6ו׳
1 א

הַמֵּבִיא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי וְנוֹדַע לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא חָטָא, אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁחַט, יֵצֵא וְיִרְעֶה בָעֵדֶר, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, יִרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּסְתָּאֵב, וְיִמָּכֵר, וְיִפְּלוּ דָמָיו לִנְדָבָה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, יִקְרַב, שֶׁאִם אֵינוֹ בָא עַל חֵטְא זֶה, הֲרֵי הוּא בָא עַל חֵטְא אַחֵר. אִם מִשֶּׁנִּשְׁחַט נוֹדַע לוֹ, הַדָּם יִשָּׁפֵךְ וְהַבָּשָׂר יֵצֵא לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה. נִזְרַק הַדָּם, הַבָּשָׂר יֵאָכֵל. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ הַדָּם בַּכּוֹס, יִזָּרֵק, וְהַבָּשָׂר יֵאָכֵל:

If a person brought an asham talui and then found out that he did not sin: If it was before the animal was slaughtered, it may go out to pasture among the flock, the words of Rabbi Meir. The sages say: it goes out to pasture until it becomes blemished and it is then sold, and the money goes for freewill-offerings. Rabbi Eliezer says: it shall be offered up, for if it does not expiate this sin, it will expiate another sin. If he learns of it after it was slaughtered, the blood shall be spilled out and the flesh is removed to the place of burning. If the blood had already been tossed [onto the altar], the flesh may be eaten. Rabbi Yose says: even if the blood is still in the vessel, it should be tossed and the flesh then eaten.

2 ב

אָשָׁם וַדַּאי אֵינוֹ כֵן. אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁחַט, יֵצֵא וְיִרְעֶה בָעֵדֶר. מִשֶּׁנִּשְׁחַט, הֲרֵי זֶה יִקָּבֵר. נִזְרַק הַדָּם, הַבָּשָׂר יֵצֵא לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה. שׁוֹר הַנִּסְקָל אֵינוֹ כֵן. אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִסְקַל, יֵצֵא וְיִרְעֶה בָעֵדֶר. מִשֶּׁנִּסְקַל, מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָה. עֶגְלָה עֲרוּפָה אֵינָהּ כֵּן. אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נֶעֶרְפָה, תֵּצֵא וְתִרְעֶה בָעֵדֶר. מִשֶּׁנֶּעֶרְפָה, תִּקָּבֵר בִּמְקוֹמָהּ, שֶׁעַל סָפֵק בָּאָה מִתְּחִלָּתָהּ, כִּפְּרָה סְפֵקָהּ וְהָלְכָה לָהּ:

The law is different with a certain asham: If before the animal was slaughtered, it may go out to pasture among the flock; If after it was slaughtered, it shall be buried; If after the blood was tossed, the flesh must be removed to the place of burning. The law is also different regarding an ox to be stoned: If before it was stoned, it may go out to pasture among the flock; If after it was stoned, it is permitted for use. The law is also different regarding the heifer whose neck is to be broken: If before its neck was broken, it may go out to pasture among the flock. If after its neck was broken, it shall be buried on the spot, for it was from the outset brought in a matter of doubt, it has atoned for the doubt, and so has served its purpose.

3 ג

רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, מִתְנַדֵּב אָדָם אָשָׁם תָּלוּי בְּכָל יוֹם וּבְכָל שָׁעָה שֶׁיִּרְצֶה, וְהִיא נִקְרֵאת אֲשַׁם חֲסִידִים. אָמְרוּ עָלָיו עַל בָּבָא בֶן בּוּטִי, שֶׁהָיָה מִתְנַדֵּב אָשָׁם תָּלוּי בְּכָל יוֹם, חוּץ מֵאַחַר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים יוֹם אֶחָד. אָמַר, הַמָּעוֹן הַזֶּה, אִלּוּ הָיוּ מַנִּיחִים לִי, הָיִיתִי מֵבִיא, אֶלָּא אוֹמְרִים לִי, הַמְתֵּן עַד שֶׁתִּכָּנֵס לְסָפֵק. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵין מְבִיאִים אָשָׁם תָּלוּי אֶלָּא עַל דָּבָר שֶׁזְּדוֹנוֹ כָרֵת וְשִׁגְגָתוֹ חַטָּאת:

Rabbi Eliezer says: one may freely offer an asham talui every day and at any time he pleases and such a sacrifice is called the asham of the pious. They said of Bava ben Buti that he used to freely offer an asham talui every day, except on the day after Yom Kippur. He declared: By this temple! Had they allowed me, I would have offered one even then, but they said to me, wait until you have come to a state of doubt.” But the sages say one may not bring an asham talui except for a sin that [is punished by] karet [when done intentionally and for which one brings a hatat [when done unwittingly.

