5ה׳
1 א

תַּנּוּר, תְּחִלָּתוֹ אַרְבָּעָה, וּשְׁיָרָיו אַרְבָּעָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בְּגָדוֹל. אֲבָל בְּקָטָן, תְּחִלָּתוֹ כָּל שֶׁהוּא, וּשְׁיָרָיו רֻבּוֹ, מִשֶּׁתִּגָּמֵר מְלַאכְתּוֹ. אֵיזֶהוּ גְמַר מְלַאכְתּוֹ, מִשֶּׁיַּסִּיקֶנּוּ כְּדֵי לֶאֱפוֹת בּוֹ סֻפְגָּנִין. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁיַּסִּיק אֶת הֶחָדָשׁ, כְּדֵי לֶאֱפוֹת בַּיָּשָׁן סֻפְגָּנִין:

An oven's minimum size [to be able to become ritually impure] is four tefachim [handbreadths in height] and its remainder [that remains impure when it is broken] is four tefachim; the words of Rabbi Meir. The Sages say, this is only true regarding a large oven; regarding a small oven, however, it beginning [point] is any [size] and its remainder is a majority [of its size] once its manufacture has been completed. What is the completion of its manufacture? Once it is kindled enough to bake a sponge cake in it. Rabbi Yehudah says, once it is kindled enough to bake a sponge cake [as] in an old oven.

2 ב

כִּירָה, תְּחִלָּתָהּ שָׁלֹשׁ, וּשְׁיָרֶיהָ שָׁלֹשׁ, מִשֶּׁתִּגָּמֵר מְלַאכְתָּהּ. אֵיזֶהוּ גְמַר מְלַאכְתָּהּ, מִשֶּׁיַּסִּיקֶנָּה, כְּדֵי לְבַשֵּׁל עָלֶיהָ בֵיצָה קַלָּה שֶׁבַּבֵּיצִים, טְרוּפָה וּנְתוּנָה בְאִלְפָּס. הַכֻּפָּח, עֲשָׂאוֹ לַאֲפִיָּה, שִׁעוּרוֹ כַּתַּנּוּר. עֲשָׂאוֹ לְבִשּׁוּל, שִׁעוּרוֹ כַּכִּירָה. הָאֶבֶן הַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַתַּנּוּר טֶפַח, וּמִן הַכִּירָה שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת, חִבּוּר. הַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַכֻּפָּח, עֲשָׂאוֹ לַאֲפִיָּה, שִׁעוּרוֹ כַּתַּנּוּר. עֲשָׂאוֹ לְבִשּׁוּל, שִׁעוּרוֹ כַּכִּירָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, לֹא אָמְרוּ טֶפַח, אֶלָּא בֵין הַתַּנּוּר וְלַכֹּתֶל. הָיוּ שְׁנֵי תַנּוּרִין סְמוּכִים זֶה לָזֶה, נוֹתֵן לָזֶה טֶפַח וְלָזֶה טֶפַח, וְהַשְּׁאָר טָהוֹר:

A stove's minimum size [to become ritually impure] is three [fingerbreadths in height] and its remainder [that remains impure when it is broken] is three [fingerbreadths , once its manufacture is complete. What is the completion of its manufacture? When it is kindled enough to cook the easiest-cooking of eggs on it, scrambled and placed in a pot. A kupach [small stove or brazier] that is made to bake has the same measurement requirements as an oven. If it was made to cook, its measurement requirements are that of a stove. A stone that protrudes a tefach from the oven or a distance of three fingers from a stove is connected. If it protrudes from a kupach made for baking, the measurement is that of the oven. If from a kupach made to cook, its measurement is that of a stove. Rabbi Yehudah says, they did not say tefach except [when the protrusion is] between the oven and the wall. If there were two ovens next to each other, give each one a tefach and the rest is pure.

3 ג

עֲטֶרֶת כִּירָה, טְהוֹרָה. טִירַת הַתַּנּוּר, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהִיא גְבוֹהָה אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים, מִטַּמְּאָה בְמַגָּע וּבַאֲוִיר. פְּחוּתָה מִכָּאן, טְהוֹרָה. אִם חִבְּרָהּ לוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ אֲבָנִים טְמֵאָה. בֵּית הַפַּךְ וּבֵית הַתְּבָלִין וּבֵית הַנֵּר שֶׁבַּכִּירָה, מִטַּמְּאִין בְּמַגָּע וְאֵינָן מִטַּמְּאִין בַּאֲוִיר, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל מְטַהֵר:

The rim of a stove is pure. The surrounding brickwork of an oven, when it is [at least] four tefachim tall, becomes impure through [an impure object's] touch or through [the object] in its air[space]. Less than this, it is pure. If it is attached [to the oven], even if on three stones, it is impure. The holder for an oil jug, the holder for a spicebox or the holder of a light on a stove, become impure through [an impure object's] contact [with the stove] but are not impure through its air[space]. These are the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yishmael says they are pure.

