6ו׳
1 א

הַמֵּבִיא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי וְנוֹדַע לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא חָטָא, אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁחַט, יֵצֵא וְיִרְעֶה בָעֵדֶר, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, יִרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּסְתָּאֵב, וְיִמָּכֵר, וְיִפְּלוּ דָמָיו לִנְדָבָה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, יִקְרַב, שֶׁאִם אֵינוֹ בָא עַל חֵטְא זֶה, הֲרֵי הוּא בָא עַל חֵטְא אַחֵר. אִם מִשֶּׁנִּשְׁחַט נוֹדַע לוֹ, הַדָּם יִשָּׁפֵךְ וְהַבָּשָׂר יֵצֵא לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה. נִזְרַק הַדָּם, הַבָּשָׂר יֵאָכֵל. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ הַדָּם בַּכּוֹס, יִזָּרֵק, וְהַבָּשָׂר יֵאָכֵל:

[If] one brings an Asham Talui [a guilt-offering brought upon possible commission of a sin] and it then becomes known to him that he did not sin: If it was before the animal was slaughtered, it goes out to graze among the flock, these are the words of Rabbi Meir. And the Sages say: It goes out to graze until it becomes blemished, whereupon it is sold, and the money goes for freewill-offerings. Rabbi Eliezer says: It is offered up, for if it does not come [atone] for this sin, it can come [atone] for another sin. If it becomes known [that he did not sin] after it was slaughtered, the blood is spilled out and the flesh goes out to the place of burning. If the blood has already been dashed [at the altar], the flesh may be eaten. Rabbi Yose says: Even if the blood is [still] in the vessel, it is dashed and the flesh is eaten.

2 ב

אָשָׁם וַדַּאי אֵינוֹ כֵן. אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁחַט, יֵצֵא וְיִרְעֶה בָעֵדֶר. מִשֶּׁנִּשְׁחַט, הֲרֵי זֶה יִקָּבֵר. נִזְרַק הַדָּם, הַבָּשָׂר יֵצֵא לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה. שׁוֹר הַנִּסְקָל אֵינוֹ כֵן. אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִסְקַל, יֵצֵא וְיִרְעֶה בָעֵדֶר. מִשֶּׁנִּסְקַל, מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָה. עֶגְלָה עֲרוּפָה אֵינָהּ כֵּן. אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נֶעֶרְפָה, תֵּצֵא וְתִרְעֶה בָעֵדֶר. מִשֶּׁנֶּעֶרְפָה, תִּקָּבֵר בִּמְקוֹמָהּ, שֶׁעַל סָפֵק בָּאָה מִתְּחִלָּתָהּ, כִּפְּרָה סְפֵקָהּ וְהָלְכָה לָהּ:

This is not so with a certain Asham [an offering brought to alleviate guilt]: If [the facts became known] before [the animal] was slaughtered, it goes out to graze among the flock; if after it was slaughtered, it is buried; if after the blood was dashed [at the altar], the flesh goes out to the place of burning. This is [also] not so with an ox [designated to be] stoned: If [it was discovered to be guilt-less] before it was stoned, it goes out to graze among the flock; if after it was stoned, benefit of its carcass is permitted. This is [also] not so with the Eglah Arufah [a calf whose neck is broken by elders of the closest town to atone for an unsolved murder]: If [the murderer was discovered] before its neck was broken, it goes out to graze among the flock; if after its neck was broken, it is buried at the place [of the ceremony]. [The calf] was brought from the outset as a matter of doubt, and since it has atoned for the doubt, it has served its purpose.

3 ג

רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, מִתְנַדֵּב אָדָם אָשָׁם תָּלוּי בְּכָל יוֹם וּבְכָל שָׁעָה שֶׁיִּרְצֶה, וְהִיא נִקְרֵאת אֲשַׁם חֲסִידִים. אָמְרוּ עָלָיו עַל בָּבָא בֶן בּוּטִי, שֶׁהָיָה מִתְנַדֵּב אָשָׁם תָּלוּי בְּכָל יוֹם, חוּץ מֵאַחַר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים יוֹם אֶחָד. אָמַר, הַמָּעוֹן הַזֶּה, אִלּוּ הָיוּ מַנִּיחִים לִי, הָיִיתִי מֵבִיא, אֶלָּא אוֹמְרִים לִי, הַמְתֵּן עַד שֶׁתִּכָּנֵס לְסָפֵק. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵין מְבִיאִים אָשָׁם תָּלוּי אֶלָּא עַל דָּבָר שֶׁזְּדוֹנוֹ כָרֵת וְשִׁגְגָתוֹ חַטָּאת:

Rabbi Eliezer says: One may freely donate an Asham Talui every day and at any time he pleases, and such an offering is called "the Asham of the pious." They said of Bava ben Buti that he used to donate an Asham Talui every day except on the day after Yom Kippur. He used to say: By this Temple! Were they to allow me, I would offer one [even then], but they say to me: Wait until you reach a state of doubt. But the Sages say: One only brings an Asham Talui for a sin that warrants Karet [excision at the hands of Heaven, when the sin is committed] intentionally, and that warrants a Chattat [an offering brought to expiate sin, if he performs such a sin] unintentionally.