4 ד

חַיָּבֵי חַטָּאוֹת וַאֲשָׁמוֹת וַדָּאִין שֶׁעָבַר עֲלֵיהֶן יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, חַיָּבִין לְהָבִיא לְאַחַר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. חַיָּבֵי אֲשָׁמוֹת תְּלוּיִין, פְּטוּרִים. מִי שֶׁבָּא עַל יָדוֹ סְפֵק עֲבֵרָה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, אֲפִלּוּ עִם חֲשֵׁכָה, פָּטוּר, שֶׁכָּל הַיּוֹם מְכַפֵּר:

Those that are liable to hatats or to certain ashams and Yom Kippur passes over them, are still liable to bring them after Yom Kippur. Those that are liable to asham talui’s are exempt. He who has committed a doubtful sin on Yom Kippur, even at twilight, is exempt, because the whole of the day effects atonement.

5 ה

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ חַטַּאת הָעוֹף סָפֵק, שֶׁעָבַר עָלֶיהָ יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, חַיֶּבֶת לְהָבִיא לְאַחַר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּכְשְׁרַתָּהּ לֶאֱכֹל בַּזְּבָחִים. חַטַּאת הָעוֹף הַבָּאָה עַל סָפֵק, אִם מִשֶּׁנִּמְלְקָה נוֹדַע לָהּ, הֲרֵי זוֹ תִקָּבֵר:

If a woman is liable to a bird hatat brought in a case of doubt and Yom Kippur intervenes, she is still bound to offer it after Yom Kippur, because it renders her fit to eat sacrifices. If a hatat of a bird was brought for a matter of doubt and, after the pinching of its neck it became known [that there was no need for it], it must be buried.

6 ו

הַמַּפְרִישׁ שְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים לְאָשָׁם וְלָקַח בָּהֶן שְׁנֵי אֵילִים לְאָשָׁם, אִם הָיָה אַחַד מֵהֶן יָפֶה שְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים, יִקְרַב לַאֲשָׁמוֹ, וְהַשֵּׁנִי יִרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּסְתָּאֵב, וְיִמָּכֵר, וְיִפְּלוּ דָמָיו לִנְדָבָה. לָקַח בָּהֶן שְׁנֵי אֵילִים לְחֻלִּין, אֶחָד יָפֶה שְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים וְאֶחָד יָפֶה עֲשָׂרָה זוּז, הַיָּפֶה שְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים יִקְרַב לַאֲשָׁמוֹ, וְהַשֵּׁנִי לִמְעִילָתוֹ. אֶחָד לְאָשָׁם וְאֶחָד לְחֻלִּין, אִם הָיָה שֶׁל אָשָׁם יָפֶה שְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים, יִקְרַב לַאֲשָׁמוֹ, וְהַשֵּׁנִי לִמְעִילָתוֹ, וְיָבִיא עִמָּהּ סֶלַע וְחֻמְשָׁהּ:

A man set apart two sela's for an asham:If he bought with it two rams for an asham; if one was of the value of two sela's, it may be offered for his asham, and the other must be let out to pasture until it becomes blemished when it is sold and its value goes for freewill-offerings. If he had bought with the money two rams for hullin use, one worth two sela's and the other worth ten zuz, that which is worth two sela's should be offered for his asham and the other for his sacrilege. [If he had bought with the money] one for an asham and the other for ordinary use, if that for the asham was worth two sela's it should be offered for his asham and the other for his sacrilege, and with it he shall bring a sela and its fifth.

7 ז

הַמַּפְרִישׁ חַטָּאתוֹ, וּמֵת, לֹא יְבִיאֶנָּה בְנוֹ אַחֲרָיו. וְלֹא יְבִיאֶנָּה מֵחֵטְא עַל חֵטְא, אֲפִלּוּ עַל חֵלֶב שֶׁאָכַל אֶמֶשׁ לֹא יְבִיאֶנָּה עַל חֵלֶב שֶׁאָכַל הַיּוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ד), קָרְבָּנוֹ עַל חַטָּאתוֹ, שֶׁיְּהֵא קָרְבָּנוֹ לְשֵׁם חֶטְאוֹ:

If a man set aside his hatat and then died, his son should not offer it after him. A man may not offer [what was set apart] for one sin for another sin. Even if he had set apart [the hatat] for forbidden fat that he had eaten yesterday, he may not offer it for forbidden fat that he has eaten today, for it is said, “His offering ... for his sin” (Leviticus 4:28) the offering must be for that particular sin.

