9ט׳
1 א

הַכּוֹתֵב לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, דִּין וּדְבָרִים אֵין לִי בִנְכָסַיִךְ, הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹכֵל פֵּרוֹת בְּחַיֶּיהָ. וְאִם מֵתָה, יוֹרְשָׁהּ. אִם כֵּן לָמָּה כָתַב לָהּ דִּין וּדְבָרִים אֵין לִי בִנְכָסַיִךְ, שֶׁאִם מָכְרָה וְנָתְנָה, קַיָּם. כָּתַב לָהּ, דִּין וּדְבָרִים אֵין לִי בִנְכָסַיִךְ וּבְפֵרוֹתֵיהֶן, הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל פֵּרוֹת בְּחַיֶּיהָ. וְאִם מֵתָה, יוֹרְשָׁהּ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם אוֹכֵל פֵּרֵי פֵרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיִּכְתֹּב לָהּ דִּין וּדְבָרִים אֵין לִי בִנְכָסַיִךְ וּבְפֵרוֹתֵיהֶן וּבְפֵרֵי פֵרוֹתֵיהֶן עַד עוֹלָם. כָּתַב לָהּ, דִּין וּדְבָרִים אֵין לִי בִנְכָסַיִךְ וּבְפֵרוֹתֵיהֶן וּבְפֵרֵי פֵרוֹתֵיהֶן בְּחַיַּיִךְ וּבְמוֹתֵךְ, אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל פֵּרוֹת בְּחַיֶּיהָ. וְאִם מֵתָה, אֵינוֹ יוֹרְשָׁהּ. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, אִם מֵתָה, יִירָשֶׁנָּה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִתְנָה עַל מַה שֶׁכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה, וְכָל הַמַּתְנֶה עַל מַה שֶּׁכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה, תְּנָאוֹ בָטֵל:

He who writes to his bride [in the ketubah (monetary settlement payable to a woman upon divorce or the death of her husband)], "I have no legal claim to your property," may [nevertheless] enjoy the usufruct during her lifetime, and if she dies, he inherits from her. If so, why did he write to her, "I have no legal claim to your property", i.e. what is the effect of such a statement? That if she sells or gives [it] away, [the transaction] is valid. If he writes to her, "I have no legal claim to your property, nor to its usufruct," he may not enjoy the usufruct during her lifetime; but if she dies, he does inherit her. Rabbi Yehudah says, "He always may enjoy the usufruct of the proceeds of her property, until he writes to her, 'I have no legal claim to your property, nor to its fruits, nor to the proceeds of these fruits forever.'" If he writes to her, 'I have no legal claim to your property, nor to its fruits [nor to the proceeds of these fruits] neither during your lifetime, nor upon your death,' he may not enjoy the usufruct during her life, and if she dies he does not inherit her." Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says, "If she dies, he does inherit her, because he has stipulated [in opposition] to what is written in the Torah, and whoever stipulates [in opposition] to what is written in the Torah, his stipulation is null and void."

2 ב

מִי שֶׁמֵּת וְהִנִּיחַ אִשָּׁה וּבַעַל חוֹב וְיוֹרְשִׁין, וְהָיָה לוֹ פִקָּדוֹן אוֹ מִלְוֶה בְּיַד אֲחֵרִים, רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אוֹמֵר, יִנָּתְנוּ לַכּוֹשֵׁל שֶׁבָּהֶן. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אֵין מְרַחֲמִין בַּדִּין, אֶלָּא יִנָּתְנוּ לַיּוֹרְשִׁין, שֶׁכֻּלָּן צְרִיכִין שְׁבוּעָה וְאֵין הַיּוֹרְשִׁין צְרִיכִין שְׁבוּעָה:

With regard to one who dies and leaves a wife, creditors and heirs, and he had a deposited object or a loan in another's hands, Rabbi Tarfon says, "It should be given to the weakest among them." Rabbi Akiva says, "There is no mercy in [the administration of] justice; rather, [the property] is given to the heirs, as all [the other claimants] must take an oath [to support their claim], whereas the heirs need not take an oath."

