הַדָּר עִם הַנָּכְרִי בֶחָצֵר, אוֹ עִם מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹדֶה בָעֵרוּב, הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹסֵר עָלָיו, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר עַד שֶׁיְּהוּ שְׁנֵי יִשְׂרְאֵלִים אוֹסְרִין זֶה עַל זֶה:
Someone who dwells [together] in a courtyard with a gentile, or with someone who does not acknowledge [the validity of] an eruv [the halachic merging of separate domains by means of setting aside an amount of food in a designated place], behold [the residence there of] such [an individual] forbids hims [from carrying there] - so says Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaacov says, "[Truly such an individual's residence] does not forbid him, until there are [also] two Israelites [the residence of which] forbid each other."
אָמַר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, מַעֲשֶׂה בִצְדוֹקִי אֶחָד, שֶׁהָיָה דָר עִמָּנוּ בְּמָבוֹי בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְאָמַר לָנוּ אַבָּא, מַהֲרוּ וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֶת כָּל הַכֵּלִים לַמָּבוֹי, עַד שֶׁלֹּא יוֹצִיא וְיֶאֱסֹר עֲלֵיכֶם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר בְּלָשׁוֹן אַחֵר, מַהֲרוּ וַעֲשׂוּ צָרְכֵיכֶם בַּמָּבוֹי עַד שֶׁלֹּא יוֹצִיא וְיֶאֱסֹר עֲלֵיכֶם:
Said Rabban Gamliel, "It happened that a Sadducee dwelt with us in a mavoy [an alleyway onto which courtyards open] in Jerusalem; and father said to us [on the Shabbat eve], 'Hurry and take out all the vessels into the mavoy, before [the Sadducee] brings out [his], and [by so doing] forbids it to you [to carry there].'" Rabbi Yehudah says [it] with a variation in the language: "Hurry and do [take care of] your needs in the mavoy, before [the Sadducee] brings out [his vessels], and [by so doing] forbids it to you [to carry there].'"
אַנְשֵׁי חָצֵר שֶׁשָּׁכַח אַחַד מֵהֶן וְלֹא עֵרֵב, בֵּיתוֹ אָסוּר מִלְּהַכְנִיס וּמִלְּהוֹצִיא, לוֹ וְלָהֶם, וְשֶׁלָּהֶם מֻתָּרִין, לוֹ וְלָהֶם. נָתְנוּ לוֹ רְשׁוּתָן, הוּא מֻתָּר וְהֵן אֲסוּרִין. הָיוּ שְׁנַיִם, אוֹסְרִין זֶה עַל זֶה, שֶׁאֶחָד נוֹתֵן רְשׁוּת וְנוֹטֵל רְשׁוּת, שְׁנַיִם נוֹתְנִים רְשׁוּת וְאֵין נוֹטְלִין רְשׁוּת:
If one of the householders of a courtyard forget, and not join in the eruv, it is forbidden for him and for them [the other residents of the courtyard] to carry into or out of his home; but their [homes] are permissible for him and for them [to carry into and out of]; if they [the other residents] gave him their [rights to the courtyard], he is permitted [to carry in and out of it], but they are forbidden [to do so]. If there were two [householders who have neglected to join in the eruv], they [by so doing] forbid each other [from carrying to and from their homes], since one [individual] can give [his rights to the courtyard], and can acquire [the rights of others to the courtyard]; but two [though they can jointly] give [their rights], cannot [jointly] acquire [the rights of others to the use of the courtyard].
מֵאֵימָתַי נוֹתְנִין רְשׁוּת. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, מִשֶּׁחֲשֵׁכָה. מִי שֶׁנָּתַן רְשׁוּתוֹ וְהוֹצִיא, בֵּין בְּשׁוֹגֵג בֵּין בְּמֵזִיד, הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹסֵר, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בְּמֵזִיד אוֹסֵר, בְּשׁוֹגֵג אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר:
[Until] when may we give [our rights to the courtyard]? Beit Shammai says, "While it is still day [before the onset of Shabbat]." But Beit Hillel says, "[Even] from dusk." He who gives his [rights to the courtyard], and [afterwards] carries out [into or from the courtyard], whether inadvertently or intentionally, behold [by so doing] he forbids [the other residents of the courtyard from carrying into or out of it] - so says Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says, "[If he does it] intentionally, he forbids [it for them]; inadvertently, he does not forbid [it]."
בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁהָיָה שֻׁתָּף לִשְׁכֵנִים, לָזֶה בְיַיִן וְלָזֶה בְיַיִן, אֵינָם צְרִיכִים לְעָרֵב. לָזֶה בְיַיִן וְלָזֶה בְשֶׁמֶן, צְרִיכִים לְעָרֵב. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֶחָד זֶה וְאֶחָד זֶה, אֵינָם צְרִיכִים לְעָרֵב:
If a householder was a partner in [one cask of] wine with two of his neighbors [residing in the same mavoy], they are not required to make an eruv [technically, a shituf, which is its equivalent, in order to carry into the mavoy]; if he is [a partner] with one in wine, and with one in oil, they are required to make an eruv. Rabbi Shimon says, "In the one [case] as in the other, they do not require an eruv."
חָמֵשׁ חֲבוּרוֹת שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בִטְרַקְלִין אֶחָד, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, עֵרוּב לְכָל חֲבוּרָה וַחֲבוּרָה. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, עֵרוּב אֶחָד לְכֻלָּן. וּמוֹדִים, בִּזְמַן שֶׁמִּקְצָתָן שְׁרוּיִן בַּחֲדָרִים אוֹ בַעֲלִיּוֹת, שֶׁהֵן צְרִיכִין עֵרוּב לְכָל חֲבוּרָה וַחֲבוּרָה:
If five [different] groups took their Shabbat-rest in one chamber [large hall], Beit Shammai says, "A [separate] eruv should be made for each and every group." But Beit Hillel says, "One eruv [is sufficient] for [them] all." And [Beit Hillel] concedes, that when some of these groups occupy distinct rooms, or attics, [then] they require a [separate] eruv for each and every group.
הָאַחִין הַשֻּׁתָּפִין שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹכְלִין עַל שֻׁלְחַן אֲבִיהֶם וִישֵׁנִים בְּבָתֵּיהֶם, צְרִיכִין עֵרוּב לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד. לְפִיכָךְ, אִם שָׁכַח אֶחָד מֵהֶם וְלֹא עֵרֵב, מְבַטֵּל אֶת רְשׁוּתוֹ. אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁמּוֹלִיכִין עֵרוּבָן בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר, אֲבָל אִם הָיָה עֵרוּב בָּא אֶצְלָן, אוֹ שֶׁאֵין עִמָּהֶן דִּיוּרִין בֶּחָצֵר, אֵינָן צְרִיכִין לְעָרֵב:
If brothers or partners eat at their father's [or at one] table, but [each] sleep in their [separate] homes [in the same courtyard], they are each and every one required to [individually participate in the] eruv. Therefore, if one of them forgot, and did not [participate in the] eruv, he [should] nullify his [rights to the common courtyard]. When [is this the case?] When they place their eruv in another place; but if the eruv has come to [have been placed with] them, or if there are no other dwellings in the courtyard, they need not [participate in or] make an eruv.
