הַזּוֹרֵק גֵּט לְאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִיא בְתוֹךְ בֵּיתָהּ אוֹ בְתוֹךְ חֲצֵרָהּ, הֲרֵי זוֹ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. זְרָקוֹ לָהּ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ אוֹ בְתוֹךְ חֲצֵרוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא עִמָּהּ בַּמִּטָּה, אֵינָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. לְתוֹךְ חֵיקָהּ אוֹ לְתוֹךְ קַלְתָּהּ, הֲרֵי זוֹ מְגֹרָשֶׁת:
[With regard to] a husband who throws a bill of divorce to his wife and she is in her own house, or in her courtyard, she is divorced. If he threw it to her within his house or within his courtyard, even if it is with her in bed, she is not divorced. [If he threw it] in her lap or her basket, she is divorced.
אָמַר לָהּ, כִּנְסִי שְׁטָר חוֹב זֶה, אוֹ שֶׁמְּצָאָתוֹ מֵאֲחוֹרָיו, קוֹרְאָה וַהֲרֵי הוּא גִטָּהּ, אֵינוֹ גֵט, עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר לָהּ, הֵא גִטֵּךְ. נָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְהִיא יְשֵׁנָה, נֵעוֹרָה, קוֹרְאָה וַהֲרֵי הוּא גִטָּהּ, אֵינוֹ גֵט, עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר לָהּ הֵא זֶה גִטֵּךְ. הָיְתָה עוֹמֶדֶת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וּזְרָקוֹ לָהּ, קָרוֹב לָהּ, מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. קָרוֹב לוֹ, אֵינָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. מֶחֱצָה עַל מֶחֱצָה, מְגֹרֶשֶׁת וְאֵינָהּ מְגֹרָשֶׁת:
If he said to her, "Take this promissory note," or she finds [a document] behind him, and she reads it behold it is her bill of divorce, it is not a [valid] bill of divorce, until he expressly says, "Here is your bill of divorce." If he put it into her hands while she is asleep, and when she awakes she reads it, and behold it is her bill of divorce, it is not a [valid] bill of divorce until he expressly says, "Here is your bill of divorce." If she was standing in the public domain and he threw it to her. [If it fell] closer to her, she is divorced; closer to him, she is not divorced. Halfway [between the two], she is divorced [in some respects] and not divorced [in others], i.e., her divorce is a matter of doubt.
וְכֵן לְעִנְיַן קִדּוּשִׁין. וְכֵן לְעִנְיַן הַחוֹב. אָמַר לוֹ בַּעַל חוֹבוֹ, זְרֹק לִי חוֹבִי, וּזְרָקוֹ לוֹ, קָרוֹב לַמַּלְוֶה, זָכָה הַלֹּוֶה. קָרוֹב לַלֹּוֶה, הַלֹּוֶה חַיָּב. מֶחֱצָה עַל מֶחֱצָה, שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחֲלֹקוּ. הָיְתָה עוֹמֶדֶת עַל רֹאשׁ הַגַּג וּזְרָקוֹ לָהּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לַאֲוִיר הַגַּג, הֲרֵי זוֹ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. הוּא מִלְמַעְלָה וְהִיא מִלְּמַטָּה וּזְרָקוֹ לָהּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּצָא מֵרְשׁוּת הַגַּג, נִמְחַק אוֹ נִשְׂרַף, הֲרֵי זוֹ מְגֹרָשֶׁת:
The same is true of betrothal, and the same is true of a debt. If one's creditor said to him, "Throw me [the payment of] the debt due to me," and he threw it to him: [if it fell] closer to the lender, the borrower is exempt; closer to the borrower, the borrower is [still] liable; halfway [between the two], they split it. If [a wife] was standing on the roof, and [her husband] threw [a bill of divorce] to her, once it reaches the airspace of the roof, she is divorced. If he is above and she is below and he threw [the bill of divorce down] to her, once it leaves the [airspace] of the roof she is divorced. [At that point,] were it to be erased or burned, she is [still] divorced.
בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, פּוֹטֵר אָדָם אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ בְגֵט יָשָׁן. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹסְרִין. וְאֵיזֶהוּ גֵט יָשָׁן, כֹּל שֶׁנִּתְיַחֵד עִמָּהּ אַחַר שֶׁכְּתָבוֹ לָהּ:
Beit Shammai say, "One may release his wife with an old bill of divorce." Beit Hillel prohibit this. What is an old bill of divorce? Whenever he is in seclusion with her after he wrote it for her.
