בַּכֹּל מְעָרְבִין וּמִשְׁתַּתְּפִים, חוּץ מִן הַמַּיִם וּמִן הַמֶּלַח. וְהַכֹּל נִקָּח בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר, חוּץ מִן הַמַּיִם וּמִן הַמֶּלַח. הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הַמָּזוֹן, מֻתָּר בְּמַיִם וּבְמֶלַח. מְעָרְבִין לְנָזִיר בְּיַיִן וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל בִּתְרוּמָה. סוּמְכוֹס אוֹמֵר, בְּחֻלִּין. וּלְכֹהֵן בְּבֵית הַפְּרָס. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ בְּבֵית הַקְּבָרוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לֵילֵךְ לָחוֹץ וְלֶאֱכֹל:
We may use all [food and drink] to make an eruv [halachic merging of separate domains by means of setting aside an amount of food in a designated place] or a shituf [ the same as an eruv when connecting different alleys and streets], exception for water and except for salt. And all [food and drink] may be bought with money [that must be used on food or drink in place] of ma'aser [sheni] [the second tithe of produce, which must be taken to Jerusalem and consumed there], except for water and except for salt. Someone who has vowed [to abstain] from food is permitted [to partake] of water and salt. We [may] make an eruv for a nazir [a person who vows to avoid corpse impurity, refrain from cutting his hair and abstain from all grape products] with wine [even though he is prohibited from drinking it], and for a [common] Israelite with terumah [a portion of a crop given to a Kohen which becomes holy upon separation, and can only be consumed by Kohanim or their household][even though he is prohibited from eating it]. Sumchos said, "[We can only make an eruv for an Israelite] with chulin [produce or food permitted for general consumption]." And [we may place the eruv] of a Kohen [member of priestly caste, subgroup of tribe of Levi, uniquely responsible for maintaining and carrying out the sacrificial services in the Temple] in a Beit Haperas [a field in which a grave has been plowed over]. Rabbi Yose says, "[We can] even [place it] in a graveyard, because he [the Kohen] may go outside [the graveyard] and eat [it]."
מְעָרְבִין בִּדְמַאי, וּבְמַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁנִטְּלָה תְרוּמָתוֹ, וּבְמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁנִּפְדּוּ. וְהַכֹּהֲנִים, בְּחַלָּה וּבִתְרוּמָה. אֲבָל לֹא בְטֶבֶל, וְלֹא בְמַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלֹּא נִטְּלָה תְרוּמָתוֹ, וְלֹא בְמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדּוּ. הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בְּיַד חֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן, אוֹ בְיַד מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹדֶה בָעֵרוּב, אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. וְאִם אָמַר לְאַחֵר לְקַבְּלוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ, הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב:
We may make an eruv with demai [produce from which it is uncertain whether tithes were already taken]; and with ma'aser rishon [the first tithe of produce, which must be given to the Levi] from which terumah has been taken; and with ma'aser sheni and hekdesh [property, living or inanimate, devoted by its owner for sacred purposes, by which action he ceases to be its owner] which have been redeemed; and for Kohanim with challah [a portion of a batch of bread dough given to a Kohen which becomes holy upon separation, and can only be consumed by Kohanim or their household], and with terumah. But [we may] not [make an eruv] with tevel [produce from which the various tithes have not yet been separated]; and not with ma'aser rishon, from which terumah has not been taken; or with ma'aser sheni and hekdesh which have not been redeemed. If someone sends his eruv via the hand of a deaf-mute, a shoteh, a minor or one who does not acknowledge [the legal validity of] an eruv, it is not [considered] an eruv: but if he has told another person [not of the categories just mentioned] to receive it from [his messenger from those categories], behold it is [considered] an eruv.
נְתָנוֹ בְאִילָן, לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, אֵין עֵרוּבוֹ עֵרוּב. לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, עֵרוּבוֹ עֵרוּב. נְתָנוֹ בְּבוֹר, אֲפִלּוּ עָמוֹק מֵאָה אַמָּה, עֵרוּבוֹ עֵרוּב. נְתָנוֹ בְרֹאשׁ הַקָּנֶה אוֹ בְרֹאשׁ הַקֻּנְדָּס בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא תָלוּשׁ וְנָעוּץ, אֲפִלּוּ גָבוֹהַּ מֵאָה אַמָּה, הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. נְתָנוֹ בְמִגְדָּל וְאָבַד הַמַּפְתֵּחַ, הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהַמַּפְתֵּחַ בִּמְקוֹמוֹ, אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב:
If he has put [his eruv] in a tree, if [the eruv was placed] higher than ten tefachim [a specific unit of length] [from the ground], it is not [considered] an eruv; [but if he puts it] lower than ten tefachim, it is [considered] an eruv. If he has put it into a pit, even if it is a hundred amot [a specific unit of length] deep, his eruv is [considered] an eruv. If he put it on the top of a cane or pole, in the case that it is detached [from actually growing in the ground but] is stuck [therein], even [if it is] a hundred amot high, behold it is [considered] an eruv. If he put it into a closet [which he locked] and lost the key, behold it is [considered] an eruv. Rabbi Eliezer says, "If he does not know that the key is in its place, it is not [considered] an eruv."
