Mishnah Kelim
1א׳
1 א

אֲבוֹת הַטֻּמְאוֹת, הַשֶּׁרֶץ, וְשִׁכְבַת זֶרַע, וּטְמֵא מֵת, וְהַמְּצֹרָע בִּימֵי סָפְרוֹ, וּמֵי חַטָּאת שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם כְּדֵי הַזָּיָה, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְטַמְּאִין אָדָם וְכֵלִים בְּמַגָּע, וּכְלֵי חֶרֶשׂ בַּאֲוִיר, וְאֵינָם מְטַמְּאִין בְּמַשָּׂא:

The Origins of impurity: the sheretz [one of eight creeping creatures, whose identities are debated, and whose carcasses transmit ritual impurity upon contact], semen, that which is rendered impure by a dead body, the metzora [victim of a Divinely inflicted skin disease] while he is in his days of counting, a small amount of purifying water that is not enough to perform the sprinkling ceremony - can render persons and vessels impure through touch, and pottery vessels through the air, but they do not render impure when they are carried.

2 ב

לְמַעְלָה מֵהֶם, נְבֵלָה, וּמֵי חַטָּאת שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהֶם כְּדֵי הַזָּיָה, שֶׁהֵם מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הָאָדָם בְּמַשָּׂא לְטַמֵּא בְגָדִים בְּמַגָּע, וַחֲשׂוּכֵי בְגָדִים בְּמַגָּע:

Higher than these: the nevelah [an animal which died without proper slaughter] and purifying water of which there is enough to perform the sprinkling ceremony, as they render impure a person through carrying and clothing through touch, and without clothes [on an unclothed area of a person], by touch.

3 ג

לְמַעְלָה מֵהֶן, בּוֹעֵל נִדָּה, שֶׁהוּא מְטַמֵּא מִשְׁכָּב תַּחְתּוֹן כָּעֶלְיוֹן. לְמַעְלָה מֵהֶן, זוֹבוֹ שֶׁל זָב וְרֻקּוֹ וְשִׁכְבַת זַרְעוֹ וּמֵימֵי רַגְלָיו, וְדַם הַנִּדָּה, שֶׁהֵן מְטַמְּאִין בְּמַגָּע וּבְמַשָּׂא. לְמַעְלָה מֵהֶן, מֶרְכָּב, שֶׁהוּא מְטַמֵּא תַּחַת אֶבֶן מְסָמָא. לְמַעְלָה מִן הַמֶּרְכָּב, מִשְׁכָּב, שֶׁשָּׁוֶה מַגָּעוֹ לְמַשָּׂאוֹ. לְמַעְלָה מִן הַמִּשְׁכָּב, הַזָּב, שֶׁהַזָּב עוֹשֶׂה מִשְׁכָּב, וְאֵין מִשְׁכָּב עוֹשֶׂה מִשְׁכָּב:

Higher than these: one who has intercourse with a niddah [a woman who is menstruating or has menstruated, but has not yet immersed], for he renders impure the bottom [layer] of what lies beneath him in like degree to the top. Higher than this: the abnormal genital discharge of a zav [man with an abnormal genital discharge], his spittle, his semen, and his urine, and the blood of the menstruant, for they convey impurity both by contact and by carrying. Higher than these: the impurity of a saddle, for it conveys impurity even to what lies beneath a heavy stone. Higher than a saddle: what one lies upon, since contact with it is equal to carrying it. Higher than what one lies upon: a zav; for a zav conveys impurity to what he lies upon, while what he lies upon does not convey the same level of impurity to that upon which it lies.

4 ד

לְמַעְלָה מִן הַזָּב, זָבָה, שֶׁהִיא מְטַמְּאָה אֶת בּוֹעֲלָהּ. לְמַעְלָה מִן הַזָּבָה, מְצֹרָע, שֶׁהוּא מְטַמֵּא בְּבִיאָה. לְמַעְלָה מִן הַמְּצֹרָע, עֶצֶם כַּשְּׂעֹרָה, שֶׁהוּא מְטַמֵּא טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה. חָמוּר מִכֻּלָּם, הַמֵּת, שֶׁהוּא מְטַמֵּא בְאֹהֶל, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֻּלָּם מְטַמְּאִין:

Higher than the zav is the zavah [a woman with an abnormal genital discharge], for she conveys impurity to one who has intercourse with her. Higher than the zavah: the metzora, for he renders impure by entering. Higher than the metzora: bone the size of a barley grain, for it coneys seven-day impurity. More severe than all of these: a corpse, for it conveys impurity via overshadowing, which nothing else can do.