3 ג

הִנִּיחַ פֵּרוֹת תְּלוּשִׁין מִן הַקַּרְקַע, כָּל הַקּוֹדֵם זָכָה בָהֶן. זָכְתָה אִשָּׁה יוֹתֵר מִכְּתֻבָּתָהּ, וּבַעַל חוֹב יוֹתֵר עַל חוֹבוֹ, הַמּוֹתָר, רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אוֹמֵר, יִנָּתְנוּ לַכּוֹשֵׁל שֶׁבָּהֶן. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אֵין מְרַחֲמִין בַּדִּין, אֶלָּא יִנָּתְנוּ לַיּוֹרְשִׁים, שֶׁכֻּלָּם צְרִיכִין שְׁבוּעָה וְאֵין הַיּוֹרְשִׁים צְרִיכִין שְׁבוּעָה:

If he left fruit detached from the ground, whoever [seizes them] first takes [full] possession of them. If the wife took possession of more than [the amount of] her ketubah, or the creditor of more than [the amount of] his debt, [with regard to] the surplus, Rabbi Tarfon says, "It should be given to the weakest among them. Rabbi Akivah says, "There is no mercy in [the administration of] justice; rather, [the property] is given to the heirs, as all [the other claimants] must take an oath [to support their claim], whereas the heirs need not take an oath."

4 ד

הַמּוֹשִׁיב אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ חֶנְוָנִית אוֹ שֶׁמִּנָּהּ אַפּוֹטְרוֹפָּא, הֲרֵי זֶה מַשְׁבִּיעָהּ כָּל זְמָן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ עַל פִּלְכָּהּ וְעַל עִסָּתָהּ:

One who placed his wife as the shopkeeper [in his shop], or appointed her as administrator [over his property], may impose upon her an oath whenever he pleases. Rabbi Eliezer says, "Even with regard to her spindle and her dough."

5 ה

כָּתַב לָהּ, נֶדֶר וּשְׁבוּעָה אֵין לִי עָלָיִךְ, אֵין יָכוֹל לְהַשְׁבִּיעָהּ, אֲבָל מַשְׁבִּיעַ הוּא אֶת יוֹרְשֶׁיהָ וְאֶת הַבָּאִים בִּרְשׁוּתָהּ. נֶדֶר וּשְׁבוּעָה אֵין לִי עָלַיִךְ וְעַל יוֹרְשַׁיִךְ וְעַל הַבָּאִים בִּרְשׁוּתִיךְ, אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַשְׁבִּיעָהּ, לֹא הִיא וְלֹא יוֹרְשֶׁיהָ וְלֹא אֶת הַבָּאִים בִּרְשׁוּתָהּ. אֲבָל יוֹרְשָׁיו מַשְׁבִּיעִין אוֹתָהּ, וְאֶת יוֹרְשֶׁיהָ וְאֶת הַבָּאִים בִּרְשׁוּתָהּ. נֶדֶר וּשְׁבוּעָה אֵין לִי וְלֹא לְיוֹרְשַׁי וְלֹא לַבָּאִים בִּרְשׁוּתִי עָלַיִךְ וְעַל יוֹרְשַׁיִךְ וְעַל הַבָּאִים בִּרְשׁוּתִיךְ, אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַשְׁבִּיעָהּ, לֹא הוּא וְלֹא יוֹרְשָׁיו וְלֹא הַבָּאִים בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, לֹא אוֹתָהּ וְלֹא יוֹרְשֶׁיהָ וְלֹא הַבָּאִין בִּרְשׁוּתָהּ:

If he wrote to her, "I will not [impose] upon you a vow or an oath," he may not impose upon her an oath; but he may impose upon her heir an oath, as well as those who act with her authority. [If he writes to her] "I will not [impose] upon you a vow or an oath, nor on your heirs, nor on those who act with your authority," he may not impose upon her an oath, not her, nor her heirs, nor those who act with her authority. But his heirs may impose upon her an oath, her, her heirs, and those who act with her authority. [If he writes,] "I will not [impose] upon you a vow or an oath, nor will my heirs, nor will those who act with my authority, on you, on your heirs, or on those who act with your authority," [then] neither he, nor his heirs, nor those who act with his authority, may impose upon her an oath, neither her, nor her heirs, nor those who act with her authority.

