4ד׳
1 א

מִי שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּהוּ גוֹיִם אוֹ רוּחַ רָעָה, אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת. הֶחֱזִירוּהוּ, כְּאִלּוּ לֹא יָצָא. הוֹלִיכוּהוּ לְעִיר אַחֶרֶת. נְתָנוּהוּ בְדִיר אוֹ בְסַהַר, רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה אוֹמְרִים, מְהַלֵּךְ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמְרִים, אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת. מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁבָּאוּ מִפְּרַנְדִּיסִין וְהִפְלִיגָה סְפִינָתָם בַּיָּם. רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה הִלְּכוּ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא לֹא זָזוּ מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, שֶׁרָצוּ לְהַחֲמִיר עַל עַצְמָן:

One whom Gentiles, or an evil spirit, have taken out [beyond the Shabbat border] has no more than four cubits [in which to move]. If they brought him back, it is as if he had never gone out. If they took him to another town, or if they put him in a pen or a sahar: Rabban Gamaliel and Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah say he may move throughout the entire area; But Rabbi Joshua and Rabbi Akiva says: he has only four cubits [in which to move]. It once happened that they were coming from Brindisi and their ship sailed out to sea [on Shabbat]. Rabban Gamaliel and Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah walked about throughout its area, but Rabbi Joshua and Rabbi Akiba did not move beyond four cubits because they wanted to be stringent upon themselves.

2 ב

פַּעַם אַחַת לֹא נִכְנְסוּ לַנָּמָל עַד שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ לְרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, מָה אָנוּ לֵירֵד. אָמַר לָהֶן, מֻתָּר אַתֶּם, שֶׁכְּבָר הָיִיתִי מִסְתַּכֵּל, וְהָיִינוּ בְתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם עַד שֶׁלֹּא חֲשֵׁכָה:

Once they did not enter the harbor until dusk [on Shabbat eve]. They asked Rabban Gamaliel, “Can we disembark?” He said to them, “You may for I was already observing and we were already within the Shabbat limit before it grew dark.”

3 ג

מִי שֶׁיָּצָא בִרְשׁוּת וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ, כְּבָר נַעֲשָׂה מַעֲשֶׂה, יֶשׁ לוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ. אִם הָיָה בְתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם, כְּאִלּוּ לֹא יָצָא, שֶׁכָּל הַיּוֹצְאִים לְהַצִּיל, חוֹזְרִין לִמְקוֹמָן:

One who went beyond the Shabbat limit with permission and was then told that the act had already been performed, [he is allowed to move] within two thousand cubits in any direction. If he was within the Shabbat limit, it is as if he had not gone out. All who go out to save life may return to their original places.

4 ד

מִי שֶׁיָּשַׁב בַּדֶּרֶךְ, וְעָמַד, וְרָאָה וַהֲרֵי הוּא סָמוּךְ לָעִיר, הוֹאִיל וְלֹא הָיְתָה כַוָּנָתוֹ לְכָךְ, לֹא יִכָּנֵס, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, יִכָּנֵס. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, מַעֲשֶׂה הָיָה, וְנִכְנַס רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן בְּלֹא מִתְכַּוֵּן:

One who sat down on the road [at dusk on Friday eve] and then got up and saw that he was near a town he may not enter it, since it had not been his intention to do so, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: he may enter it. Rabbi Judah said: it once actually happened and Rabbi Tarfon entered the town, even though this was not his intention [when Shabbat had begun].

5 ה

מִי שֶׁיָּשֵׁן בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְלֹא יָדַע שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה, יֵשׁ לוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, וְהוּא בְאֶמְצָעָן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לְאֵיזֶה רוּחַ שֶׁיִּרְצֶה יֵלֵךְ. וּמוֹדֶה רַבִּי יְהוּדָה שֶׁאִם בֵּרֵר לוֹ, שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר בּוֹ:

If one slept on the road and was unaware that night had fallen, he may move two thousand cubits in any direction, the words of Rabbi Yohanan ben Nuri. But the sages say: he has only four cubits within which to move. Rabbi Eliezer says: and the man is deemed to be in the middle of them. Rabbi Judah says: he may move in any direction he desires. And Rabbi Judah agrees that once chosen his direction he may not go back on it.

6 ו

הָיוּ שְׁנַיִם, מִקְצָת אַמּוֹתָיו שֶׁל זֶה בְּתוֹךְ אַמּוֹתָיו שֶׁל זֶה, מְבִיאִין וְאוֹכְלִין בָּאֶמְצַע, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יוֹצִיא זֶה מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ לְתוֹךְ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ. הָיוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה, וְהָאֶמְצָעִי מֻבְלָע בֵּינֵיהֶן, הוּא מֻתָּר עִמָּהֶן וְהֵן מֻתָּרִין עִמּוֹ, וּשְׁנַיִם הַחִיצוֹנִים אֲסוּרִים זֶה עִם זֶה. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה, לְשָׁלֹשׁ חֲצֵרוֹת הַפְּתוּחוֹת זוֹ לָזוֹ וּפְתוּחוֹת לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, עֵרְבוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן עִם הָאֶמְצָעִית, הִיא מֻתֶּרֶת עִמָּהֶם וְהֵן מֻתָּרוֹת עִמָּהּ, וּשְׁתַּיִם הַחִיצוֹנוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת זוֹ עִם זוֹ:

Two men, some of whose cubits enter into the cubits of the other, may bring their meals and eat them in the middle, provided that this one does not carry out anything from his limit into that of the other. If there were three men and the prescribed limit of the middle one overlapped with the limits of the others, he is permitted to eat with either of them and either of them is permitted to eat with him, but the two outer persons are forbidden to eat with one another. Rabbi Shimon said: To what is this similar? To three courtyards that open one into the other and also into a public domain: If they made an eruv for the outer ones with the middle one, the middle one is permitted with them and they are permitted with it, but the two outer ones are forbidden access to one another.

