Mishnah Kiddushin
1א׳
1 א

הָאִשָּׁה נִקְנֵית בְּשָׁלשׁ דְּרָכִים, וְקוֹנָה אֶת עַצְמָהּ בִּשְׁתֵּי דְרָכִים. נִקְנֵית בְּכֶסֶף, בִּשְׁטָר, וּבְבִיאָה. בְּכֶסֶף, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, בְּדִינָר וּבְשָׁוֶה דִינָר. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, בִּפְרוּטָה וּבְשָׁוֶה פְרוּטָה. וְכַמָּה הִיא פְרוּטָה, אֶחָד מִשְּׁמֹנָה בָאִסָּר הָאִיטַלְקִי. וְקוֹנָה אֶת עַצְמָהּ בְּגֵט וּבְמִיתַת הַבָּעַל. הַיְבָמָה נִקְנֵית בְּבִיאָה. וְקוֹנָה אֶת עַצְמָהּ בַּחֲלִיצָה וּבְמִיתַת הַיָּבָם:

A woman is acquired in three ways and acquires herself in two: She is acquired by money, by document, or by intercourse. “By money”: Bet Shammai says: a denar or the equivalent of a denar; Bet Hillel says: a perutah or the equivalent of a perutah. And how much is a perutah? An eighth of an Italian issar. And she acquires herself by divorce or by her husband's death. A yevamah is acquired by intercourse. And she acquires herself by halitzah or by the yavam’s death.

2 ב

עֶבֶד עִבְרִי נִקְנֶה בְכֶסֶף וּבִשְׁטָר, וְקוֹנֶה אֶת עַצְמוֹ בַּשָּׁנִים וּבַיּוֹבֵל וּבְגִרְעוֹן כֶּסֶף. יְתֵרָה עָלָיו אָמָה הָעִבְרִיָּה, שֶׁקּוֹנָה אֶת עַצְמָהּ בְּסִימָנִין. הַנִּרְצָע נִקְנֶה בִרְצִיעָה, וְקוֹנֶה אֶת עַצְמוֹ בַיּוֹבֵל וּבְמִיתַת הָאָדוֹן:

A Hebrew slave is acquired by money and by document; And acquires himself by years, by Jubilee, and by deduction from the purchase price. A Hebrew maidservant is greater in that she acquires herself by ‘signs [of physical maturity]’. He whose ear is bored is acquired by boring, and acquires himself by Jubilee or his master's death.

3 ג

עֶבֶד כְּנַעֲנִי נִקְנֶה בְכֶסֶף וּבִשְׁטָר וּבַחֲזָקָה, וְקוֹנֶה אֶת עַצְמוֹ בְכֶסֶף עַל יְדֵי אֲחֵרִים, וּבִשְׁטָר עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בְּכֶסֶף עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ וּבִשְׁטָר עַל יְדֵי אֲחֵרִים, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיְּהֵא הַכֶּסֶף מִשֶּׁל אֲחֵרִים:

A Canaanite slave is acquired by money, deed, or by possession, And acquires himself by money through the agency of others, and by document through his own agency, the words of Rabbi Meir. The Sages say: by money, through his own agency, and by document, through the agency of others, providing that the money comes from others.

4 ד

בְּהֵמָה גַסָּה נִקְנֵית בִּמְסִירָה, וְהַדַּקָּה בְּהַגְבָּהָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר וְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בְּהֵמָה דַקָּה נִקְנֵית בִּמְשִׁיכָה:

Large animals are acquired by being handed over and small animals by lifting, the words of Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Elazar. The sages say: small animals are acquired by being led.

5 ה

נְכָסִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת נִקְנִין בְּכֶסֶף וּבִשְׁטָר וּבַחֲזָקָה. וְשֶׁאֵין לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת, אֵין נִקְנִין אֶלָּא בִמְשִׁיכָה. נְכָסִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת, נִקְנִין עִם נְכָסִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת, בְּכֶסֶף וּבִשְׁטָר וּבַחֲזָקָה. וְזוֹקְקִין נְכָסִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת אֶת הַנְּכָסִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת לִשָּׁבַע עֲלֵיהֶן:

Property which has security is acquired by money, by deed or by possession. [Property] which does not have security is acquired only by being drawn [to the purchaser]. Property which does not have security may be acquired in conjunction with property which does have security by money, deed, or possession; And it obligates the property which provides security, to take an oath concerning them.

6 ו

כָּל הַנַּעֲשֶׂה דָמִים בְּאַחֵר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁזָּכָה זֶה, נִתְחַיֵּב זֶה בַחֲלִיפָיו. כֵּיצַד. הֶחֱלִיף שׁוֹר בְּפָרָה אוֹ חֲמוֹר בְּשׁוֹר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁזָּכָה זֶה, נִתְחַיֵּב זֶה בַחֲלִיפָיו. רְשׁוּת הַגָּבוֹהַּ, בְּכֶסֶף, וּרְשׁוּת הַהֶדְיוֹט, בַּחֲזָקָה. אֲמִירָתוֹ לַגָּבוֹהַּ, כִּמְסִירָתוֹ לַהֶדְיוֹט:

Whatever can be used as payment for another object, as soon as this one takes possession [of the object], the other one assumes liability for what is given in exchange. How so? If one exchanges an ox for a cow, or a donkey for an ox, as soon as this one takes possession, the other one assumes liability for what is given in exchange. The sanctuary’s title to property [is acquired] by money; the title of an ordinary person to property by hazakah. Dedication to the sanctuary is equal to delivery to an ordinary person.

