הַדָּר עִם הַנָּכְרִי בֶחָצֵר, אוֹ עִם מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹדֶה בָעֵרוּב, הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹסֵר עָלָיו, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר עַד שֶׁיְּהוּ שְׁנֵי יִשְׂרְאֵלִים אוֹסְרִין זֶה עַל זֶה:
One who resides with a gentile in the same courtyard, or one who lives in the same courtyard with one who does not accept the principle of eiruv, even though he is not a gentile, such as a Samaritan [Kuti], this person renders it prohibited for him to carry from his own house into the courtyard or from the courtyard into his house, unless he rents this person’s rights in the courtyard, as will be explained below. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: Actually, the gentile does not render it prohibited for one to carry, unless there are two Jews living in the same courtyard who themselves would prohibit one another from carrying if there were no eiruv. In such a case, the presence of the gentile renders the eiruv ineffective. However, if only one Jew lives there, the gentile does not render it prohibited for him to carry in the courtyard.
אָמַר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, מַעֲשֶׂה בִצְדוֹקִי אֶחָד, שֶׁהָיָה דָר עִמָּנוּ בְּמָבוֹי בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְאָמַר לָנוּ אַבָּא, מַהֲרוּ וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֶת כָּל הַכֵּלִים לַמָּבוֹי, עַד שֶׁלֹּא יוֹצִיא וְיֶאֱסֹר עֲלֵיכֶם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר בְּלָשׁוֹן אַחֵר, מַהֲרוּ וַעֲשׂוּ צָרְכֵיכֶם בַּמָּבוֹי עַד שֶׁלֹּא יוֹצִיא וְיֶאֱסֹר עֲלֵיכֶם:
Rabban Gamliel said: There was an incident involving a certain Sadducee who lived with us in the same alleyway in Jerusalem, who renounced his rights to the alleyway before Shabbat. And Father said to us: Hurry and take out your utensils to the alleyway to establish possession of it, before he changes his mind and takes out his own utensils so as to reclaim his rights, in which case he would render it prohibited for you to use the entire alleyway. Rabbi Yehuda says: Rabban Gamliel’s father spoke to them with a different formulation, saying: Hurry and do whatever you must do in the alleyway prior to Shabbat, before he takes out his utensils and renders it prohibited for you to use the alleyway. In other words, you may not bring out utensils to the alleyway at all on Shabbat, as the institution of an eiruv cannot be used in the neighborhood of a Sadducee. This is because, even if he renounced his rights to the alleyway, he can always retract and reclaim them.
אַנְשֵׁי חָצֵר שֶׁשָּׁכַח אַחַד מֵהֶן וְלֹא עֵרֵב, בֵּיתוֹ אָסוּר מִלְּהַכְנִיס וּמִלְּהוֹצִיא, לוֹ וְלָהֶם, וְשֶׁלָּהֶם מֻתָּרִין, לוֹ וְלָהֶם. נָתְנוּ לוֹ רְשׁוּתָן, הוּא מֻתָּר וְהֵן אֲסוּרִין. הָיוּ שְׁנַיִם, אוֹסְרִין זֶה עַל זֶה, שֶׁאֶחָד נוֹתֵן רְשׁוּת וְנוֹטֵל רְשׁוּת, שְׁנַיִם נוֹתְנִים רְשׁוּת וְאֵין נוֹטְלִין רְשׁוּת:
If one of the residents of a courtyard forgot and did not participate in an eiruv with the other residents before Shabbat, and on Shabbat he renounced his rights in the courtyard to the other residents, his house is prohibited both to him, who forgot to establish an eiruv, and to them, the other residents, to bring in objects from the courtyard to his house or to take them out from his house into the courtyard. But their houses are permitted both to him and to them, for taking objects out into the courtyard and for bringing them in. If they gave away their rights in the courtyard to him, i.e., if they renounced their rights in his favor, he is permitted to carry from his house into the courtyard, but they are prohibited from doing so. If two residents of the courtyard forgot to establish an eiruv, and the others renounced their rights in the courtyard in their favor, they prohibit one another. In this scenario, the courtyard would belong to both of them, but each individual house remains the domain of its owner. It would therefore be prohibited for each of these residents to carry into the courtyard. For one resident may give away and receive rights in a domain, whereas two residents may only give away rights in a domain, but they may not receive rights in a domain. Since they did not establish an eiruv, it is unreasonable for the other residents of the courtyard to give away their rights in the domain, as the two who are prohibited because they did not participate in the eiruv render it prohibited for each other to carry.