7 ז

מִי שֶׁבָּא בַדֶּרֶךְ וְחָשְׁכָה לוֹ, וְהָיָה מַכִּיר אִילָן אוֹ גָדֵר, וְאָמַר, שְׁבִיתָתִי תַחְתָּיו, לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם. שְׁבִיתָתִי בְעִקָּרוֹ, מְהַלֵּךְ מִמְּקוֹם רַגְלָיו וְעַד עִקָּרוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה, וּמֵעִקָּרוֹ וְעַד בֵּיתוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה. נִמְצָא מְהַלֵּךְ מִשֶּׁחֲשֵׁכָה אַרְבַּעַת אֲלָפִים אַמָּה:

One who was on a journey and it became dark, and he recognized a tree or a fence and said, “Let my Shabbat place be under it”, he has said nothing. If he said, “Let my Shabbat place be at its root”, he may walk from the place where he stands to its root a distance of two thousand cubits, and from its root to his house another two thousand cubits. Thus he can walk four thousand cubits after dusk.

8 ח

אִם אֵינוֹ מַכִּיר, אוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָקִי בַהֲלָכָה, וְאָמַר, שְׁבִיתָתִי בִמְקוֹמִי, זָכָה לוֹ מְקוֹמוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ. עֲגֻלּוֹת, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶן אַנְטִיגְנוֹס. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, מְרֻבָּעוֹת, כְּטַבְלָא מְרֻבַּעַת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נִשְׂכָּר לַזָּוִיּוֹת:

If he does not recognize [any tree or fence], or if he is not familiar with the halakhah, and said, “Let my present position be my Shabbat place”, his position acquires for him the right of movement two thousand cubits in any direction. In a circle, the words of Rabbi Hanina ben Antigonus. But the sages say: the distances are square, in the shape of a square tablet, so that he may gain the area of the corners.

9 ט

וְזוֹ הִיא שֶׁאָמְרוּ, הֶעָנִי מְעָרֵב בְּרַגְלָיו. אָמַר רַבִּי מֵאִיר, אָנוּ אֵין לָנוּ אֶלָּא עָנִי. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֶחָד עָנִי וְאֶחָד עָשִׁיר, לֹא אָמְרוּ מְעָרְבִין בְּפַת אֶלָּא לְהָקֵל עַל הֶעָשִׁיר, שֶׁלֹּא יֵצֵא וִיעָרֵב בְּרַגְלָיו:

This is what [the rabbis] have said: “a poor man makes his eruv with his feet.” Rabbi Meir said: we can apply this law to a poor man only. Rabbi Judah says: it applies to both rich and poor; they only said that an eruv is prepared with bread in order to make it easier for the rich man, so that he does not have to go out and make the eruv with his feet.

10 י

מִי שֶׁיָּצָא לֵילֵךְ בְּעִיר שֶׁמְּעָרְבִין בָּהּ וְהֶחֱזִירוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ, הוּא מֻתָּר לֵילֵךְ וְכָל בְּנֵי הָעִיר אֲסוּרִין, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, כֹּל שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל לְעָרֵב וְלֹא עֵרֵב, הֲרֵי זֶה חַמָּר גַּמָּל:

One who left to go to a town with which [his home town is wished to be] connected by an eruv, but a friend of his returned him home, he himself is allowed to go to the other town but all the other townspeople are forbidden, the words of Rabbi Judah. Rabbi Meir says: whoeve is able to prepare an eruv and neglected to do so is like one who is both a donkey-driver and a camel-driver.

11 יא

מִי שֶׁיָּצָא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, אֲפִלּוּ אַמָּה אַחַת, לֹא יִכָּנֵס. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, שְׁתַּיִם, יִכָּנֵס, שָׁלֹשׁ, לֹא יִכָּנֵס. מִי שֶׁהֶחְשִׁיךְ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, אֲפִלּוּ אַמָּה אַחַת, לֹא יִכָּנֵס. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמּוֹת, יִכָּנֵס, שֶׁאֵין הַמָּשׁוֹחוֹת מְמַצִּין אֶת הַמִּדּוֹת, מִפְּנֵי הַטּוֹעִין:

One who went out beyond his Shabbat limit, even one cubit may not re-enter. Rabbi Eliezer says: [if he went] two cubits [beyond his Shabbat limit] he may re-enter, three cubits he may not re-enter. One who was overtaken by dusk when only one cubit [outside the Shabbat limit] may not enter [the Shabbat border]. Rabbi Shimon says: even if he was fifteen cubits away he may enter since the surveyors do not measure exactly on account of those who err.