8 ח

מְבִיאִין מֵהֶקְדֵּשׁ כִּשְׂבָּה, שְׂעִירָה. מֵהֶקְדֵּשׁ שְׂעִירָה, כִּשְׂבָּה. מֵהֶקְדֵּשׁ כִּשְׂבָּה וּשְׂעִירָה, תּוֹרִין וּבְנֵי יוֹנָה. מֵהֶקְדֵּשׁ תּוֹרִין וּבְנֵי יוֹנָה, עֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה. כֵּיצַד. הִפְרִישׁ לְכִשְׂבָּה אוֹ לִשְׂעִירָה, הֶעֱנִי, יָבִיא עוֹף. הֶעֱנִי, יָבִיא עֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה. הִפְרִישׁ לַעֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה, הֶעֱשִׁיר, יָבִיא עוֹף. הֶעֱשִׁיר, יָבִיא כִשְׂבָּה וּשְׂעִירָה. הִפְרִישׁ כִּשְׂבָּה אוֹ שְׂעִירָה וְנִסְתָּאֲבוּ, אִם רָצָה יָבִיא בִדְמֵיהֶן עוֹף. הִפְרִישׁ עוֹף וְנִסְתָּאֵב, לֹא יָבִיא בְדָמָיו עֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה, שֶׁאֵין לָעוֹף פִּדְיוֹן:

One may bring with [money] dedicated to buy a lamb [for a hatat] a goat, or with [what was] dedicated to buy a goat [one may bring] a lamb; Or with [what was] dedicated to buy a lamb or a goat [one may bring] turtle-doves or young pigeons; Or with [what was] dedicated to buy turtle-doves or young pigeons [one may bring] the tenth of an ephah. How so? If a man set apart [money] for a lamb or a goat [for a hatat] and he became poor, he may bring a bird-offering; If he became still poorer he may bring the tenth of an ephah. If a man set apart [money] for the tenth of an ephah and he became richer, he must bring a bird-offering; If he became still richer he must bring a lamb or a goat. If a man set apart a lamb or a goat and they became blemished, he may bring with their price a bird-offering; But if he set apart a bird-offering and it became blemished, he may not bring with its price the tenth of an ephah, since a bird-offering cannot be redeemed.

9 ט

רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, כְּבָשִׂים קוֹדְמִין לָעִזִּים בְּכָל מָקוֹם. יָכוֹל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מֻבְחָרִין מֵהֶן. תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (ויקרא ד), וְאִם כֶּבֶשׂ יָבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹ לְחַטָּאת, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם שְׁקוּלִין. תּוֹרִין קוֹדְמִין לִבְנֵי יוֹנָה בְכָל מָקוֹם. יָכוֹל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מֻבְחָרִים מֵהֶן. תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (שם יב), וּבֶן יוֹנָה אוֹ תֹר לְחַטָּאת, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶן שְׁקוּלִין. הָאָב קוֹדֵם לָאֵם בְּכָל מָקוֹם. יָכוֹל שֶׁכְּבוֹד הָאָב עוֹדֵף עַל כְּבוֹד הָאֵם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (שם יט), אִישׁ אִמּוֹ וְאָבִיו תִּירָאוּ, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם שְׁקוּלִים. אֲבָל אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, הָאָב קוֹדֵם לָאֵם בְּכָל מָקוֹם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא וְאִמּוֹ חַיָּבִין בִּכְבוֹד אָבִיו. וְכֵן בְּתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה, אִם זָכָה הַבֵּן לִפְנֵי הָרַב, קוֹדֵם אֶת הָאָב בְּכָל מָקוֹם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא וְאָבִיו חַיָּבִין בִּכְבוֹד רַבּוֹ:

Rabbi Shimon says: lambs are mentioned before goats in all places. You might think that it is because they are choicer, therefore Scripture states, “And if he brings a lamb as his offering,” (Leviticus 4:32) to teach that both are equal. Turtle-doves are mentioned before young pigeons in all places. You might think that it is because they are choicer, therefore Scripture states, “A young pigeon or a turtle-dove for a hatat,” (Leviticus 12:6) to teach that both are equal. The father comes before the mother in all places. You might think that it is because the honor due a father is greater than the honor due a mother, therefore Scripture states, “A man shall fear his mother and his father,” (Leviticus 19: to teach that both are equal. But the sages have said: the father comes before the mother in all places, because both a son and his mother are obligated to honor the father. And so it is also with the study of Torah; if the son has been worthy [to sit] before the teacher, the teacher comes before the father in all places, because both a man and his father are obligated to honor the teacher.