Mishnah Kiddushin
1א׳
1 א

הָאִשָּׁה נִקְנֵית בְּשָׁלשׁ דְּרָכִים, וְקוֹנָה אֶת עַצְמָהּ בִּשְׁתֵּי דְרָכִים. נִקְנֵית בְּכֶסֶף, בִּשְׁטָר, וּבְבִיאָה. בְּכֶסֶף, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, בְּדִינָר וּבְשָׁוֶה דִינָר. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, בִּפְרוּטָה וּבְשָׁוֶה פְרוּטָה. וְכַמָּה הִיא פְרוּטָה, אֶחָד מִשְּׁמֹנָה בָאִסָּר הָאִיטַלְקִי. וְקוֹנָה אֶת עַצְמָהּ בְּגֵט וּבְמִיתַת הַבָּעַל. הַיְבָמָה נִקְנֵית בְּבִיאָה. וְקוֹנָה אֶת עַצְמָהּ בַּחֲלִיצָה וּבְמִיתַת הַיָּבָם:

A woman is acquired in three ways, and she acquires herself in two ways. She is acquired through money, through a document, or through sexual intercourse. Through money: Beit Shammai say, "With a dinar [a specific unit of money] or with the equivalent value of a dinar." And Beit Hillel say, "With a perutah or with the equivalent value of a perutah." How much is a perutah? One eighth of an Italian issar [a specific unit of money equal to one twenty-fourth of a dinar]. And she acquires herself through a bill of divorce or through the death of the husband. A yevamah [a widow whose brother-in-law performed levirate marriage with her] is acquired through sexual intercourse, and acquires herself through chalitzah [the ceremony performed by the widow of a childless man as an alternative way to release herself from the obligation to wait for levirate marriage] or through the death of the yavam [one upon whom has fallen the obligation to perform levirate marriage].

2 ב

עֶבֶד עִבְרִי נִקְנֶה בְכֶסֶף וּבִשְׁטָר, וְקוֹנֶה אֶת עַצְמוֹ בַּשָּׁנִים וּבַיּוֹבֵל וּבְגִרְעוֹן כֶּסֶף. יְתֵרָה עָלָיו אָמָה הָעִבְרִיָּה, שֶׁקּוֹנָה אֶת עַצְמָהּ בְּסִימָנִין. הַנִּרְצָע נִקְנֶה בִרְצִיעָה, וְקוֹנֶה אֶת עַצְמוֹ בַיּוֹבֵל וּבְמִיתַת הָאָדוֹן:

A Hebrew slave is acquired through money or through a document, and acquires himself through years [of service], through the Jubilee Year, or through prorated monetary [payment]. A Hebrew maidservant has an advantage over him, in that she acquires herself through [physical] signs [of puberty]. [A slave] who [has his ear] pierced is acquired through [the] piercing, and acquires himself through the Jubilee Year or with the death of the master.

3 ג

עֶבֶד כְּנַעֲנִי נִקְנֶה בְכֶסֶף וּבִשְׁטָר וּבַחֲזָקָה, וְקוֹנֶה אֶת עַצְמוֹ בְכֶסֶף עַל יְדֵי אֲחֵרִים, וּבִשְׁטָר עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בְּכֶסֶף עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ וּבִשְׁטָר עַל יְדֵי אֲחֵרִים, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיְּהֵא הַכֶּסֶף מִשֶּׁל אֲחֵרִים:

A Canaanite slave is acquired through money, through a document or through chazakah [a presumption of ownership, generally regarding landed property, established by unchallenged, publically known possession for a certain period of time, together with a legally acceptable claim regarding how the property came into the possessor’s hands]. And he acquires himself through money by a third party or through a document by himself. These are the word of Rabbi Meir. And the Sages say, "Through money by himself and through a document by a third party, providing that the money be from a third party.

4 ד

בְּהֵמָה גַסָּה נִקְנֵית בִּמְסִירָה, וְהַדַּקָּה בְּהַגְבָּהָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר וְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בְּהֵמָה דַקָּה נִקְנֵית בִּמְשִׁיכָה:

A large animal is acquired through transfer [of the reins], and a small animal through lifting [it]; these are the words of Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Elazar. The Sages say, "A small animal is acquired through pulling [it]."

5 ה

נְכָסִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת נִקְנִין בְּכֶסֶף וּבִשְׁטָר וּבַחֲזָקָה. וְשֶׁאֵין לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת, אֵין נִקְנִין אֶלָּא בִמְשִׁיכָה. נְכָסִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת, נִקְנִין עִם נְכָסִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת, בְּכֶסֶף וּבִשְׁטָר וּבַחֲזָקָה. וְזוֹקְקִין נְכָסִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת אֶת הַנְּכָסִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת לִשָּׁבַע עֲלֵיהֶן:

Mortgaged property is acquired through money, through a document, or through chazakah; and non-mortgaged [property] is acquired only through pulling [it]. Property which is non-mortgaged can be acquired along with mortgaged property through money, through a document or through chazakah; and that which is non-mortgaged can, [by association,] bind [itself to] that which is mortgaged [to force one] to take an oath regarding [that property].

6 ו

כָּל הַנַּעֲשֶׂה דָמִים בְּאַחֵר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁזָּכָה זֶה, נִתְחַיֵּב זֶה בַחֲלִיפָיו. כֵּיצַד. הֶחֱלִיף שׁוֹר בְּפָרָה אוֹ חֲמוֹר בְּשׁוֹר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁזָּכָה זֶה, נִתְחַיֵּב זֶה בַחֲלִיפָיו. רְשׁוּת הַגָּבוֹהַּ, בְּכֶסֶף, וּרְשׁוּת הַהֶדְיוֹט, בַּחֲזָקָה. אֲמִירָתוֹ לַגָּבוֹהַּ, כִּמְסִירָתוֹ לַהֶדְיוֹט:

Anything that is used as currency for something else, once this [party to the transaction] takes possession [of it], this [other party] is obligated in its exchange. How so? If one exchanges a bull for a cow, or a donkey for a bull, once this one takes possession, this one is obligated for its exchange [i.e., the animal he agreed to exchange for it]. The Temple authority [acquires directly] through money, and the lay authority [acquires] through chazakah. A verbal statement [declaring an object as belonging] to the Temple [authority] is like [physical] transfer to the lay [authority].

