מַחַט אוֹ טַבַּעַת שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ בִנְחֻשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל תַּנּוּר, נִרְאִין אֲבָל לֹא יוֹצְאִים, אִם אוֹפֶה אֶת הַבָּצֵק וְהוּא נוֹגֵעַ בָּהֶן, טָמֵא. בְּאֵיזֶה בָצֵק אָמְרוּ, בְּבָצֵק הַבֵּינוֹנִי. נִמְצְאוּ בִטְפֵלַת הַתַּנּוּר מֻקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל, אִם בְּטָמֵא, טְמֵאִין. וְאִם בְּטָהוֹר, טְהוֹרִים. נִמְצְאוּ בִמְגוּפַת הֶחָבִית, מִצִּדֶּיהָ, טְמֵאִים, מִכְּנֶגֶד פִּיהָ, טְהוֹרִים. נִרְאִין בְּתוֹכָהּ אֲבָל לֹא לַאֲוִירָהּ, טְהוֹרִין. שׁוֹקְעִים בְּתוֹכָהּ וְתַחְתֵּיהֶם כִּקְלִפַּת הַשּׁוּם, טְהוֹרִין:
If a needle or a ring was found in the ground of an oven, and they can be seen but they don't stick out into the oven, if one bakes dough and it touches them, the [oven] is unclean. Regarding which dough did they speak? Medium dough. If they are found in the plaster of an oven with a tightly fitting lid: If the oven is unclean, they are unclean, If the oven is clean, they are clean. If they are found in the stopper of a jar: If on the sides, they are unclean. If opposite the mouth, they are clean. If they can be seen in it, but they do not enter its airspace, they are clean. If they sink into it, and there is [plaster] underneath them as thick as garlic peel, they are clean.
חָבִית שֶׁהִיא מְלֵאָה מַשְׁקִין טְהוֹרִין וּמְנִיקָת בְּתוֹכָהּ, מֻקֶּפֶת צָמִיד פָּתִיל וּנְתוּנָה בְאֹהֶל הַמֵּת, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, הֶחָבִית וְהַמַּשְׁקִין טְהוֹרִין, וּמְנִיקָת טְמֵאָה. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִין, אַף מְנִיקָת טְהוֹרָה. חָזְרוּ בֵית הִלֵּל לְהוֹרוֹת כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמָּאי:
A jar that was full of clean liquids, with a siphon in it, and it had a tightly fitting cover and was in a tent in which there was a corpse: Bet Shammai says: both the jar and the liquids are clean but the siphon is unclean. And Bet Hillel says: the siphon also is clean. Bet Hillel changed their mind and ruled in agreement with Bet Shammai.
הַשֶּׁרֶץ שֶׁנִּמְצָא לְמַטָּה מִנְּחֻשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל תַּנּוּר, טָהוֹר, שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר, חַי נָפַל וְעַכְשָׁיו מֵת. מַחַט אוֹ טַבַּעַת שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ לְמַטָּה מִנְּחֻשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל תַּנּוּר, טָהוֹר, שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר, שָׁם הָיוּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא בָא הַתַּנּוּר. נִמְצְאוּ בְאֵפֶר מִקְלֶה, טָמֵא, שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בַמֶּה יִתְלֶה:
If a sheretz was found beneath the bottom of an oven, the oven remains clean, for I can assume that it fell there while it was still alive and that it died only now. If a needle or a ring was found beneath the bottom of an oven, the oven remains clean, for I can assume that they were there before the oven arrived. If it was found in the wood ashes, the oven is unclean since one has no ground on which to base an assumption of cleanness.
סְפוֹג שֶׁבָּלַע מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין וְנָגוּב מִבַּחוּץ וְנָפַל לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר, טָמֵא, שֶׁסּוֹף מַשְׁקֶה לָצֵאת. וְכֵן חֲתִיכָה שֶׁל לֶפֶת וְשֶׁל גֶּמִי. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מְטַהֵר בִּשְׁנֵי אֵלּוּ:
A sponge which had absorbed unclean liquids and its outer surface became dry and it fell into the air-space of an oven, the oven is unclean, for the liquid would eventually come out. And the same with regard to a piece of turnip or reed grass. Rabbi Shimon says: the oven is clean in both these cases.
חֲרָסִין שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין וְנָפְלוּ לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר, הֻסַּק הַתַּנּוּר, טָמֵא, שֶׁסּוֹף מַשְׁקֶה לָצֵאת. וְכֵן בְּגֶפֶת חֲדָשָׁה, אֲבָל בִּישָׁנָה, טָהוֹר. וְאִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁיּוֹצֵא מֵהֶן מַשְׁקִין, אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים, נִטְמָא:
Potsherds that had been used for unclean liquids which fell into the air-space of an oven, if the oven was heated, it becomes unclean, for the liquid would eventually come out. And the same with regard to fresh olive peat, but if it was old, the oven remains clean. If it was known that liquid emerges, even after the lapse of three years, the oven becomes unclean.
הַגֶּפֶת וְהַזַּגִּין שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ בְטָהֳרָה וְהָלְכוּ עֲלֵיהֶם טְמֵאִים, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יָצְאוּ מֵהֶן מַשְׁקִין, טְהוֹרִין, שֶׁמִּתְּחִלָּתָן נַעֲשׂוּ בְטָהֳרָה. כּוּשׁ שֶׁבָּלַע אֶת הַצִּנּוֹרָא, מַלְמָד שֶׁבָּלַע אֶת הַדָּרְבָן, לְבֵנָה שֶׁבָּלְעָה אֶת הַטַּבַּעַת, וְהֵן טְהוֹרִים, נִכְנְסוּ לְאֹהֶל הַמֵּת, נִטְמָאוּ. הֱסִיטָן הַזָּב, נִטְמָאוּ. נָפְלוּ לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר טָהוֹר, טִמְּאוּהוּ. נָגַע בָּהֶן כִּכָּר שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה, טָהוֹר:
If olive peat or grape skins had been prepared in conditions of cleanness, and unclean persons trod upon them and afterwards liquids emerged from them, they remain clean, since they had originally been prepared in conditions of cleanness. If a spindle hook was sunk into the spindle, or the iron point into the ox goad, or a ring into a brick, and all these were clean, and then they were brought into a tent in which was a corpse, they become unclean. If a zav caused them to move they become unclean. If they then fell into the air-space of a clean oven, they cause it to be unclean. If a loaf of terumah came in contact with them, it remains clean.