כָּתַב לְשׁוּם מַלְכוּת שְׁאֵינָהּ הוֹגֶנֶת, לְשׁוּם מַלְכוּת מָדַי, לְשׁוּם מַלְכוּת יָוָן, לְבִנְיַן הַבַּיִת, לְחֻרְבַּן הַבַּיִת, הָיָה בַמִּזְרָח וְכָתַב בַּמַּעֲרָב, בַּמַּעֲרָב וְכָתַב בַּמִּזְרָח, תֵּצֵא מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה, וּצְרִיכָה גֵט מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה, וְאֵין לָהּ לֹא כְתֻבָּה וְלֹא פֵרוֹת וְלֹא מְזוֹנוֹת וְלֹא בְלָאוֹת, לֹא עַל זֶה וְלֹא עַל זֶה. אִם נָטְלָה מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה, תַּחֲזִיר. וְהַוָּלָד מַמְזֵר מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה. וְלֹא זֶה וָזֶה מִטַּמְּאִין לָהּ, וְלֹא זֶה וָזֶה זַכָּאִין לֹא בִמְצִיאָתָהּ וְלֹא בְמַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיהָ וְלֹא בַהֲפָרַת נְדָרֶיהָ. הָיְתָה בַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, נִפְסֶלֶת מִן הַכְּהֻנָּה. בַּת לֵוִי, מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. בַּת כֹּהֵן, מִן הַתְּרוּמָה. וְאֵין יוֹרְשָׁיו שֶׁל זֶה וְיוֹרְשָׁיו שֶׁל זֶה יוֹרְשִׁין כְּתֻבָּתָהּ. וְאִם מֵתוּ, אָחִיו שֶׁל זֶה וְאָחִיו שֶׁל זֶה חוֹלְצִין וְלֹא מְיַבְּמִין. שִׁנָּה שְׁמוֹ וּשְׁמָהּ, שֵׁם עִירוֹ וְשֵׁם עִירָהּ, תֵּצֵא מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה, וְכָל הַדְּרָכִים הָאֵלּוּ בָהּ:
If one wrote a bill of divorce [dating it] according to an illegitimate regime, according to the Median Empire, according to the Greek Empire, according to building of the Temple, or since the destruction of the Temple; or, if one was in the East and wrote "in the West, or in the West and wrote "in the East," then [the woman who was divorced with such a document and remarried based on it] must separate from both [husbands] and she requires a bill of divorce from both, and she has no claim on either for the amount of her ketubah [monetary settlement payable to a married woman upon divorce or the death of her husband], for her right of usufruct, for food, and for wear and tear of clothes belonging to her. If she took [any of these] from either one, she must return it. Her child by either husband is a mamzer [the offspring of an adulterous or incestuous relationship who is prohibited from marrying much of the Jewish population]; neither of [the husbands] may, [if they are priests,] become ritually impure to her [when she dies], and neither has rights to that which she finds nor to her earnings, nor to annul her vows. If she is the daughter of an Israelite, she is disqualified from marrying a priest; if the daughter of a Levite, [she is disqualified] from eating tithe; and if a Kohen's daughter, [she is disqualified]from eating terumah [a portion of a crop given to a Kohen which becomes holy upon separation, and can only be consumed by Kohanim or their household]. The heirs of neither [husband] have a right to her ketubah. And if they die, the brothers of both must perform chalitzah [the ceremony performed to release a widow of a childless man from the obligation of levirate marriage] and may not perform levirate marriage. If he changed his name or her name, or the name of his city or the name of her city [on the bill of divorce], she must [in case she remarried upon such a bill of divorce ]separate from both [husbands], and she is subject to all the above-mentioned regulations.
כָּל הָעֲרָיוֹת שֶׁאָמְרוּ צָרוֹתֵיהֶן מֻתָּרוֹת, הָלְכוּ הַצָּרוֹת הָאֵלּוּ וְנִשְּׂאוּ וְנִמְצְאוּ אֵלּוּ אַיְלוֹנִיּוֹת, תֵּצֵא מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה, וְכָל הַדְּרָכִים הָאֵלּוּ בָהּ:
[With regard to] all women with whom one is prohibited to engage in sexual relations, their co-wives are permitted. If these co-wives married and the [original woman] was found to be sterile, they must separate from both [husbands] and are subject to all of the above regulations.
