הַמּוֹצֵא תְפִלִּין, מַכְנִיסָן זוּג זוּג. רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, שְׁנַיִם שְׁנָיִם. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בִּישָׁנוֹת, אֲבָל בַּחֲדָשׁוֹת, פָּטוּר. מְצָאָן צְבָתִים אוֹ כְרִיכוֹת, מַחְשִׁיךְ עֲלֵיהֶן וּמְבִיאָן. וּבַסַּכָּנָה, מְכַסָּן וְהוֹלֵךְ לוֹ:
One who finds phylacteries outside the city on Shabbat, where they are in danger of becoming lost or damaged, brings them in to his house pair by pair by donning them in the manner in which they are typically donned for the mitzva. Rabban Gamliel says: He brings them in two pairs by two pairs. In what case is this statement that one is permitted to carry phylacteries inside said? It is with regard to old phylacteries, which have already been used and are designated for the mitzva. However, with regard to new ones, as it is unclear whether they are phylacteries or merely amulets in the form of phylacteries, he is exempt from performing the task. If one finds phylacteries tied in bundles or in wrapped piles, in which case he is unable to carry them in pairs, he sits there and waits with them until dark, guarding them until the conclusion of Shabbat, and then brings them in to his house. And in a time of danger, when it is dangerous to tarry outside town, he covers the phylacteries and proceeds on his way.
רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, נוֹתְנָן לַחֲבֵרוֹ, וַחֲבֵרוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ, עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לֶחָצֵר הַחִיצוֹנָה. וְכֵן בְּנוֹ, נוֹתְנוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ, וַחֲבֵרוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ מֵאָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, נוֹתֵן אָדָם חָבִית לַחֲבֵרוֹ, וַחֲבֵרוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לֹא תְהַלֵּךְ זוֹ יוֹתֵר מֵרַגְלֵי בְעָלֶיהָ:
Rabbi Shimon says that there is an alternative method of transferring the phylacteries: One gives them to another who is less than four cubits from him, and the other passes them to another, until the phylacteries reach the outermost courtyard of the city. Since carrying less than four cubits in a public domain is not prohibited by Torah law, in this case, the Sages permitted carrying in that manner due to the sanctity of the phylacteries. And similarly, with regard to one’s son who was born in a field and may not be carried on Shabbat, since that is akin to carrying a burden in the public domain: One gives him to another, and the other passes him to another, even if it requires a hundred people. Rabbi Yehuda says: A person may even give a barrel to another, and the other may pass it to another, and in that way even take it beyond the Shabbat limit, provided that no one person carries it more than four cubits. They said to him: This barrel may not go a greater distance than the feet of its owner, i.e., it may not be carried any farther than its owner may walk.
הָיָה קוֹרֵא בַסֵּפֶר עַל הָאַסְקֻפָּה, נִתְגַּלְגֵּל הַסֵּפֶר מִיָּדוֹ, גּוֹלְלוֹ אֶצְלוֹ. הָיָה קוֹרֵא בְרֹאשׁ הַגַּג וְנִתְגַּלְגֵּל הַסֵּפֶר מִיָּדוֹ, עַד שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ לַעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, גּוֹלְלוֹ אֶצְלוֹ. מִשֶּׁהִגִּיעַ לַעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, הוֹפְכוֹ עַל הַכְּתָב. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ אֵין מְסֻלָּק מִן הָאָרֶץ אֶלָּא כִמְלֹא מַחַט, גּוֹלְלוֹ אֶצְלוֹ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ בָאָרֶץ עַצְמוֹ גּוֹלְלוֹ אֶצְלוֹ, שֶׁאֵין לְךָ דָּבָר מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת עוֹמֵד בִּפְנֵי כִתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ:
One who was reading a sacred book in scroll form on Shabbat on an elevated, wide threshold, and the book rolled from his hand into the public domain, he may roll it back to himself, since one of its ends remains in his hand. If he was reading on top the roof, which is a full-fledged private domain, and the book rolled from his hand, as long as the edge of the book did not reach within ten handbreadths above the public domain, the book is still in its own domain, and he may roll it back to himself. However, once the book has reached within ten handbreadths above the public domain, it is prohibited to roll the book back to oneself. In that case, he may only turn it over onto the side with writing, so that the writing of the book will be facedown and not exposed and degraded. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even if the scroll is removed only a needle breadth from the ground, he rolls it back to himself. Rabbi Shimon says: Even if the scroll is on the ground itself, he rolls it back to himself, as you have nothing that was instituted as a rabbinic decree to enhance the character of Shabbat as a day of rest that stands as an impediment before the rescue of sacred writings.