מֵאֵימָתַי נוֹתְנִין רְשׁוּת. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, מִשֶּׁחֲשֵׁכָה. מִי שֶׁנָּתַן רְשׁוּתוֹ וְהוֹצִיא, בֵּין בְּשׁוֹגֵג בֵּין בְּמֵזִיד, הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹסֵר, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בְּמֵזִיד אוֹסֵר, בְּשׁוֹגֵג אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר:
The mishna poses a general question: When may one give away rights in a domain? Beit Shammai say: While it is still day, i.e., before the onset of Shabbat; and Beit Hillel say: Even after nightfall, when it is already Shabbat. The mishna cites another dispute: If one gave away his rights in his courtyard to the other residents of the courtyard, renouncing them after having forgotten to establish an eiruv with them the previous day, and then he carried something out from his house into the courtyard – whether unwittingly, forgetting that he had renounced his rights, or intentionally, he renders carrying prohibited for all the residents of the courtyard, for his action cancels his renunciation; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: If he acted intentionally, he renders carrying prohibited; but if he acted unwittingly, he does not render carrying prohibited.
בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁהָיָה שֻׁתָּף לִשְׁכֵנִים, לָזֶה בְיַיִן וְלָזֶה בְיַיִן, אֵינָם צְרִיכִים לְעָרֵב. לָזֶה בְיַיִן וְלָזֶה בְשֶׁמֶן, צְרִיכִים לְעָרֵב. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֶחָד זֶה וְאֶחָד זֶה, אֵינָם צְרִיכִים לְעָרֵב:
If a homeowner was in partnership with his neighbors, with this one in wine and with that one in wine, they need not establish an eiruv, for due to their authentic partnership they are considered to be one household, and no further partnership is required. If, however, he was in partnership with this one in wine and with that one in oil, they must establish an eiruv. As they are not partners in the same item, they are not all considered one partnership. Rabbi Shimon says: In both this case and that case, i.e., even if he partners with his neighbors in different items, they need not establish an eiruv.
חָמֵשׁ חֲבוּרוֹת שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בִטְרַקְלִין אֶחָד, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, עֵרוּב לְכָל חֲבוּרָה וַחֲבוּרָה. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, עֵרוּב אֶחָד לְכֻלָּן. וּמוֹדִים, בִּזְמַן שֶׁמִּקְצָתָן שְׁרוּיִן בַּחֲדָרִים אוֹ בַעֲלִיּוֹת, שֶׁהֵן צְרִיכִין עֵרוּב לְכָל חֲבוּרָה וַחֲבוּרָה:
With regard to five groups of people who spent Shabbat in one hall [teraklin] that was subdivided by partitions into separate rooms, each of which had a separate entrance to a courtyard that was shared with other houses, Beit Shammai say: An eiruv is required for each and every group, i.e., each group must contribute separately to the eiruv of the courtyard, as each is considered a different house. And Beit Hillel say: One eiruv suffices for all of them, as the partitions do not render the different sections separate houses. And Beit Hillel concede that when some of them occupy separate rooms or upper stories, they require a separate eiruv for each and every group, and the fact that they are in the same building does not render them one unified group.
הָאַחִין הַשֻּׁתָּפִין שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹכְלִין עַל שֻׁלְחַן אֲבִיהֶם וִישֵׁנִים בְּבָתֵּיהֶם, צְרִיכִין עֵרוּב לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד. לְפִיכָךְ, אִם שָׁכַח אֶחָד מֵהֶם וְלֹא עֵרֵב, מְבַטֵּל אֶת רְשׁוּתוֹ. אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁמּוֹלִיכִין עֵרוּבָן בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר, אֲבָל אִם הָיָה עֵרוּב בָּא אֶצְלָן, אוֹ שֶׁאֵין עִמָּהֶן דִּיוּרִין בֶּחָצֵר, אֵינָן צְרִיכִין לְעָרֵב:
In the case of brothers who were eating at their father’s table and sleeping in their own houses in the same courtyard, a separate contribution to the eiruv is required for each and every one of them. Therefore, if one of them forgot and did not contribute to the eiruv, he must renounce his rights in the courtyard in order to render carrying in the courtyard permitted to the rest of the courtyard’s residents. When do they state this halakha? They state it when they take their eiruv elsewhere in the courtyard, i.e., to the house of one of the other residents. But if the eiruv was coming to them, i.e., if it was placed in their father’s house, or if there are no other residents with the brothers and their father in the courtyard, they are not required to establish an eiruv, as they are considered like a single individual living in a courtyard.