4 ד

חַיָּבֵי חַטָּאוֹת וַאֲשָׁמוֹת וַדָּאִין שֶׁעָבַר עֲלֵיהֶן יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, חַיָּבִין לְהָבִיא לְאַחַר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. חַיָּבֵי אֲשָׁמוֹת תְּלוּיִין, פְּטוּרִים. מִי שֶׁבָּא עַל יָדוֹ סְפֵק עֲבֵרָה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, אֲפִלּוּ עִם חֲשֵׁכָה, פָּטוּר, שֶׁכָּל הַיּוֹם מְכַפֵּר:

[If] Yom Kippur passes [before] those who owe Chatta'ot or certain Ashamot [fulfill their obligations, they are still] required to bring them after Yom Kippur. Those who owe Ashamot Teluiyim are relieved [of their obligations]. [If] an individual possibly committed a sin on Yom Kippur, even at twilight, he is exempt, because the entire day atones.

5 ה

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ חַטַּאת הָעוֹף סָפֵק, שֶׁעָבַר עָלֶיהָ יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, חַיֶּבֶת לְהָבִיא לְאַחַר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּכְשְׁרַתָּהּ לֶאֱכֹל בַּזְּבָחִים. חַטַּאת הָעוֹף הַבָּאָה עַל סָפֵק, אִם מִשֶּׁנִּמְלְקָה נוֹדַע לָהּ, הֲרֵי זוֹ תִקָּבֵר:

[If] a woman is liable for a bird Chattat out of doubt and Yom Kippur passes [before she brings it], she is required to bring it after Yom Kippur because it renders her fit to eat sacrificial meat. [In the case of] a bird Chattat brought out of doubt, [if the true facts] became known after the piercing of its neck, it is buried.

6 ו

הַמַּפְרִישׁ שְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים לְאָשָׁם וְלָקַח בָּהֶן שְׁנֵי אֵילִים לְאָשָׁם, אִם הָיָה אַחַד מֵהֶן יָפֶה שְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים, יִקְרַב לַאֲשָׁמוֹ, וְהַשֵּׁנִי יִרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּסְתָּאֵב, וְיִמָּכֵר, וְיִפְּלוּ דָמָיו לִנְדָבָה. לָקַח בָּהֶן שְׁנֵי אֵילִים לְחֻלִּין, אֶחָד יָפֶה שְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים וְאֶחָד יָפֶה עֲשָׂרָה זוּז, הַיָּפֶה שְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים יִקְרַב לַאֲשָׁמוֹ, וְהַשֵּׁנִי לִמְעִילָתוֹ. אֶחָד לְאָשָׁם וְאֶחָד לְחֻלִּין, אִם הָיָה שֶׁל אָשָׁם יָפֶה שְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים, יִקְרַב לַאֲשָׁמוֹ, וְהַשֵּׁנִי לִמְעִילָתוֹ, וְיָבִיא עִמָּהּ סֶלַע וְחֻמְשָׁהּ:

[If] one designated two Sela [a Sela is a coin worth four Dinar] for an Asham and with them bought two rams for an Asham: if one was worth two Sela it is offered for his Asham, and the second one grazes until it becomes blemished, whereupon it is sold and the money is used for freewill-offerings. [If with the two designated Sela] he bought two rams for non-sacred use, one worth two Sela and the other worth ten Zuz [ten Zuz being equal to 2.5 Sela], that which is worth two Sela is offered for his Asham and the second one for his Me'ilah [misuse of consecrated property]. [If with the two designated Sela he bought two rams] one for an Asham and one for ordinary use, if the one for the Asham was worth two Sela it is offered for his Asham and the second one [is offered] for his Me'ilah and with it he brings a Sela and its [additional] fifth.

7 ז

הַמַּפְרִישׁ חַטָּאתוֹ, וּמֵת, לֹא יְבִיאֶנָּה בְנוֹ אַחֲרָיו. וְלֹא יְבִיאֶנָּה מֵחֵטְא עַל חֵטְא, אֲפִלּוּ עַל חֵלֶב שֶׁאָכַל אֶמֶשׁ לֹא יְבִיאֶנָּה עַל חֵלֶב שֶׁאָכַל הַיּוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ד), קָרְבָּנוֹ עַל חַטָּאתוֹ, שֶׁיְּהֵא קָרְבָּנוֹ לְשֵׁם חֶטְאוֹ:

[If an individual] set aside his Chattat and then died, his son cannot offer it after him [to atone for his own sin]. And one may not offer [an offering that was set aside to atone] for one sin for [atonement of] another sin, even if he had set aside [a Chattat] for forbidden fat that he had eaten yesterday, he may not offer it for forbidden fat that he has eaten today, for it states, “His offering... for his sin” (Leviticus 4:28) - his offering must be for the sake of his [specific] sin.