סְרֵידָה שֶׁהִיא נְתוּנָה עַל פִּי הַתַּנּוּר מֻקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל, נִסְדַּק מִן הַתַּנּוּר לַסְּרֵידָה, שִׁעוּרוֹ מְלֹא פִי מַרְדֵּעַ שֶׁלֹּא נִכְנָס. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, נִכְנָס. נִסְדְּקָה סְרֵידָה, שִׁעוּרוֹ כִמְלֹא פִי מַרְדֵּע נִכְנָס. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שֶׁלֹּא נִכְנָס. הָיָה עָגֹל, אֵין רוֹאִין אוֹתוֹ אָרֹךְ, אֶלָּא שִׁעוּרוֹ כִמְלֹא פִי מַרְדֵּעַ נִכְנָס:
If there was netting placed over the mouth of an oven, forming a tightly fitting lid, and a split appeared between the oven and the colander, the minimum size [to allow impurity to enter] is that of the circumference of the tip of an ox goad that cannot actually enter it. Rabbi Judah says: it must be one into which the tip can actually enter. If a split appeared in the netting, the minimum size is the circumference of the tip of an ox goad that can enter it. Rabbi Judah says: even if it cannot enter. If the split was curved it must not be regarded as straight, and still the minimum size must be the circumference of the tip of an ox goad that can actually enter.
תַּנּוּר שֶׁנִּקַּב מֵעֵינוֹ, שִׁעוּרוֹ מְלֹא כוּשׁ נִכְנָס וְיוֹצֵא דּוֹלֵק. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שֶׁלֹּא דוֹלֵק. נִקַּב מִצִּדּוֹ, שִׁעוּרוֹ כִמְלֹא כוּשׁ נִכְנָס וְיוֹצֵא שֶׁלֹּא דוֹלֵק. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, דּוֹלֵק. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, מִן הָאֶמְצָע, נִכְנָס. מִן הַצַּד, אֵינוֹ נִכְנָס. וְכֵן הָיָה אוֹמֵר בִּמְגוּפַת הֶחָבִית שֶׁנִּקְּבָה, שִׁעוּרָהּ מְלֹא מִיצָה שְׁנִיָּה שֶׁל שִׁיפוֹן. מִן הָאֶמְצָע, נִכְנָס. מִן הַצַּד, אֵינוֹ נִכְנָס. וְכֵן הָיָה אוֹמֵר בַּחֲצָבִים גְּדוֹלִים שֶׁנִּקְּבוּ, שִׁעוּרָם מְלֹא מִיצָה שְׁנִיָּה שֶׁל קָנֶה. מִן הָאֶמְצָע, נִכְנָס. מִן הַצַּד, אֵינוֹ נִכְנָס. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בִּזְמַן שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ לְיַיִן, אֲבָל אִם נַעֲשׂוּ לִשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין, אֲפִלּוּ כָל שֶׁהוּא, טְמֵאִים. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בִּזְמַן שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשׂוּ בִידֵי אָדָם. אֲבָל אִם נַעֲשׂוּ בִידֵי אָדָם, אֲפִלּוּ כָל שֶׁהוּא, טְמֵאִים. נִקְּבוּ, הֶעָשׂוּי לָאֳכָלִים, שִׁעוּרָן בְּזֵיתִים. הֶעָשׂוּי לְמַשְׁקִים, שִׁעוּרָן בְּמַשְׁקִים. הֶעָשׂוּי לְכָךְ וּלְכָךְ, מַטִּילִים אוֹתוֹ לְחֻמְרוֹ, בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל וּבְכוֹנֵס מַשְׁקֶה:
If there was a hole in the "eye" of an oven, the minimum size [for it to leave the category of being tightly closed] is the circumference of a burning spindle staff that can enter and come out [without being extinguished]. Rabbi Judah says: one that is not burning. If the hole appeared at its side, the minimum size must be that of the circumference of a spindle staff that can enter and come out while it is not burning. Rabbi Judah says: while burning. Rabbi Shimon says: if the hole is in the middle its size must be such that a spindle staff can enter it, but if it was at the side it need only be such as the spindle staff cannot actually enter. And similarly he used to rule concerning the stopper of a jar in which a hole appeared: the minimum size is the circumference of the second knot in an oat stalk. If the hole was in the middle the stalk should be able to enter, and if at the side it need not be able to enter. And similarly he used to rule concerning large stone jars in the stoppers of which appeared a hole. The minimum size is the circumference of the second knot in a reed. If the hole was in the middle the reed must be able to enter it, and if it was at the side the reed need not be able to enter it. When is this so? When the jars were made for wine, but if they were made for other liquids, if they have even the smallest hole, they are unclean. When is this so? When the holes were not made by a person, but if they were made by a person, if they have even the smallest hole, they are unclean. If a hole appeared [in other vessels its prescribed size ] is as follows: if the vessel was used for food, [the hole must be one] through which olives can fall out; if for liquids, one that lets out liquids; If for either, the greater restriction is imposed [even with regard to the issue of] a tightly fitting cover [the size of the hole need only be] one that admits a liquid.