חָמֵשׁ חֲצֵרוֹת פְּתוּחוֹת זוֹ לָזוֹ וּפְתוּחוֹת לְמָבוֹי, עֵרְבוּ בַחֲצֵרוֹת וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בַמָּבוֹי, מֻתָּרִין בַּחֲצֵרוֹת וַאֲסוּרִין בַּמָּבוֹי. וְאִם נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בַמָּבוֹי, מֻתָּרִין כָּאן וָכָאן. עֵרְבוּ בַחֲצֵרוֹת וְנִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בַמָּבוֹי, וְשָׁכַח אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי חָצֵר וְלֹא עֵרֵב, מֻתָּרִין כָּאן וָכָאן. מִבְּנֵי מָבוֹי וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּתֵּף, מֻתָּרִין בַּחֲצֵרוֹת וַאֲסוּרִין בַּמָּבוֹי, שֶׁהַמָּבוֹי לַחֲצֵרוֹת כֶּחָצֵר לַבָּתִּים:
If five courtyards open into one another and also open into an alleyway, the following distinctions apply: If the residents of the courtyard established an eiruv in the courtyards and did not merge the courtyards that open into the alleyway, they are permitted to carry in the courtyards and they are prohibited to carry in the alleyway. The eiruv they established cannot also serve as a merging of the courtyards that open into the alleyway. And if they merged the courtyards of the alleyway, they are permitted to carry both here, in the alleyway, and there, in the courtyards. If they established an eiruv in the courtyards and also merged the courtyards of the alleyway, and one of the residents of the courtyard forgot and did not contribute to the eiruv in his courtyard, but did participate in the merging of the courtyards in the alleyway, they are permitted both here and there, as the merging of courtyards in the alleyway serves as an effective eiruv for the courtyards as well. However, if one of the residents of the alleyway forgot and did not participate in the merging of courtyards that open into the alleyway, they are permitted to carry in the courtyards and prohibited from carrying in the alleyway, as the principle is: An alleyway is to its courtyards as a courtyard is to its houses.
שְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת, זוֹ לִפְנִים מִזּוֹ, עֵרְבָה הַפְּנִימִית וְלֹא עֵרְבָה הַחִיצוֹנָה, הַפְּנִימִית מֻתֶּרֶת וְהַחִיצוֹנָה אֲסוּרָה. הַחִיצוֹנָה, וְלֹא הַפְּנִימִית, שְׁתֵּיהֶן אֲסוּרוֹת. עֵרְבָה זוֹ לְעַצְמָהּ וְזוֹ לְעַצְמָהּ, זוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ וְזוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹסֵר הַחִיצוֹנָה, שֶׁדְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל אוֹסַרְתָּהּ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵין דְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל אוֹסַרְתָּהּ:
With regard to two courtyards, one of which was within the other, and the outer one opened into the public domain, the following distinctions apply: If the inner courtyard established an eiruv for itself and the outer one did not establish an eiruv, carrying in the inner one is permitted and carrying in the outer one is prohibited. If the outer courtyard established an eiruv and the inner one did not, carrying in both is prohibited, as the residents of the inner courtyard pass through the outer one, and are considered to a certain extent as residents of the courtyard who did not participate in the eiruv. If this courtyard established an eiruv for itself, and that courtyard also established an eiruv for itself, but they did not establish a joint eiruv with one another, this one is permitted by itself, and that one is permitted by itself, but they may not carry from one to the other. Rabbi Akiva prohibits carrying in the outer one even in such a case, as the right of entry to the outer courtyard enjoyed by the residents of the inner courtyard renders it prohibited. And the Rabbis disagree and say: The right of entry enjoyed by the residents of the inner courtyard does not render it prohibited. Since the residents of the inner courtyard do not use the outer one other than to pass through it, and they are permitted to carry in their own courtyard, they do not render it prohibited to carry in the outer courtyard.
שָׁכַח אַחַד מִן הַחִיצוֹנָה וְלֹא עֵרֵב, הַפְּנִימִית מֻתֶּרֶת וְהַחִיצוֹנָה אֲסוּרָה. מִן הַפְּנִימִית וְלֹא עֵרֵב, שְׁתֵּיהֶן אֲסוּרוֹת. נָתְנוּ עֵרוּבָן בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד, וְשָׁכַח אֶחָד, בֵּין מִן הַפְּנִימִית בֵּין מִן הַחִיצוֹנָה, וְלֹא עֵרֵב, שְׁתֵּיהֶן אֲסוּרוֹת. וְאִם הָיוּ שֶׁל יְחִידִים, אֵינָן צְרִיכִין לְעָרֵב:
If one resident of the outer courtyard forgot and did not contribute to the eiruv, carrying in the inner courtyard is permitted and in the outer one is prohibited. If one resident of the inner courtyard forgot and did not contribute to the eiruv, they are both prohibited, as the right of way enjoyed by the members of the inner courtyard through the outer courtyard renders the outer one prohibited as well. If the residents of both courtyards put their eiruv in one place, and one person, whether he was from the inner courtyard or from the outer one, forgot and did not contribute to the eiruv, they are both prohibited for carrying within them, as the two courtyards are treated as one. And if the courtyards belonged to individuals, i.e., if only one person lived in each courtyard, they are not required to establish an eiruv, as this requirement applies only to a courtyard occupied by multiple residents.