5 ה

עֶשֶׂר טֻמְאוֹת פּוֹרְשׁוֹת מִן הָאָדָם. מְחֻסַּר כִּפּוּרִים, אָסוּר בַּקֹּדֶשׁ וּמֻתָּר בַּתְּרוּמָה וּבַמַּעֲשֵׂר. חָזַר לִהְיוֹת טְבוּל יוֹם, אָסוּר בַּקֹּדֶשׁ וּבַתְּרוּמָה וּמֻתָּר בַּמַּעֲשֵׂר. חָזַר לִהְיוֹת בַּעַל קֶרִי, אָסוּר בִּשְׁלָשְׁתָּן. חָזַר לִהְיוֹת בּוֹעֵל נִדָּה, מְטַמֵּא מִשְׁכָּב תַּחְתּוֹן כָּעֶלְיוֹן. חָזַר לִהְיוֹת זָב שֶׁרָאָה שְׁתֵּי רְאִיּוֹת, מְטַמֵּא מִשְׁכָּב וּמוֹשָׁב, וְצָרִיךְ בִּיאַת מַיִם חַיִּים, וּפָטוּר מִן הַקָּרְבָּן. רָאָה שָׁלֹשׁ, חַיָּב בַּקָּרְבָּן. חָזַר לִהְיוֹת מְצֹרָע מֻסְגָּר, מְטַמֵּא בְּבִיאָה, וּפָטוּר מִן הַפְּרִיעָה וּמִן הַפְּרִימָה וּמִן הַתִּגְלַחַת וּמִן הַצִּפֳּרִים. וְאִם הָיָה מֻחְלָט, חַיָּב בְּכֻלָּן. פֵּרַשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ אֵבָר שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו בָּשָׂר כָּרָאוּי, מְטַמֵּא בְמַגָּע וּבְמַשָּׂא, וְאֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא בְאֹהֶל. וְאִם יֵשׁ עָלָיו בָּשָׂר כָּרָאוּי, מְטַמֵּא בְמַגָּע וּבְמַשָּׂא וּבְאֹהֶל. שִׁעוּר בָּשָׂר כָּרָאוּי, כְּדֵי לְהַעֲלוֹת אֲרוּכָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם יֵשׁ בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד כְּדֵי לְהַקִּיפוֹ בְחוּט עֵרֶב, יֶשׁ בּוֹ לְהַעֲלוֹת אֲרוּכָה:

Ten degrees of impurity are derived from a person: the one whose atonement is incomplete [who has not brought a required sacrifice] is prohibited to eat kodesh [portions of offerings assigned to the priests], but permitted to eat terumah [portion of crops, wine, etc. required to be given to a priest] and ma'aser [tithes]. Should he become a tevul yom [immerses in the day and becomes pure upon nightfall], he is forbidden to eat kodesh and terumah, but permitted to eat ma'aser. Should he have a nocturnal emission, he is prohibited in all three. Should he have intercourse with a niddah, he transmits impurity to the bottom layer lying beneath him as he does to the top. Should he become a zav and has seen two appearances [of discharge], he transmits impurity to the bed and the chair and needs to immerse in running water, but he is exempt from [bringing] an offering. If he sees a third [appearance], he is bound [to bring] an offering. Should he become a quarantined [suspected] metzora, he transmits impurity by entering [a house], but is exempt from loosening [hair], from tearing [of clothing], from shaving, and from the [offering of the] birds. But if he is declared a metzora, he is obligated in all of them. If a limb without enough flesh on it is separated from him, it transmits impurity through contact and through carrying, but it does not transmit impurity in a tent. And if there is enough flesh on it, then it transmits impurity through contact, and through carrying and in the tent. The measure of flesh that is sufficient is enough to bring up a scab. Rabbi Yehuda says, If there is enough [flesh] in one place to surround it with the thread of the woof, it is able to bring up a scab.

6 ו

עֶשֶׂר קְדֻשּׁוֹת הֵן, אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת מִכָּל הָאֲרָצוֹת. וּמַה הִיא קְדֻשָּׁתָהּ, שֶׁמְּבִיאִים מִמֶּנָּה הָעֹמֶר וְהַבִּכּוּרִים וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם, מַה שֶּׁאֵין מְבִיאִים כֵּן מִכָּל הָאֲרָצוֹת:

There are ten degrees of holiness. The land of Israel is holier than any other land. Wherein lies its holiness? In that from it are brought the omer [barley offering brought on the second day of Passover], the first fruits, and the two loaves [offered on Shavuot], which may not be brought from any other land.