8 ח

מְבִיאִין מֵהֶקְדֵּשׁ כִּשְׂבָּה, שְׂעִירָה. מֵהֶקְדֵּשׁ שְׂעִירָה, כִּשְׂבָּה. מֵהֶקְדֵּשׁ כִּשְׂבָּה וּשְׂעִירָה, תּוֹרִין וּבְנֵי יוֹנָה. מֵהֶקְדֵּשׁ תּוֹרִין וּבְנֵי יוֹנָה, עֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה. כֵּיצַד. הִפְרִישׁ לְכִשְׂבָּה אוֹ לִשְׂעִירָה, הֶעֱנִי, יָבִיא עוֹף. הֶעֱנִי, יָבִיא עֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה. הִפְרִישׁ לַעֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה, הֶעֱשִׁיר, יָבִיא עוֹף. הֶעֱשִׁיר, יָבִיא כִשְׂבָּה וּשְׂעִירָה. הִפְרִישׁ כִּשְׂבָּה אוֹ שְׂעִירָה וְנִסְתָּאֲבוּ, אִם רָצָה יָבִיא בִדְמֵיהֶן עוֹף. הִפְרִישׁ עוֹף וְנִסְתָּאֵב, לֹא יָבִיא בְדָמָיו עֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה, שֶׁאֵין לָעוֹף פִּדְיוֹן:

[If one] set aside money to buy a lamb [for a Chattat, he may use the money to buy] a goat; [if he set aside money] to buy a goat [he may use the money to buy] a lamb. [If one] set aside money to buy a lamb or a goat, [he may use the money to buy] turtle-doves or pigeons. [If one] set aside money to buy turtle-doves or pigeons, [he may use the money to buy] a tenth of an Eifah [of flour, such a measure weighing about two kilograms]. How so? [If] one set aside [money] for a lamb or for a goat and becomes poor [before bringing the Chattat], he brings a bird [with the money]; if he becomes poorer still [before bringing the Chattat] he brings a tenth of an Eifah [with the money]. [Conversely, if] one set aside [money] for the tenth of an Eifah and becomes rich [before bringing the Chattat], he brings a bird-offering [with the money]; if he becomes richer still [before bringing the Chattat], he brings a lamb or a goat. [If one] set aside a lamb or a goat which became blemished, if he wants he may [redeem the animal by selling it and] use the money to bring a bird-offering.[If one] set aside a bird-offering which became blemished, he may [redeem it to] use the money to bring a tenth of an Eifah since a bird-offering cannot be redeemed.

9 ט

רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, כְּבָשִׂים קוֹדְמִין לָעִזִּים בְּכָל מָקוֹם. יָכוֹל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מֻבְחָרִין מֵהֶן. תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (ויקרא ד), וְאִם כֶּבֶשׂ יָבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹ לְחַטָּאת, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם שְׁקוּלִין. תּוֹרִין קוֹדְמִין לִבְנֵי יוֹנָה בְכָל מָקוֹם. יָכוֹל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מֻבְחָרִים מֵהֶן. תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (שם יב), וּבֶן יוֹנָה אוֹ תֹר לְחַטָּאת, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶן שְׁקוּלִין. הָאָב קוֹדֵם לָאֵם בְּכָל מָקוֹם. יָכוֹל שֶׁכְּבוֹד הָאָב עוֹדֵף עַל כְּבוֹד הָאֵם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (שם יט), אִישׁ אִמּוֹ וְאָבִיו תִּירָאוּ, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם שְׁקוּלִים. אֲבָל אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, הָאָב קוֹדֵם לָאֵם בְּכָל מָקוֹם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא וְאִמּוֹ חַיָּבִין בִּכְבוֹד אָבִיו. וְכֵן בְּתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה, אִם זָכָה הַבֵּן לִפְנֵי הָרַב, קוֹדֵם אֶת הָאָב בְּכָל מָקוֹם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא וְאָבִיו חַיָּבִין בִּכְבוֹד רַבּוֹ:

Rabbi Shimon says: Lambs come before goats in all places [in Scripture]. You might think [that it is] because they are choicer. [Therefore,] Scripture states, “And if he bring a lamb as his offering” (Leviticus 4:32), To teach [us] that both are equal. Turtledoves come before young pigeons in all places [in Scripture]. You might think [that it is] because they are choicer. [Therefore,] Scripture states, “A young pigeon or a turtledove for a sin-offering” (Leviticus 12:6), To teach [us] that both are equal. The father comes before the mother in all places [in Scripture]. You might think [that it is because] the honor due to the father exceeds the honor due to the mother. [Therefore,] Scripture states, “You shall fear every man his mother and his father” (Leviticus 19:3), To teach [us] that both are equal. But the Sages have said: The father comes before the mother in all places, Because both he and his mother are bound to honor the father. And so it is also with the study of the Torah; If the son has been worthy [to sit and study] before the teacher, The teacher comes before the father in all places, Because [both] he and his father are bound to honor the teacher.