4ד׳
1 א

סָפֵק אָכַל חֵלֶב, סָפֵק לֹא אָכַל. וַאֲפִלּוּ אָכַל, סָפֵק יֵשׁ בּוֹ כַשִּׁעוּר, סָפֵק שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ. חֵלֶב וְשֻׁמָּן לְפָנָיו, אָכַל אֶת אַחַד מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אֵיזוֹ מֵהֶן אָכַל. אִשְׁתּוֹ וַאֲחוֹתוֹ עִמּוֹ בַבַּיִת, שָׁגַג בְּאַחַת מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ בְּאֵיזוֹ מֵהֶן שָׁגָג. שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם חֹל, וְעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה בְאַחַת מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ בְּאֵיזוֹ מֵהֶן עָשָׂה. מֵבִיא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי:

[If] one was in doubt whether he ate forbidden fat or not; [or] even [if] one was in doubt whether he ate the minimum amount [in a case where he certainly] did eat; [or if there were] permitted fat and forbidden fat before him, and he ate one of them and does not know which of them he ate; [or if] his wife and his sister were with him in the house and he unthinkingly [had relations] with one of them and does not know with which of them he unthinkingly [had relations]; or if he performed a Melakhah [a constructive activity forbidden on Shabbat and festivals] and does not know whether he did it on Shabbat or a weekday; he brings an Asham Talui [a guilt-offering brought upon possible commission of a sin].

2 ב

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאִם אָכַל חֵלֶב וְחֵלֶב בְּהֶעְלֵם אֶחָד אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא חַטָּאת אַחַת, כָּךְ עַל לֹא הוֹדַע שֶׁלָּהֶן אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא אֶלָּא אָשָׁם אֶחָד. אִם הָיְתָה יְדִיעָה בֵינְתַיִם, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהוּא מֵבִיא חַטָּאת עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת, כָּךְ הוּא מֵבִיא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאֶחָת. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאִם אָכַל חֵלֶב וְדָם נוֹתָר וּפִגּוּל בְּהֶעְלֵם אֶחָד, חַיָּב עַל כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד, כָּךְ עַל לֹא הוֹדַע שֶׁלָּהֶן מֵבִיא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי עַל כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד. חֵלֶב וְנוֹתָר לְפָנָיו, אָכַל אַחַד מֵהֶם וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אֵיזֶה מֵהֶם אָכַל. אִשְׁתּוֹ נִדָּה וַאֲחוֹתוֹ עִמּוֹ בַבַּיִת, שָׁגַג בְּאַחַת מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ בְּאֵיזוֹ מֵהֶן שָׁגָג. שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וְעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וְאֵין יָדוּעַ בְּאֵיזֶה מֵהֶם עָשָׂה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מְחַיֵּב חַטָּאת, וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ פּוֹטֵר. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, לֹא נֶחְלְקוּ עַל הָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, שֶׁהוּא פָטוּר, שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר, מִקְצָת מְלָאכָה עָשָׂה מֵהַיּוֹם, וּמִקְצָתָהּ לְמָחָר. וְעַל מַה נֶּחְלְקוּ, עַל הָעוֹשֶׂה בְּתוֹךְ הַיּוֹם וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אִם בְּשַׁבָּת עָשָׂה וְאִם בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים עָשָׂה. אוֹ עַל הָעוֹשֶׂה וְאֵין יָדוּעַ מֵעֵין אֵיזוֹ מְלָאכָה עָשָׂה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מְחַיֵּב חַטָּאת, וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ פּוֹטֵר. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, פּוֹטְרוֹ הָיָה רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אַף מֵאָשָׁם תָּלוּי:

Just like a person who ate forbidden fat twice under one spell of unawareness is liable for only one Chattat [an offering brought to expiate sin], so too, when they are not known [the individual is not certain he sinned], he is liable for only one Asham Talui. If he became aware in the interim [between the two acts, that he might have sinned] he brings a separate Asham Talui for each [act], just as he would bring a separate Chattat for each [act]. Just like if one ate forbidden fat, and blood, and Notar [a sacrifice that becomes unfit due to being unconsumed past the permitted time], and Piggul [a sacrifice that becomes unfit due to the intention of the officiating priest while offering it, to consume it after its permitted time] under one spell of unawareness, he is liable for [a Chattat] for each one; so too, when they are not known, one brings a separate Asham Talui for each [forbidden food]. [If] forbidden fat and Notar [sat] before an individual and he ate one of them but does not know which one of them he ate; [or if] one's Niddah [a woman who has menstruated and is thereby impure] wife and his sister were with him in his house, and he unthinkingly had relations with one of them and does not know with whom he unthinkingly had relations; [or if] Shabbat and Yom Kippur [fell on consecutive days] and one performed Melakhah at dusk [between the days] and does not know on which day he acted: Rabbi Eliezer deems [him] liable for a Chattat, but Rabbi Yehoshua exempts [him]. Rabbi Yose said: They do not disagree that [a person] who did Melakhah at dusk is exempt since I can say that he performed part of the Melakhah on one day and part on the following day. About what do they disagree? About one who did Melakhah during the day [itself] but does not know whether he did it on Shabbat or he did it on Yom Kippur; or where he did [Melakhah] and does not know what category the Melakhah he did [falls into]: Rabbi Eliezer deems him liable for a Chattat, but Rabbi Yehoshua exempts [him]. Rabbi Yehudah said: Rabbi Yehoshua even exempts him from an Asham Talui

3 ג

רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן שְׁזוּרִי וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמְרִים, לֹא נֶחְלְקוּ עַל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם שֵׁם אֶחָד, שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב. וְעַל מַה נֶּחְלְקוּ. עַל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁנֵי שֵׁמוֹת, שֶׁרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מְחַיֵּב חַטָּאת וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ פּוֹטֵר. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, אֲפִלּוּ נִתְכַּוֵּן לְלַקֵּט תְּאֵנִים וְלִקֵּט עֲנָבִים, עֲנָבִים וְלִקֵּט תְּאֵנִים, שְׁחוֹרוֹת וְלִקֵּט לְבָנוֹת, לְבָנוֹת וְלִקֵּט שְׁחוֹרוֹת, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מְחַיֵּב חַטָּאת, וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ פּוֹטֵר. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, תָּמֵהַּ אֲנִי אִם יִפְטֹר בָּהּ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ. אִם כֵּן, לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר (ויקרא ד), אֲשֶׁר חָטָא בָּהּ. פְּרָט לְמִתְעַסֵּק:

Rabbi Shimon and Rabbi Shimon Shezuri say: They do not disagree regarding transgressions of the same type that an individual is liable. About what do they disagree? About transgressions of two different types: Rabbi Eliezer deems him liable for a Chattat, but Rabbi Yehoshua exempts [him]. Rabbi Yehudah said: Even if he intended to pick figs and he picked grapes, [or] grapes and he picked figs; [or he intended to pick] black [fruit] and he picked white ones; [or] white ones and he picked black ones, Rabbi Eliezer deems him liable for a Chattat, but Rabbi Yehoshua exempts [him]. Rabbi Yehudah said: I wonder whether Rabbi Yehoshua would exempt him [in such a case]. Why then is it written, “With which he has sinned” (Leviticus 4:23)? To exclude accidental action.