7 ז

עֲיָרוֹת הַמֻּקָּפוֹת חוֹמָה מְקֻדָּשׁוֹת מִמֶּנָּה, שֶׁמְּשַׁלְּחִים מִתּוֹכָן אֶת הַמְּצֹרָעִים, וּמְסַבְּבִין לְתוֹכָן מֵת עַד שֶׁיִּרְצוּ. יָצָא, אֵין מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ:

The walled cities are still more holy, in that they must send forth the metzoraim from their midst, and they may carry around a corpse therein as far as necessary, but once it is taken out, they may not bring it back.

8 ח

לִפְנִים מִן הַחוֹמָה מְקֻדָּשׁ מֵהֶם, שֶׁאוֹכְלִים שָׁם קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. הַר הַבַּיִת מְקֻדָּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁאֵין זָבִים וְזָבוֹת, נִדּוֹת וְיוֹלְדוֹת נִכְנָסִים לְשָׁם. הַחֵיל מְקֻדָּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁאֵין גּוֹיִם וּטְמֵא מֵת נִכְנָסִים לְשָׁם. עֶזְרַת נָשִׁים מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁאֵין טְבוּל יוֹם נִכְנָס לְשָׁם, וְאֵין חַיָּבִים עָלֶיהָ חַטָּאת. עֶזְרַת יִשְׂרָאֵל מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת מִמֶּנָּה, שֶׁאֵין מְחֻסַּר כִּפּוּרִים נִכְנָס לְשָׁם, וְחַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ חַטָּאת. עֶזְרַת הַכֹּהֲנִים מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת מִמֶּנָּה, שֶׁאֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל נִכְנָסִים לְשָׁם אֶלָּא בִשְׁעַת צָרְכֵיהֶם, לִסְמִיכָה לִשְׁחִיטָה וְלִתְנוּפָה:

Inside the wall [of Jerusalem] is more holy than these, because there the less holy [offerings] and the second tithe are eaten. The Temple Mount has greater sanctity, because men and women with discharges, menstruating women, and women who have given birth may not enter there. The Cheil [a low fence around the Temple, which served as a boundary, beyond which entry to those impure was prohibited] has higher sanctity, because gentiles and people contaminated with corpse impurity may not enter there. The women's courtyard has higher sanctity, because a tevul yom may not enter there, but they are not liable for a sin offering for doing so. The Israelites' courtyard has higher sanctity, because one who lacks atonement may not enter there, and is liable for a sin offering for doing so. The priests' courtyard has higher sanctity, because the Israelites may not enter there except at the time of their [ritual] requirements: the laying on of hands, the slaughter, and the wave-offering.

9 ט

בֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ מְקֻדָּשׁ מִמֶּנָּה, שֶׁאֵין בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין וּפְרוּעֵי רֹאשׁ נִכְנָסִים לְשָׁם. הַהֵיכָל מְקֻדָּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁאֵין נִכְנָס לְשָׁם שֶׁלֹּא רְחוּץ יָדַיִם וְרַגְלָיִם. קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים מְקֻדָּשׁ מֵהֶם, שֶׁאֵין נִכְנָס לְשָׁם אֶלָּא כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בִּשְׁעַת הָעֲבוֹדָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, בַּחֲמִשָּׁה דְבָרִים בֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ שָׁוֶה לַהֵיכָל, שֶׁאֵין בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין, וּפְרוּעֵי רֹאשׁ, וּשְׁתוּיֵי יַיִן, וְשֶׁלֹּא רְחוּץ יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִם נִכְנָסִים לְשָׁם, וּפוֹרְשִׁין מִבֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה:

Between the porch and the altar has still higher sanctity, because [priests] with blemishes and loosened hair may not enter there. The sanctuary has higher sanctity, because no one may enter there who has not washed their hands and feet. The holy of holies has greater sanctity than these, because no one may enter there except the High Priest on the Day of Atonement at the time of the service. Rabbi Yose said: In five ways [the area] between the porch and the altar is equal to the sanctuary because [priests] with blemishes, loosened hair, who have consumed wine, and who have not washed their hands and feet may not enter there, and they separate themselves from between the porch and the altar at the time of [the offering of the] incense.