נִתְגַּלְגֵּל חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, וְנָפַל עָלָיו גַּל, אוֹ נִשְׂרַף, אוֹ תְרוּמָה וְנִטְמֵאת, מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב, מִשֶּׁחֲשֵׁכָה, הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. אִם סָפֵק, רַבִּי מֵאִיר וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמְרִים, הֲרֵי זֶה חַמָּר גַּמָּל. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמְרִים, סְפֵק עֵרוּב, כָּשֵׁר. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, אַבְטוֹלְמוֹס הֵעִיד מִשּׁוּם חֲמִשָּׁה זְקֵנִים עַל סְפֵק עֵרוּב שֶׁכָּשֵׁר:
If the eruv rolled out of the techum [the area around a person or community within which it is permissible to travel on Shabbat], or if a heap [of stones] fell on it, or if it got burned, or if [it was] terumah and became impure; [if any of these happen] while [it is] yet day, [before the Shabbat comes in], it is not [considered] an eruv; [but if it happens] after it got dark, behold it is [considered] an eruv. If there is a doubt [about the time when it happened], Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda say, "This is [like at once driving] an ass [and leading a] camel [which make the person get stuck between them]." Rabbi Yose and Rabbi Shimon say, "An eruv about which there is a doubt is [considered] valid." Rabbi Yose further said, "Avtulmos testified, in the name of five elders, that an eruv about which there is a doubt is [considered] valid."
מַתְנֶה אָדָם עַל עֵרוּבוֹ וְאוֹמֵר, אִם בָּאוּ גוֹיִים מִן הַמִּזְרָח, עֵרוּבִי לַמַּעֲרָב. מִן הַמַּעֲרָב, עֵרוּבִי לַמִּזְרָח. אִם בָּאוּ מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן, לִמְקוֹם שֶׁאֶרְצֶה אֵלֵךְ. לֹא בָאוּ לֹא מִכָּאן וְלֹא מִכָּאן, הֲרֵינִי כִבְנֵי עִירִי. אִם בָּא חָכָם מִן הַמִּזְרָח, עֵרוּבִי לַמִּזְרָח. מִן הַמַּעֲרָב, עֵרוּבִי לַמַּעֲרָב. בָּא לְכָאן וּלְכָאן, לִמְקוֹם שֶׁאֶרְצֶה אֵלֵךְ. לֹא לְכָאן וְלֹא לְכָאן, הֲרֵינִי כִבְנֵי עִירִי. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם הָיָה אֶחָד מֵהֶן רַבּוֹ, הוֹלֵךְ אֵצֶל רַבּוֹ, וְאִם הָיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם רַבּוֹתָיו, לִמְקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה יֵלֵךְ:
A man may make his eruv conditional and say, "If [hostile] gentiles come from the east, my eruv [shall extend my techum] to the west; [if they come] from the west, my eruv [shall extend my techum] to the east; if they come from both directions, I [will be permitted to] go to the place [direction] that I want; [if] they don't come from either direction, I am like [the rest of] my townsmen [concerning the preexisting techum]; should a sage come from the east, my eruv [shall extend my techum] to the east; [should one come] from the west, my eruv [shall extend my techum] to the west; [if one] come from each direction, I [will be permitted to] go to the place [direction] that I want; [if] none [come] from either direction, I am like the rest of my townsmen [concerning the preexisting techum]." Rabbi Yehuda says, "If one of them [the two sages who come] was his teacher, he goes to his teacher; and if both were his teachers, he [will be permitted to] go to the place [direction] that he wants."
רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, יוֹם טוֹב הַסָּמוּךְ לְשַׁבָּת, בֵּין מִלְּפָנֶיהָ וּבֵין מִלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ, מְעָרֵב אָדָם שְׁנֵי עֵרוּבִין וְאוֹמֵר, עֵרוּבִי הָרִאשׁוֹן לַמִּזְרָח, וְהַשֵּׁנִי לַמַּעֲרָב. הָרִאשׁוֹן לַמַּעֲרָב, וְהַשֵּׁנִי לַמִּזְרָח. עֵרוּבִי הָרִאשׁוֹן, וְהַשֵּׁנִי כִּבְנֵי עִירִי. עֵרוּבִי הַשֵּׁנִי, וְהָרִאשׁוֹן כִּבְנֵי עִירִי. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, מְעָרֵב לְרוּחַ אַחַת, אוֹ אֵינוֹ מְעָרֵב כָּל עִקָּר. אוֹ מְעָרֵב לִשְׁנֵי יָמִים, אוֹ אֵינוֹ מְעָרֵב כָּל עִקָּר. כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה. מוֹלִיכוֹ בָרִאשׁוֹן, וּמַחְשִׁיךְ עָלָיו וְנוֹטְלוֹ וּבָא לוֹ. בַּשֵּׁנִי מַחְשִׁיךְ עָלָיו וְאוֹכְלוֹ. וְנִמְצָא מִשְׂתַּכֵּר בַּהֲלִיכָתוֹ וּמִשְׂתַּכֵּר בְּעֵרוּבוֹ. נֶאֱכַל בָּרִאשׁוֹן, עֵרוּבוֹ לָרִאשׁוֹן וְאֵינוֹ עֵרוּב לַשֵּׁנִי. אָמַר לָהֶם רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, מוֹדִים אַתֶּם לִי שֶׁהֵן שְׁתֵּי קְדֻשּׁוֹת:
Rabbi Eliezer says, "[In the case of] a festival that is adjacent to a Shabbat, whether [it is] before it or after it, a man may set two eruvin, and say, 'My first eruv [shall extend my techum] to the east, and the second [one] to the west; the first [one] to the west, and the second [one] to the east; my eruv [is for] the first [day], and the second [day I am] like my townsmen; my eruv [is for] the second [day], and the first [day I am] like my townsmen.'" But the sages say, "He can [only] set his eruv for one direction, or he can not set his eruv at all; he can [only] set his eruv for both days, or he can not set his eruv at all. How should he do [it]? He carries it [the eruv] out [to the place where he means to set it] on the [eve of the] first [day], and remains with it until dark and [then] he takes it and comes [back]; he [brings the eruv out again] on the second [day], remains with it until dark, and then eats it. It comes out [that in this way] he gains in his walking [beyond the preexisting techum], and he gains in [eating] his eruv. If [his eruv] is eaten on the first [day] his eruv is [considered an eruv] for the first [day], but is not [considered] an eruv for the second [day]." Rabbi Eliezer said to them, "[That means that] you admit to me that [an adjacent holiday and Shabbat] are two [distinct] realms of holiness."
רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, שֶׁהָיָה יָרֵא שֶׁמָּא תִּתְעַבֵּר, מְעָרֵב אָדָם שְׁנֵי עֵרוּבִין וְאוֹמֵר, עֵרוּבִי בָרִאשׁוֹן לַמִּזְרָח וּבַשֵּׁנִי לַמַּעֲרָב, בָּרִאשׁוֹן לַמַּעֲרָב וּבַשֵּׁנִי לַמִּזְרָח. עֵרוּבִי בָּרִאשׁוֹן, וּבַשֵּׁנִי כִּבְנֵי עִירִי. עֵרוּבִי בַּשֵּׁנִי, וּבָרִאשׁוֹן כִּבְנֵי עִירִי. וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים:
Rabbi Yehuda says, "If one is afraid that Rosh Hashana will be extended [to two days], he may make two eruvin and say, 'My first eruv [shall extend my techum] to the east, and the second [one] to the west; the first [one] to the west, and the second [one] to the east; my eruv [is for] the first [day], and the second [day I am] like my townsmen; my eruv [is for] the second [day], and the first [day I am] like my townsmen.'" But the Sages did not concede to him.
וְעוֹד אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, מַתְנֶה אָדָם עַל הַכַּלְכָּלָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב רִאשׁוֹן וְאוֹכְלָהּ בַּשֵּׁנִי. וְכֵן בֵּיצָה שֶׁנּוֹלְדָה בָרִאשׁוֹן, תֵּאָכֵל בַּשֵּׁנִי. וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים:
And Rabbi Yehuda also said, "A man may conditionally [tithe] the basket [of tevel produce] on the first festival day [of Rosh HaShanah], and eat it on the second [day]; and so too, an egg which is laid on the first [day] may be eaten on the second." But the Sages did not concede to him.
רַבִּי דוֹסָא בֶן הַרְכִּינָס אוֹמֵר, הָעוֹבֵר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה אוֹמֵר, הַחֲלִיצֵנוּ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶת יוֹם רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה, אִם הַיּוֹם, אִם לְמָחָר. וּלְמָחָר הוּא אוֹמֵר, אִם הַיּוֹם, אִם אֶמֶשׁ. וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים:
Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinus says, "He who [stands] before the reading-desk [to lead the prayers] on the [first] festival day of Rosh Hashana, should say, 'Strengthen [support] us, Lord our God, on this day of Rosh Chodesh, whether today or tomorrow [be the true one].' And on the next day he says [the same prayer, with the variation], 'whether this day or yesterday [be the true one].'" But the Sages did not concede to him.