זִיז שֶׁלִּפְנֵי חַלּוֹן, נוֹתְנִין עָלָיו וְנוֹטְלִין מִמֶּנּוּ בְשַׁבָּת. עוֹמֵד אָדָם בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וּמְטַלְטֵל בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וּמְטַלְטֵל בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יוֹצִיא חוּץ מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת:
With regard to a ledge in front of a window, that is ten handbreadths high and four handbreadths wide, one may place objects upon it or remove them from it on Shabbat via the window. A person may stand in a private domain and move objects that are in a public domain, as there is no concern that he might mistakenly bring them into the private domain. Similarly, one may stand in a public domain and move objects in a private domain, provided that he does not carry them beyond four cubits in the public domain, which is prohibited on Shabbat.
לֹא יַעֲמֹד אָדָם בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וְיַשְׁתִּין בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְיַשְׁתִּין בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד. וְכֵן לֹא יָרֹק. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף מִשֶּׁנִּתְלַשׁ רֻקּוֹ בְּפִיו, לֹא יְהַלֵּךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת עַד שֶׁיָרֹק:
However, a person may not stand in a private domain and urinate into a public domain, nor may one stand in a public domain and urinate into a private domain. And likewise, one may not spit in such a manner that the spittle passes from a private domain to a public domain or vice versa. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even once a person’s spittle is gathered in his mouth, he may not walk four cubits in the public domain until he spits it out, for he would be carrying the accumulated spittle in his mouth, which is akin to carrying any other object.
לֹא יַעֲמֹד אָדָם בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָחִיד וְיִשְׁתֶּה בִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְיִשְׁתֶּה בִרְשׁוּת הַיָחִיד, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִכְנִיס רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ לִמְקוֹם שֶׁהוּא שׁוֹתֶה. וְכֵן בְּגַת. קוֹלֵט אָדָם מִן הַמַּזְחֵלָה לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים. וּמִן הַצִּנּוֹר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם שׁוֹתֶה:
A person may stand in a private domain and extend his head and drink in a public domain, and he may stand in a public domain and drink in a private domain, only if he brings his head and most of his body into the domain in which he drinks. And the same applies in a winepress, as will be explained in the Gemara. A person standing in a public domain on Shabbat may catch water in a vessel from a gutter running along the side of a roof, if it is less than ten handbreadths off the ground, which is part of the public domain. And from a pipe that protrudes from the roof, one may drink in any manner, i.e., not only by catching the water in a vessel, but even by pressing his mouth directly against the spout.
בּוֹר בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְחֻלְיָתוֹ גְבוֹהָה עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, חַלּוֹן שֶׁעַל גַּבָּיו מְמַלְּאִין הֵימֶנּוּ בְשַׁבָּת. אַשְׁפָּה בִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּבוֹהָה עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, חַלּוֹן שֶׁעַל גַּבָּהּ שׁוֹפְכִין לְתוֹכָהּ מַיִם בְּשַׁבָּת:
With regard to a cistern in a public domain, with an embankment ten handbreadths high, i.e., the embankment constitutes a private domain by itself, if there is a window above the cistern, i.e., the window of an adjacent house is situated above the cistern, one may draw water from the cistern on Shabbat through the window, as it is permitted to carry from one private domain to another. Similarly, with regard to a garbage dump in a public domain that is ten handbreadths high, which means it has the status of a private domain, if there is a window above the pile of refuse that abuts the garbage dump, one may throw water from the window onto the dump on Shabbat, as it is permitted to carry from one private domain to another.
אִילָן שֶׁהוּא מֵסֵךְ עַל הָאָרֶץ, אִם אֵין נוֹפוֹ גָבוֹהַּ מִן הָאָרֶץ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים, מְטַלְטְלִין תַּחְתָּיו. שָׁרָשָׁיו גְּבוֹהִין מִן הָאָרֶץ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים, לֹא יֵשֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶן. הַדֶּלֶת שֶׁבַּמֻּקְצֶה וַחֲדָקִים שֶׁבַּפִּרְצָה וּמַחֲצָלוֹת, אֵין נוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן גְּבוֹהִים מִן הָאָרֶץ:
With regard to a tree that was hanging over the ground, i.e., its branches hung down on all sides like a tent so that it threw a shadow on the ground, if the tips of its branches are no higher than three handbreadths from the ground, one may carry under it. This applies even if the tree is planted in a public domain, as the branches form partitions which turn the enclosed area into a private domain. If its roots were three handbreadths higher than the ground, one may not sit on them, as it is prohibited to use a tree on Shabbat. Any part of a tree that is three handbreadths above the ground has the status of a tree with regard to this prohibition. With regard to the door to a rear court, i.e., a door that opens from a house to the courtyard situated behind it, which is typically not a proper door but merely a wooden board without hinges that closes off the doorway; and likewise bundles of thorns that seal a breach; and reed mats, one may not close an opening with them on Shabbat. This would be considered building or completing a building, unless they remain above the ground even when they are open.