4 ד

תַּנּוּר שֶׁהֻסַּק מֵאֲחוֹרָיו, אוֹ שֶׁהֻסַּק שֶׁלֹּא לְדַעְתּוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁהֻסַּק בְּבֵית הָאֻמָּן, טָמֵא. מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנָּפְלָה דְלֵקָה בְתַנּוּרֵי כְפַר סִגְנָה, וּבָא מַעֲשֶׂה לְיַבְנֶה, וְטִמְּאָן רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל:

An oven that was heated from its outside, or that was that was heated without intent to complete it, or that was heated [while still] in the craftsman's house, is susceptible to impurity. There was a story that a fire fell on the ovens of Kfar Signa, and the story came to Yavneh, and Raban Gamliel ruled them susceptible to impurity.

5 ה

מוּסַף הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁל בַּעֲלֵי בָתִּים, טָהוֹר. וְשֶׁל נַחְתּוֹמִין, טָמֵא, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא סוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו אֶת הַשַּׁפּוּד. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הַסַּנְדְּלָר אוֹמֵר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא אוֹפֶה בוֹ כְּשֶׁהוּא נִדְחָק. כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, מוּסַף הַיּוֹרָה שֶׁל שׁוֹלְקֵי זֵיתִים, טָמֵא. וְשֶׁל צַבָּעִים, טָהוֹר:

The extension on a householder's oven [a thick rim on top] is pure. But that of a baker's oven is impure because he rests a spit on it. Rabbi Yochanan Hasandlar says: [It is impure] because he bakes with it [by placing dough on the inside of the rim] when he is pressured. Similarly, the extension of an olive cooker's cauldron is impure. But that of a dyer's cauldron is pure.

6 ו

תַּנּוּר שֶׁנָּתַן בּוֹ עָפָר עַד חֶצְיוֹ, מֵעָפָר וּלְמַטָּן, מִטַּמֵּא בְמַגָּע. מֵעָפָר וּלְמַעְלָן, מִטַּמֵּא בַאֲוִיר. נְתָנוֹ עַל פִּי הַבּוֹר אוֹ עַל פִּי הַדּוּת, וְנָתַן שָׁם אֶבֶן, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם מַסִּיק מִלְּמַטָּן, וְהוּא נִסּוֹק מִלְמַעְלָן, טָמֵא. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, הוֹאִיל וְהֻסַּק מִכָּל מָקוֹם, טָמֵא:

An oven half filled with earth - the part from the earth downwards contracts impurity by contact; the part from the earth upwards contracts impurity [also] from its air-space. If the oven is placed over the mouth of a cistern or over that of a cellar and a stone is placed at its side: Rabbi Yehudah says: if when heated from below it becomes also heated above it is susceptible to impurity. But the Sages say: since it was heated in any case it is susceptible to impurity.

7 ז

תַּנּוּר שֶׁנִּטְמָא, כֵּיצַד מְטַהֲרִין אוֹתוֹ. חוֹלְקוֹ לִשְׁלֹשָׁה, וְגוֹרֵר אֶת הַטְּפֵלָה עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בָאָרֶץ. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִגְרֹר אֶת הַטְּפֵלָה, וְלֹא עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בָאָרֶץ, אֶלָּא מְמַעֲטוֹ מִבִּפְנִים אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, וְצָרִיךְ לְהַסִּיעוֹ. חִלְּקוֹ לִשְׁנַיִם, אֶחָד גָּדוֹל וְאֶחָד קָטָן, הַגָּדוֹל טָמֵא וְהַקָּטָן טָהוֹר. חֲלָקוֹ לִשְׁלֹשָׁה, אֶחָד גָּדוֹל כִּשְׁנַיִם, הַגָּדוֹל טָמֵא, וּשְׁנַיִם הַקְּטַנִּים טְהוֹרִין:

An oven which contracted impurity - how is it purified? It is divided into three parts and the plastering is scraped off so that [the oven] touches the ground. Rabbi Meir says: it is not necessary to scrape off the plastering nor is it necessary for [the oven] to touch the ground. Rather he reduces it within to a height of less than four tefachim. Rabbi Shimon says: it must be moved [from its position]. If it is divided into two parts, one large and the other small, the larger remains impure and the smaller becomes pure. If it is divided into three parts one of which was as big as the other two together, the big one remains impure and the two small ones become pure.