הַכּוֹנֵס אֶת יְבִמְתּוֹ וְהָלְכָה צָרָתָהּ וְנִשֵּׂאת לְאַחֵר וְנִמְצְאָה זֹאת שֶׁהִיא אַיְלוֹנִית, תֵּצֵא מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה וְכָל הַדְּרָכִים הָאֵלּוּ בָהּ:
[With regard to] one who marries a woman through levirate marriage, and her co-wife married another [man] and the first woman was found to be an aiylonit [a woman with arrested sexual development who cannot bear children], [the co-wife] must separate from both [men] and is subject to all the mentioned regulations.
כָּתַב סוֹפֵר גֵּט לָאִישׁ וְשׁוֹבֵר לָאִשָּׁה, וְטָעָה וְנָתַן גֵּט לָאִשָּׁה וְשׁוֹבֵר לָאִישׁ, וְנָתְנוּ זֶה לָזֶה, וּלְאַחַר זְמַן הֲרֵי הַגֵּט יוֹצֵא מִיַּד הָאִישׁ, וְשׁוֹבֵר מִיַּד הָאִשָּׁה, תֵּצֵא מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה, וְכָל הַדְּרָכִים הָאֵלּוּ בָהּ. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אִם לְאַלְתַּר יָצָא, אֵין זֶה גֵט. אִם לְאַחַר זְמַן יָצָא, הֲרֵי זֶה גֵט. לֹא כָל הֵימֶנּוּ מִן הָרִאשׁוֹן לְאַבֵּד זְכוּתוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁנִי. כָּתַב לְגָרֵשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וְנִמְלַךְ, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, פְּסָלָהּ מִן הַכְּהֻנָּה. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנְּתָנוֹ לָהּ עַל תְּנַאי וְלֹא נַעֲשָׂה הַתְּנַאי, לֹא פְסָלָהּ מִן הַכְּהֻנָּה:
If a scribe wrote a bill of divorce for the man and a receipt for the woman [acknowledging the receipt of the amount of her ketubah], and he made a mistake and gave the bill of divorce to the woman, and the receipt to the man, and they exchanged them; and later, behold the bill of divorce is produced by the man and the receipt by the woman [so that it becomes clear that a mistake was made], she must separate from both [her new husband and her original one], and is subject to all the above regulations. Rabbi Eliezer says, "If the error is discovered in time [i.e. before she remarried], it is not a [valid] bill of divorce, but if [it is discovered] after a while, it is a [valid] bill of divorce. Because it is not in the rights [of the first husband] to destroy the claim the second husband." If one wrote [a bill of divorce] to divorce his wife, and changed his mind, Beit Shammai says, "He has disqualified her from the Kehuna [priesthood]." Beit Hillel say, "Even if he gave it to her on condition and the condition was not met, he has not disqualified her from the Kehuna."
הַמְגָרֵשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וְלָנָה עִמּוֹ בְּפֻנְדְּקִי, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָהּ הֵימֶנּוּ גֵט שֵׁנִי. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, צְרִיכָה הֵימֶנּוּ גֵט שֵׁנִי. אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁנִּתְגָּרְשָׁה מִן הַנִּשּׂוּאִין. וּמוֹדִים בְּנִתְגָּרְשָׁה מִן הָאֵרוּסִין שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה הֵימֶנּוּ גֵט שֵׁנִי, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לִבּוֹ גַס בָּהּ. כְּנָסָהּ בְּגֵט קֵרֵחַ, תֵּצֵא מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה, וְכָל הַדְּרָכִים הָאֵלּוּ בָהּ:
[With regard to] one who divorced his wife and spent the night with her at an inn, Beit Shammai say, "She does not require a second bill of divorce from him." Beit Hillel say, "She requires a second bill of divorce from him." [This difference of opinion is only] when she became divorced from marriage; but if she was divorced from betrothal, they agree that she does not require a second bill of divorce from him, because he has not yet been intimate with her. If one married a woman based on [her having received] a "bald" bill of divorce, she must separate from both [husbands], and is subject to all the above regulations.
גֵּט קֵרֵחַ, הַכֹּל מַשְׁלִימִין עָלָיו, דִּבְרֵי בֶן נַנָּס. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אֵין מַשְׁלִימִין עָלָיו אֶלָּא קְרוֹבִים הָרְאוּיִין לְהָעִיד בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר. וְאֵיזֶהוּ גֵּט קֵרֵחַ. כֹּל שֶׁקְּשָׁרָיו מְרֻבִּין מֵעֵדָיו:
[With regard to] a "bald" bill of divorce, everyone may complete it; these are the words of Ben Nannas. Rabbi Akiva says, "Only relatives who are suitable to testify in other matters may complete it." What is a "bald" bill of divorce? One which has more folds than signatories.