6 ו

הָלְכָה מִקֶּבֶר בַּעְלָהּ לְבֵית אָבִיהָ אוֹ שֶׁחָזְרָה לְבֵית חָמִיהָ, וְלֹא נַעֲשֵׂית אַפּוֹטְרוֹפָּא, אֵין הַיּוֹרְשִׁין מַשְׁבִּיעִין אוֹתָהּ. וְאִם נַעֲשֵׂית אַפּוֹטְרוֹפָּא, הַיּוֹרְשִׁין מַשְׁבִּיעִין אוֹתָהּ עַל הֶעָתִיד לָבֹא וְאֵין מַשְׁבִּיעִין אוֹתָהּ עַל מַה שֶּׁעָבָר:

If she went [directly] from her husband's grave to her father's house, or if she returned to the house of her father-in-law, but did not become the administrator [of her deceased husband's property], his heirs may not impose upon her an oath. But if she did become administrator, the heirs may impose upon her an oath with regard to the future, but they may not impose upon her an oath with regard to the past.

7 ז

הַפּוֹגֶמֶת כְּתֻבָּתָהּ, לֹא תִפָּרַע אֶלָּא בִשְׁבוּעָה. עֵד אֶחָד מְעִידָהּ שֶׁהִיא פְרוּעָה, לֹא תִפָּרַע אֶלָּא בִשְׁבוּעָה. מִנִּכְסֵי יְתוֹמִים וּמִנְּכָסִים מְשֻׁעְבָּדִין וְשֶׁלֹּא בְפָנָיו, לֹא תִפָּרַע אֶלָּא בִשְׁבוּעָה:

She who damages [her rights to] her ketubah, may be paid only by taking an oath. If one witness testifies about [the ketubah] that it has [already] been paid, she may be paid only by taking an oath. [If she is to be paid] from orphans’ property, or from mortgaged property, or in [the husband's] absence, she may be paid only by taking an oath.

8 ח

הַפּוֹגֶמֶת כְּתֻבָּתָהּ כֵּיצַד, הָיְתָה כְתֻבָּתָהּ אֶלֶף זוּז, וְאָמַר לָהּ הִתְקַבַּלְתְּ כְּתֻבָּתֵךְ, וְהִיא אוֹמֶרֶת לֹא הִתְקַבַּלְתִּי אֶלָּא מָנֶה, לֹא תִפָּרַע אֶלָּא בִשְׁבוּעָה. עֵד אֶחָד מְעִידָהּ שֶׁהִיא פְרוּעָה כֵּיצַד, הָיְתָה כְתֻבָּתָהּ אֶלֶף זוּז, וְאָמַר לָהּ הִתְקַבַּלְתְּ כְּתֻבָּתֵךְ, וְהִיא אוֹמֶרֶת לֹא הִתְקַבָּלְתִּי, וְעֵד אֶחָד מְעִידָהּ שֶׁהִיא פְרוּעָה, לֹא תִפָּרַע אֶלָּא בִשְׁבוּעָה. מִנְּכָסִים מְשֻׁעְבָּדִים כֵּיצַד, מָכַר נְכָסָיו לַאֲחֵרִים, וְהִיא נִפְרַעַת מִן הַלָּקוֹחוֹת, לֹא תִפָּרַע אֶלָּא בִשְׁבוּעָה. מִנִּכְסֵי יְתוֹמִים כֵּיצַד, מֵת וְהִנִּיחַ נְכָסָיו לַיְתוֹמִים, וְהִיא נִפְרַעַת מִן הַיְתוֹמִים, לֹא תִפָּרַע אֶלָּא בִשְׁבוּעָה. וְשֶׁלֹּא בְּפָנָיו כֵּיצַד, הָלַךְ לוֹ לִמְדִינַת הַיָּם, וְהִיא נִפְרַעַת שֶׁלֹּא בְפָנָיו, אֵינָהּ נִפְרַעַת אֶלָּא בִשְׁבוּעָה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהִיא תוֹבַעַת כְּתֻבָּתָהּ, הַיּוֹרְשִׁין מַשְׁבִּיעִין אוֹתָהּ. וְאִם אֵינָהּ תּוֹבַעַת כְּתֻבָּתָהּ, אֵין הַיּוֹרְשִׁין מַשְׁבִּיעִין אוֹתָהּ:

What is the case of one who damages [her rights to] her ketubah? [If] her ketubah was a thousand zuz and [the husband] says, "You have received [the whole amount of] your ketubah" and she says, No, I have only received a hundred zuz." [In that case] she may be paid [the difference] only by taking an oath. What is the case of one witness [who] testifies about [the ketubah] that it has [already] been paid? [If] her ketubah was a thousand zuz and [the husband] says, "You have received [the whole amount of] your ketubah" and she says, "No, I have not received it." And one witness testifies about [the ketubah] that it has already been paid, she may be paid only by taking an oath. What is the case of one who is paid from mortgaged property? If [the husband] had sold his property to others, and she [seeks to] be paid [the amount of her ketubah] from the purchasers, she may be paid only by taking an oath. What is the case of [being paid] from orphans’ property? If [the husband] dies and leaves his property to the orphans, and she [seeks to] be paid [the amount of her ketubah] from the orphans, she may be paid only by taking an oath. What is the case of in the husband's absence? If he went overseas, and she [seeks to] be paid [the amount of her ketubah] in his absence, she may be paid only by taking an oath. Rabbi Shimon says, "Whenever she claims her ketubah, the heirs [of her husband] may impose upon her an oath; but if she does not claim her ketubah, the heirs may not impose upon her an oath.

9 ט

הוֹצִיאָה גֵט וְאֵין עִמּוֹ כְתֻבָּה, גּוֹבָה כְתֻבָּתָהּ. כְּתֻבָּה וְאֵין עִמָּהּ גֵּט, הִיא אוֹמֶרֶת אָבַד גִּטִּי וְהוּא אוֹמֵר אָבַד שׁוֹבְרִי, וְכֵן בַּעַל חוֹב שֶׁהוֹצִיא שְׁטָר חוֹב וְאֵין עִמּוֹ פְרוֹזְבּוּל, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ לֹא יִפָּרֵעוּ. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, מִן הַסַּכָּנָה וְאֵילָךְ, אִשָּׁה גוֹבָה כְתֻבָּתָהּ שֶׁלֹּא בְגֵט, וּבַעַל חוֹב גּוֹבֶה שֶׁלֹּא בִפְרוֹזְבּוּל. שְׁנֵי גִטִּין וּשְׁתֵּי כְתֻבּוֹת, גּוֹבָה שְׁתֵּי כְתֻבּוֹת. שְׁתֵּי כְתֻבּוֹת וְגֵט אֶחָד, אוֹ כְתֻבָּה וּשְׁנֵי גִטִּין, אוֹ כְתֻבָּה וְגֵט וּמִיתָה, אֵינָהּ גּוֹבָה אֶלָּא כְתֻבָּה אַחַת, שֶׁהַמְגָרֵשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהֶחֱזִירָהּ, עַל מְנָת כְּתֻבָּה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה מַחֲזִירָהּ. קָטָן שֶׁהִשִּׂיאוֹ אָבִיו, כְּתֻבָּתָהּ קַיֶּמֶת, שֶׁעַל מְנָת כֵּן קִיְּמָהּ. גֵּר שֶׁנִּתְגַּיֵּר וְאִשְׁתּוֹ עִמּוֹ, כְּתֻבָּתָהּ קַיֶּמֶת, שֶׁעַל מְנָת כֵּן קִיְּמָהּ:

If a woman produces her bill of divorce, but there is no [written] ketubah accompanying it, she may [nevertheless] collect [the standard amount of] her ketubah. [If she produces her] ketubah, but there is no bill of divorce accompanying it; she says, "My bill of divorce is lost," and [the husband] says, "My receipt [of payment of the ketubah] is lost." And similarly, if a creditor produces a promissory note but there is no Pruzbul [a court-issued exemption from the Sabbatical year cancellation of a personal loan] accompanying it. [In both cases] they are not paid. Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says, "From the time of [public] danger and on, a woman may collect her ketubah [even] without the bill of divorce, and a creditor may collect without a pruzbul. [If she produces] two bills of divorce and two ketubot, she may collect [the amount of] two ketubot. [If she produces] two ketubot and one bill of divorce, or one ketubah and two bills of divorce, or one ketubah, one bill of divorce, and [proof of her husband's subsequent] death, she may collect only the amount of one ketubah, as one who divorces his wife and takes her back, takes her back under [the obligation of] her first ketubah. [With regard to] a minor, whose father married him off, the ketubah is valid, as he maintained her [as his wife] under that assumption. A proselyte who converts together with his wife, her ketubah is valid, as he maintained her [as his wife] under that assumption.