7 ז

כָּל מִצְוֹת הַבֵּן עַל הָאָב, אֲנָשִׁים חַיָּבִין וְנָשִׁים פְּטוּרוֹת. וְכָל מִצְוֹת הָאָב עַל הַבֵּן, אֶחָד אֲנָשִׁים וְאֶחָד נָשִׁים חַיָּבִין. וְכָל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁהַזְּמָן גְּרָמָהּ, אֲנָשִׁים חַיָּבִין וְנָשִׁים פְּטוּרוֹת. וְכָל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁלֹּא הַזְּמָן גְּרָמָהּ, אֶחָד אֲנָשִׁים וְאֶחָד נָשִׁים חַיָּבִין. וְכָל מִצְוַת לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, בֵּין שֶׁהַזְּמָן גְּרָמָהּ בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא הַזְּמָן גְּרָמָהּ, אֶחָד אֲנָשִׁים וְאֶחָד נָשִׁים חַיָּבִין, חוּץ מִבַּל תַּשְׁחִית וּבַל תַּקִּיף וּבַל תִּטַּמָּא לְמֵתִים:

All obligations of the son upon the father, men are obligated, but women are exempt. But all obligations of the father upon the son, both men and women are obligated. All positive, time-bound commandments, men are obligated and women are exempt. But all positive non-time-bound commandments both men and women are obligated. And all negative commandments, whether time-bound or not time-bound, both men and women are obligated, except for, the prohibition against rounding [the corners of the head], and the prohibition against marring [the corner of the beard], and the prohibition [for a priest] to become impure through contact with the dead.

8 ח

הַסְּמִיכוֹת, וְהַתְּנוּפוֹת, וְהַהַגָּשׁוֹת, וְהַקְּמִיצוֹת, וְהַהַקְטָרוֹת, וְהַמְּלִיקוֹת, וְהַהַזָּאוֹת, וְהַקַּבָּלוֹת, נוֹהֲגִין בַּאֲנָשִׁים וְלֹא בְנָשִׁים, חוּץ מִמִּנְחַת סוֹטָה וּנְזִירָה, שֶׁהֵן מְנִיפוֹת:

The [rites of] laying hands, waving, presenting [the meal-offering], taking the handful, burning [the fat], cutting [the neck of bird sacrifices], sprinkling and receiving [the blood] are performed by men but not by women, except the meal-offering of a sotah and a female nazirite, where they [themselves] wave the offering.

9 ט

כָּל מִצְוָה שֶׁהִיא תְלוּיָה בָאָרֶץ אֵינָהּ נוֹהֶגֶת אֶלָּא בָאָרֶץ. וְשֶׁאֵינָהּ תְּלוּיָה בָאָרֶץ נוֹהֶגֶת בֵּין בָּאָרֶץ בֵּין בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, חוּץ מִן הָעָרְלָה וְכִלְאָיִם. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אַף מִן הֶחָדָשׁ:

Every commandment which is dependent on the land is practiced only in the land [of Israel]; and every commandment which is not dependent on the land is practiced both in and outside the land, except orlah and kilayim. Rabbi Elazar says: also [the prohibition of] new produce.

10 י

כָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה אַחַת, מְטִיבִין לוֹ וּמַאֲרִיכִין לוֹ יָמָיו וְנוֹחֵל אֶת הָאָרֶץ. וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה אַחַת, אֵין מְטִיבִין לוֹ וְאֵין מַאֲרִיכִין לוֹ יָמָיו וְאֵינוֹ נוֹחֵל אֶת הָאָרֶץ. כָּל שֶׁיֶּשְׁנוֹ בַמִּקְרָא וּבַמִּשְׁנָה וּבְדֶרֶךְ אֶרֶץ, לֹא בִמְהֵרָה הוּא חוֹטֵא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (קהלת ד) וְהַחוּט הַמְשֻׁלָּשׁ לֹא בִמְהֵרָה יִנָּתֵק. וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ לֹא בַמִּקְרָא וְלֹא בַמִּשְׁנָה וְלֹא בְדֶרֶךְ אֶרֶץ, אֵינוֹ מִן הַיִּשּׁוּב:

He who performs one commandment is rewarded, his days are prolonged, and he inherits the land, But he who does not perform one commandment, is not rewarded, his days are not prolonged, and he does not inherit the land. He who is familiar with Bible, Mishnah, and the ways of the land will not easily sin, as it is said, “And a threefold cord is not quickly broken” (Ecclesiastes 4:1. But he who is not familiar with Bible, Mishnah and the ways of the land does not belong to civilization.