ, וְהָלְכָה וְקִדְּשָׁהּ אֶת עַצְמָהּ, אִם שֶׁלָּהּ קָדְמוּ, קִדּוּשֶׁיהָ קִדּוּשִׁין. וְאִם שֶׁל שְׁלוּחָהּ קָדְמוּ, קִדּוּשָׁיו קִדּוּשִׁין. וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָדוּעַ, שְׁנֵיהֶם נוֹתְנִין לָהּ גֵּט. וְאִם רָצוּ, אֶחָד נוֹתֵן לָהּ גֵּט וְאֶחָד כּוֹנֵס:

[With regard to] one who gave authority to his agent to betroth his daughter [to another man], and he himself went and betrothed her, if his preceded, his betrothal is a [valid] betrothal, and if his agent's preceded, [the agent's] betrothal is a [valid] betrothal. And if it is not known [which preceded], both give a bill of divorce. And if they wish, one gives a bill of divorce and one marries her. Similarly, [with regard to] a woman who gave authority to her agent to betroth her [to another man], and she herself went and betrothed herself, if hers preceded, her betrothal is a [valid] betrothal, and if her agent's preceded, his betrothal is a [valid] betrothal. If it is not known [which preceded], both give a bill of divorce. And if they wish, one gives a bill of divorce and one marries her.

10 י

מִי שֶׁיָּצָא הוּא וְאִשְׁתּוֹ לִמְדִינַת הַיָּם וּבָא הוּא וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וּבָנָיו וְאָמַר, אִשָּׁה שֶׁיָּצָאת עִמִּי לִמְדִינַת הַיָּם הֲרֵי הִיא זוֹ וְאֵלּוּ בָנֶיהָ, אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה, לֹא עַל הָאִשָּׁה וְלֹא עַל הַבָּנִים. מֵתָה וְאֵלּוּ בָנֶיהָ, מֵבִיא רְאָיָה עַל הַבָּנִים וְאֵינוֹ מֵבִיא רְאָיָה עַל הָאִשָּׁה:

[With regard to] one who goes, he and his wife, overseas, and he comes [back] [with] his wife and his sons, and says, "The wife that went with me overseas, this is she, and these are her sons," he does not need to bring a proof, neither about the wife or about the sons." [If he says], "She died, and these are her sons," he must bring proof about the sons, but does not [need to] bring proof about the wife.

11 יא

אִשָּׁה נָשָׂאתִי בִּמְדִינַת הַיָּם, הֲרֵי הִיא זוֹ וְאֵלּוּ בָנֶיהָ, מֵבִיא רְאָיָה עַל הָאִשָּׁה וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה עַל הַבָּנִים. מֵתָה, וְאֵלּוּ בָנֶיהָ, צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה עַל הָאִשָּׁה וְעַל הַבָּנִים:

[If he says,] "I married a wife overseas, this is she and these are her sons," he must bring proof about the wife, but does not [need to] bring proof about the sons. [If he says] "She died, and these are her sons," he must bring proof about the wife and about the sons.

12 יב

לֹא יִתְיַחֵד אָדָם עִם שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים, אֲבָל אִשָּׁה אַחַת מִתְיַחֶדֶת עִם שְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף אִישׁ אֶחָד מִתְיַחֵד עִם שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים בִּזְמַן שֶׁאִשְׁתּוֹ עִמּוֹ וְיָשֵׁן עִמָּהֶם בְּפֻנְדְּקִי, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאִשְׁתּוֹ מְשַׁמַּרְתּוֹ. מִתְיַחֵד אָדָם עִם אִמּוֹ וְעִם בִּתּוֹ, וְיָשֵׁן עִמָּהֶם בְּקֵרוּב בָּשָׂר. וְאִם הִגְדִּילוּ, זוֹ יְשֵׁנָה בִכְסוּתָהּ וְזֶה יָשֵׁן בִּכְסוּתוֹ:

One man may not be secluded with two women, but one woman may be secluded with two men. Rabbi Shimon says, "Even one man may be secluded with two women when his wife is with him; and he may sleep in the same inn with two women, because his wife guards him." A person may be secluded with his mother or with his daughter, and may [even] sleep with them in bodily contact. And if they grow up, this one should sleep in her garment, and this one should sleep in his garment.

13 יג

לֹא יִלְמַד אָדָם רַוָּק סוֹפְרִים, וְלֹא תִלְמַד אִשָּׁה סוֹפְרִים. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אַף מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אִשָּׁה, לֹא יִלְמַד סוֹפְרִים:

A bachelor should not study pedagogy [to teach young children], and a woman should not study pedagogy. Rabbi Eliezer says, "Even one who does not have a wife [anymore] should not study pedagogy."