7 ז

כָּל מִצְוֹת הַבֵּן עַל הָאָב, אֲנָשִׁים חַיָּבִין וְנָשִׁים פְּטוּרוֹת. וְכָל מִצְוֹת הָאָב עַל הַבֵּן, אֶחָד אֲנָשִׁים וְאֶחָד נָשִׁים חַיָּבִין. וְכָל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁהַזְּמָן גְּרָמָהּ, אֲנָשִׁים חַיָּבִין וְנָשִׁים פְּטוּרוֹת. וְכָל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁלֹּא הַזְּמָן גְּרָמָהּ, אֶחָד אֲנָשִׁים וְאֶחָד נָשִׁים חַיָּבִין. וְכָל מִצְוַת לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, בֵּין שֶׁהַזְּמָן גְּרָמָהּ בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא הַזְּמָן גְּרָמָהּ, אֶחָד אֲנָשִׁים וְאֶחָד נָשִׁים חַיָּבִין, חוּץ מִבַּל תַּשְׁחִית וּבַל תַּקִּיף וּבַל תִּטַּמָּא לְמֵתִים:

[With regard to] all commandments of the son which are [incumbent] upon the father, men are obligated, and women are exempt. And [with regard to] all commandments of the father which are [incumbent] upon the son, both men and women are obligated. And [with regard to] every positive commandment that is time-dependent, men are obligated and women are exempt. And [with regard to] every positive commandment which is not time-dependent, both men and women are obligated. And [with regard to] every negative commandment, whether it is time-dependent or it is not time-dependent, both men and women are obligated, except for: "You shall not destroy [the corners of your beard]" (Leviticus 19:27), "You shall not round off [the corners of your head]" (ibid.), and "You shall not become ritually impure for the dead" (Leviticus 21:1).

8 ח

הַסְּמִיכוֹת, וְהַתְּנוּפוֹת, וְהַהַגָּשׁוֹת, וְהַקְּמִיצוֹת, וְהַהַקְטָרוֹת, וְהַמְּלִיקוֹת, וְהַהַזָּאוֹת, וְהַקַּבָּלוֹת, נוֹהֲגִין בַּאֲנָשִׁים וְלֹא בְנָשִׁים, חוּץ מִמִּנְחַת סוֹטָה וּנְזִירָה, שֶׁהֵן מְנִיפוֹת:

The leanings, and the wavings, and the presentations, and the kemitsot [individual handfuls of the meal offering, which the priest takes to be put on the altar], and the incense offerings, and the melikot [instances of utilizing a slaughtering method used for bird sacrifices, employing the thumbnail instead of a knife], and the sprinklings, and the collections of blood are practiced by men, but not by women, except for the meal-offering of the sotah and of the female Nazirite, that they wave [them].

9 ט

כָּל מִצְוָה שֶׁהִיא תְלוּיָה בָאָרֶץ אֵינָהּ נוֹהֶגֶת אֶלָּא בָאָרֶץ. וְשֶׁאֵינָהּ תְּלוּיָה בָאָרֶץ נוֹהֶגֶת בֵּין בָּאָרֶץ בֵּין בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, חוּץ מִן הָעָרְלָה וְכִלְאָיִם. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אַף מִן הֶחָדָשׁ:

Any commandment which is dependent on the Land [of Israel] only applies in the Land. And any commandment which is not dependent on the Land applies both in the Land and outside the Land, except for orlah [the fruit of a tree during the first three years after its planting, the consumption or usage of which is forbidden] and kilayim [the prohibition of planting together certain plants]. And Rabbi Eliezer says, "Also chadash [grain from the current year that one is forbidden to eat until after the sixteenth of Nissan]"

10 י

כָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה אַחַת, מְטִיבִין לוֹ וּמַאֲרִיכִין לוֹ יָמָיו וְנוֹחֵל אֶת הָאָרֶץ. וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה אַחַת, אֵין מְטִיבִין לוֹ וְאֵין מַאֲרִיכִין לוֹ יָמָיו וְאֵינוֹ נוֹחֵל אֶת הָאָרֶץ. כָּל שֶׁיֶּשְׁנוֹ בַמִּקְרָא וּבַמִּשְׁנָה וּבְדֶרֶךְ אֶרֶץ, לֹא בִמְהֵרָה הוּא חוֹטֵא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (קהלת ד) וְהַחוּט הַמְשֻׁלָּשׁ לֹא בִמְהֵרָה יִנָּתֵק. וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ לֹא בַמִּקְרָא וְלֹא בַמִּשְׁנָה וְלֹא בְדֶרֶךְ אֶרֶץ, אֵינוֹ מִן הַיִּשּׁוּב:

Anyone who performs a single commandment is bestowed with goodness, his days are lengthened, and he inherits the Land. And anyone who does not perform a single commandment is not bestowed with goodness, his days are not lengthened, and he does not inherit the Land. Anyone who is [involved in] Scripture, the Oral Law, and proper social behavior will not easily [come to] sin, as it is stated, "And the three-ply cord is not quickly severed" (Ecclesiastes 4:12). Anyone who is not [involved in] Scripture, and not in the Oral Law, and not in proper social behavior is not part of civilization.