8 ח

חֲתָכוֹ חֻלְיוֹת לְרָחְבּוֹ, פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים, טָהוֹר. מֵרְחוֹ בְטִיט, מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה מִשֶּׁיַּסִּיקֶנּוּ כְּדֵי לֶאֱפוֹת בּוֹ סֻפְגָּנִין. הִרְחִיק מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת הַטְּפֵלָה וְנָתַן חֹל אוֹ צְרוֹר בֵּינְתַיִם, בָּזֶה אָמְרוּ, הַנִּדָּה וְהַטְּהוֹרָה אוֹפוֹת בּוֹ וְהוּא טָהוֹר:

If [the oven] is cut up by its width into rings that are each less than four tefachim in height, it is pure. If it is subsequently plastered over with clay, it becomes susceptible to impurity when it is heated to a degree that is enough for baking sponge cakes. If he distanced the plastering, and he put sand or gravel between it and the oven sides — of such an oven they said, "A menstruant as well as a ritually pure woman may bake in it and it remains ritually pure."

9 ט

תַּנּוּר שֶׁבָּא מְחֻתָּךְ מִבֵּית הָאֻמָּן, וְעָשָׂה בוֹ לִמּוּדִין, וְנוֹתְנָן עָלָיו וְהוּא טָהוֹר, נִטְמָא. וְסִלֵּק אֶת לִמּוּדָיו, טָהוֹר. הֶחֱזִירָן לוֹ, טָהוֹר. מֵרְחוֹ בְטִיט, מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה, וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַסִּיקֶנּוּ, שֶׁכְּבָר הֻסָּק:

An oven which came cut up in sections from the craftsman's house and hoops are made for it and put on it, is pure. If it contracts impurity, and then the hoops are removed, it is pure. If he put them back on, it remains pure. If it is plastered with clay, it becomes susceptible to impurity, and there is no need to heat it since it was once heated.

10 י

חֲתָכוֹ חֻלְיוֹת וְנָתַן חֹל בֵּין חֻלְיָא לְחֻלְיָא, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מְטַהֵר, וַחֲכָמִים מְטַמְּאִין. זֶה תַנּוּרוֹ שֶׁל עַכְנָאי. יוֹרוֹת הָעַרְבִיִּין שֶׁהוּא חוֹפֵר בָּאָרֶץ וְטָח בְּטִיט, אִם יָכוֹל הַטִּיחַ לַעֲמוֹד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, טָמֵא. וְאִם לָאו, טָהוֹר. וְזֶה תַנּוּרוֹ שֶׁל בֶּן דִּינָאי:

If an oven is cut into rings, and sand is placed between the rings, Rabbi Eliezer says it is pure. But the sages say it is susceptible to impurity. This is the oven of Akhnai. Arabian vats, which are holes dug in the ground and plastered with clay - if the plastering can stand by itself it is susceptible to impurity; otherwise, it is not susceptible. This is the oven of Ben Dinai.

11 יא

תַּנּוּר שֶׁל אֶבֶן וְשֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת, טָהוֹר, וְטָמֵא מִשּׁוּם כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת. נִקַּב, נִפְגַּם, נִסְדַּק, עָשָׂה לוֹ טְפֵלָה, אוֹ מוּסָף שֶׁל טִיט, טָמֵא. כַּמָּה יְהֵא בַנֶּקֶב, כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצֵא בוֹ הָאוּר. וְכֵן בְּכִירָה. כִּירָה שֶׁל אֶבֶן וְשֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת טְהוֹרָה, וּטְמֵאָה מִשּׁוּם כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת, נִקְּבָה, נִפְגְּמָה, נִסְדְּקָה, עָשָׂה לָהּ פִּטְפּוּטִין, טְמֵאָה. מֵרְחָהּ בְּטִיט בֵּין מִבִּפְנִים בֵּין מִבַּחוּץ, טְהוֹרָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מִבִּפְנִים טְמֵאָה, וּמִבַּחוּץ טְהוֹרָה:

An oven of stone or of metal is pure [according to the rules applied to ovens], but [the metal one] is subject to impurity as a metal vessel. If a hole was made in it, or if it was damaged or cracked, and lined with plaster or with a rim of clay, it is subject to impurity. What must be the size of the hole [for it to be pure]? It must be big enough for the flame to come through. The same applies also to a stove: a stove of stone or of metal is not subject to impurity [according to the laws for a stove]. But [the metal one] is subject to impurity as a metal vessel. If a hole was made in it or if it was damaged or cracked but he made props for it, it is impure. If he lined it with clay, whether inside or outside, it remains pure. Rabbi Yehudah says: if [the lining was] inside, it is subject to impurity; but if outside, it remains pure.