חָמֵשׁ חֲצֵרוֹת פְּתוּחוֹת זוֹ לָזוֹ וּפְתוּחוֹת לְמָבוֹי, עֵרְבוּ בַחֲצֵרוֹת וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בַמָּבוֹי, מֻתָּרִין בַּחֲצֵרוֹת וַאֲסוּרִין בַּמָּבוֹי. וְאִם נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בַמָּבוֹי, מֻתָּרִין כָּאן וָכָאן. עֵרְבוּ בַחֲצֵרוֹת וְנִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בַמָּבוֹי, וְשָׁכַח אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי חָצֵר וְלֹא עֵרֵב, מֻתָּרִין כָּאן וָכָאן. מִבְּנֵי מָבוֹי וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּתֵּף, מֻתָּרִין בַּחֲצֵרוֹת וַאֲסוּרִין בַּמָּבוֹי, שֶׁהַמָּבוֹי לַחֲצֵרוֹת כֶּחָצֵר לַבָּתִּים:
If five courtyards open into one another, and [also] open into the mavoy, if they [the householders therein] made eruvin for the courtyards, but did not make a shituf [an eruv used to join together alleys and streets] for the mavoy, they are permitted [to carry to and from] the courtyards, but are prohibited [to do so] in the mavoy; but if they made a shituf in the mavoy, they are permitted in both [the courtyards and the mavoy]. If they made an eruv for the courtyards and a shituf for the mavoy, if one of the householders of the courtyards forgot and did not participate in the eruv, they are [nevertheless] permitted [to carry] in both [the courtyards and the mavoy]; if one of the householders of the mavoy forgot to participate in the shituf, they are permitted [to carry] in the courtyards, but are forbidden [to do so] in the mavoy, since the mavoy is [in the same relation] to the courtyards, as the courtyards [are] to the homes [within them].
שְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת, זוֹ לִפְנִים מִזּוֹ, עֵרְבָה הַפְּנִימִית וְלֹא עֵרְבָה הַחִיצוֹנָה, הַפְּנִימִית מֻתֶּרֶת וְהַחִיצוֹנָה אֲסוּרָה. הַחִיצוֹנָה, וְלֹא הַפְּנִימִית, שְׁתֵּיהֶן אֲסוּרוֹת. עֵרְבָה זוֹ לְעַצְמָהּ וְזוֹ לְעַצְמָהּ, זוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ וְזוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹסֵר הַחִיצוֹנָה, שֶׁדְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל אוֹסַרְתָּהּ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵין דְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל אוֹסַרְתָּהּ:
If there are two courtyards, one which is behind the other, if the [residents of the] inner courtyard made an eruv, and [those of] the outer courtyard did not make an eruv, [the residents of] the inner courtyard are permitted [to carry to and from it], but [those of] the outer courtyard are forbidden [to do so]; if [those of] the outer [courtyard made an eruv], but [those of] the inner [courtyard did] not, both [courtyards] are prohibited; if each made its own eruv, the [residents of] each are permitted [to carry to and from] its own [courtyard]. Rabbi Akiva forbids the outer courtyard [in that case], since the right of thoroughfare [possessed by the inner courtyard] forbids it. But the Sages say, "The right of thoroughfare does not forbid [the outer courtyard]."
שָׁכַח אַחַד מִן הַחִיצוֹנָה וְלֹא עֵרֵב, הַפְּנִימִית מֻתֶּרֶת וְהַחִיצוֹנָה אֲסוּרָה. מִן הַפְּנִימִית וְלֹא עֵרֵב, שְׁתֵּיהֶן אֲסוּרוֹת. נָתְנוּ עֵרוּבָן בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד, וְשָׁכַח אֶחָד, בֵּין מִן הַפְּנִימִית בֵּין מִן הַחִיצוֹנָה, וְלֹא עֵרֵב, שְׁתֵּיהֶן אֲסוּרוֹת. וְאִם הָיוּ שֶׁל יְחִידִים, אֵינָן צְרִיכִין לְעָרֵב:
If one [of the householders] of the outer courtyard forgot and did not participate in the eruv, the inner courtyard is permitted, but the outer courtyard is prohibited; if [one of the householders] of the inner courtyard [forgot and] did not participate in the eruv, both are prohibited. If [both courtyards] place their eruv in one place, and one [of the householders], whether from the inner or from the outer [courtyard], forgot and did not participate in the eruv, both are prohibited. And if [each courtyard] belong to [single] individuals, they do need to make an eruv [in order to carry into and from their own courtyards].