14 יד

רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לֹא יִרְעֶה רַוָּק בְּהֵמָה, וְלֹא יִישְׁנוּ שְׁנֵי רַוָּקִים בְּטַלִּית אֶחָת. וַחֲכָמִים מַתִּירִין. כָּל שֶׁעִסְקוֹ עִם הַנָּשִׁים, לֹא יִתְיַחֵד עִם הַנָּשִׁים. וְלֹא יְלַמֵּד אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ אֻמָּנוּת בֵּין הַנָּשִׁים. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם יְלַמֵּד אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ אֻמָּנוּת נְקִיָּה וְקַלָּה, וְיִתְפַּלֵּל לְמִי שֶׁהָעשֶׁר וְהַנְּכָסִים שֶׁלּוֹ, שֶׁאֵין אֻמָּנוּת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ עֲנִיּוּת וַעֲשִׁירוּת, שֶׁלֹּא עֲנִיּוּת מִן הָאֻמָּנוּת וְלֹא עֲשִׁירוּת מִן הָאֻמָּנוּת, אֶלָּא הַכֹּל לְפִי זְכוּתוֹ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר, רָאִיתָ מִיָּמֶיךָ חַיָּה וָעוֹף שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם אֻמָּנוּת, וְהֵן מִתְפַּרְנְסִין שֶׁלֹּא בְצַעַר. וַהֲלֹא לֹא נִבְרְאוּ אֶלָּא לְשַׁמְּשֵׁנִי, וַאֲנִי נִבְרֵאתִי לְשַׁמֵּשׁ אֶת קוֹנִי, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁאֶתְפַּרְנֵס שֶׁלֹּא בְצַעַר. אֶלָּא שֶׁהֲרֵעוֹתִי מַעֲשַׂי וְקִפַּחְתִּי אֶת פַּרְנָסָתִי. אַבָּא גֻרְיָן אִישׁ צַדְיָן אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם אַבָּא גֻרְיָא, לֹא יְלַמֵּד אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ, חַמָּר, גַּמָּל, סַפָּר, סַפָּן, רוֹעֶה, וְחֶנְוָנִי, שֶׁאֻמָּנוּתָן אֻמָּנוּת לִסְטִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר מִשְּׁמוֹ, הַחַמָּרִין, רֻבָּן רְשָׁעִים, וְהַגַּמָּלִין, רֻבָּן כְּשֵׁרִים. הַסַּפָּנִין, רֻבָּן חֲסִידִים. טוֹב שֶׁבָּרוֹפְאִים, לְגֵיהִנֹּם. וְהַכָּשֵׁר שֶׁבַּטַּבָּחִים, שֻׁתָּפוֹ שֶׁל עֲמָלֵק. רַבִּי נְהוֹרַאי אוֹמֵר, מַנִּיחַ אֲנִי כָּל אֻמָּנוּת שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם וְאֵינִי מְלַמֵּד אֶת בְּנִי אֶלָּא תוֹרָה, שֶׁאָדָם אוֹכֵל מִשְּׂכָרָהּ בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְקֶרֶן קַיֶּמֶת לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. וּשְׁאָר כָּל אֻמָּנוּת אֵינָן כֵּן. כְּשֶׁאָדָם בָּא לִידֵי חֹלִי אוֹ לִידֵי זִקְנָה אוֹ לִידֵי יִסּוּרִין וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲסֹק בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ, הֲרֵי הוּא מֵת בְּרָעָב. אֲבָל הַתּוֹרָה אֵינָהּ כֵּן, אֶלָּא מְשַׁמַּרְתּוֹ מִכָּל רָע בְּנַעֲרוּתוֹ וְנוֹתֶנֶת לוֹ אַחֲרִית וְתִקְוָה בְזִקְנוּתוֹ. בְּנַעֲרוּתוֹ, מַה הוּא אוֹמֵר, (ישעיה מ) וְקֹוֵי ה' יַחֲלִיפוּ כֹחַ. בְּזִקְנוּתוֹ, מַהוּ אוֹמֵר, (תהלים צב) עוֹד יְנוּבוּן בְּשֵׂיבָה. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם, (בראשית כד) וְאַבְרָהָם זָקֵן, וַה' בֵּרַךְ אֶת אַבְרָהָם בַּכֹּל. מָצִינוּ שֶׁעָשָׂה אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ אֶת כָּל הַתּוֹרָה כֻּלָּהּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְּנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, (שם כו) עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַע אַבְרָהָם בְּקֹלִי וַיִּשְׁמֹר מִשְׁמַרְתִּי מִצְוֹתַי חֻקּוֹתַי וְתוֹרֹתָי:

Rabbi Yehudah says, "An unmarried man should not herd animals, and two unmarried men should not sleep in the same garment." And the Sages permit it. Whoever's business is with women should not be alone with women. And one should not teach his son a profession [that would cause him to be] among women. Rabbi Meir says, "A person should always teach his son a clean and easy profession, and he should pray to the One to whom wealth and possessions belong, as there is no profession which does not have in it poverty and wealth. For poverty is not due to one's profession, and wealth is not due to one's profession, rather, it is all according to one's merit." Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says, "Have you seen in all your days a beast or fowl that has a profession? [Yet] they sustain themselves without trouble. And weren't they created solely to serve me, and I was created to serve my Master. Isn't it logical, then, that I should be able to sustain myself without trouble? However, I my actions were bad, and I deprived myself of my sustenance." Abba Garin, a man of Tzaydin says in the name of Abba Guria, "A person should not teach his son [to be] a donkey-driver, a camel-driver, a barber, a sailor, a shepherd, or a shopkeeper, for their professions are the professions of thieves." Rabbi Yehudah says in his name, "Most donkey-drivers are wicked, and most camel-drivers are honorable. Most sailors are pious. The best physicians [are destined] for hell, and the most honorable among the butchers is the partner of Amalek." Rabbi Nehorai says, "I leave [aside] all professions in the world and I do not teach my son anything other than Torah, for a person enjoys its reward in this world and the principle remains into the world to come." And this is not the case for the rest of the professions. When a person encounters sickness, or old age, or suffering and is not able to engage in his profession, he will surely die of hunger. But the Torah is not like this; rather, it protects him from all evil in his youth and grants him an end and hope in his old age. Regarding his youth, what does it say? "Those who wait for the Lord will have their strength renewed" (Isaiah 40:31). Regarding his old age what does it say? "They shall still bear fruit in old age" (Psalms 92:15). And so it says with regard to Abraham, our father, peace be upon him, "And Abraham was old...and the Lord blessed Abraham with everything" (Genesis 24:1). We find that Abraham our father performed the entire Torah [even] before it was given, as it says "Because Abraham listened to My voice, and he observed My statutes, commandments, laws, and teachings" (Genesis 26:5).