לֹא יַעֲמֹד אָדָם בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וְיִפְתַּח בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְיִפְתַּח בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָשָׂה מְחִצָּה גְבוֹהָה עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מַעֲשֶׂה בְשׁוּק שֶׁל פַּטָּמִין שֶׁהָיָה בִירוּשָׁלַיִם, שֶׁהָיוּ נוֹעֲלִין וּמַנִּיחִין אֶת הַמַּפְתֵּחַ בַּחַלּוֹן שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַפֶּתַח. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, שׁוּק שֶׁל צַמָּרִים הָיָה:
A person may not stand in the private domain and open a door located in the public domain with a key, lest he inadvertently transfer the key from one domain to the other. Likewise, one may not stand in the public domain and open a door in the private domain with a key, unless in the latter case he erected a partition ten handbreadths high around the door and stands inside it. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. The Rabbis said to him: There was an incident at the poultry dealers’ market in Jerusalem, where they would fatten fowl for slaughter (Rabbeinu Ḥananel), and they would lock the doors to their shops and place the key in the window that was over the door, which was more than ten handbreadths off the ground, and nobody was concerned about the possible violation of any prohibition. Rabbi Yosei says: That place was a market of wool dealers.
נֶגֶר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ גְלֻסְטְרָא, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹסֵר, וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי מַתִּיר. אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, מַעֲשֶׂה בַכְּנֶסֶת שֶׁבִּטְבֶרְיָא שֶׁהָיוּ נוֹהֲגִין בּוֹ הֶתֵּר, עַד שֶׁבָּא רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וְהַזְּקֵנִים וְאָסְרוּ לָהֶן. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אִסּוּר נָהֲגוּ בָהּ, בָּא רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וְהַזְּקֵנִים וְהִתִּירוּ לָהֶן:
With regard to a bolt that secures a door in place and that has a thick knob [gelustera] at its end, a useful implement for a variety of purposes, the tanna’im disagree whether the bolt has the status of a vessel, and one may therefore close the door with it, or whether it is considered a cross beam, which would mean that doing so is classified as building. Rabbi Eliezer prohibits its use, and Rabbi Yosei permits it. Rabbi Eliezer said: An incident occurred in a synagogue in Tiberias, where they were accustomed to treat use of this bolt as permitted, until Rabban Gamliel and the Elders came and prohibited it to them. Rabbi Yosei says that the opposite was the case: At first they were accustomed to treat use of this bolt as prohibited, and Rabban Gamliel and the Elders came and permitted it to them.
נֶגֶר הַנִּגְרָר, נוֹעֲלִים בּוֹ בַמִּקְדָּשׁ, אֲבָל לֹא בַמְּדִינָה. וְהַמֻּנָּח, כָּאן וָכָאן אָסוּר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הַמֻּנָּח מֻתָּר בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ, וְהַנִּגְרָר בַּמְּדִינָה:
With regard to a bolt that is attached to the door, but owing to the length of the rope, it does not hang from the door but drags along the ground, one may lock a door with it in the Temple on Shabbat, as this is prohibited only by rabbinic decree, issued to enhance the character of Shabbat as a day of rest, and rabbinic decrees are not in effect in the Temple. However, one may not lock a door with this bolt in the country outside the Temple. And with regard to one that is not tied at all but rests entirely on the ground, it is prohibited in both places, in and outside the Temple, as the use of this bolt is considered building. Rabbi Yehuda says: One that rests entirely on the ground is permitted in the Temple, and one that drags along the ground is permitted even in the rest of the country.
מַחֲזִירִין צִיר הַתַּחְתּוֹן בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ, אֲבָל לֹא בַמְּדִינָה. וְהָעֶלְיוֹן, כָּאן וְכָאן אָסוּר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הָעֶלְיוֹן בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ, וְהַתַּחְתּוֹן בַּמְּדִינָה:
One may restore the lower hinge pin of the door of a carriage, box, or cupboard that becomes dislocated to its place on Shabbat in the Temple, as this action is prohibited by rabbinic decree, which is not in effect in the Temple; but it may not be restored to its place in the rest of the country. And restoring the upper hinge pin is prohibited in both places, as this is considered building, a labor prohibited by Torah law, which applies everywhere. Rabbi Yehuda says: Restoring the upper hinge pin to its place is permitted in the Temple, while one may restore the lower one to its place even in the rest of the country.
מַחֲזִירִין רְטִיָּה בַמִּקְדָּשׁ, אֲבָל לֹא בַמְּדִינָה. אִם בַּתְּחִלָּה, כָּאן וְכָאן אָסוּר. קוֹשְׁרִין נִימָא בַמִּקְדָּשׁ, אֲבָל לֹא בַמְּדִינָה. אִם בַּתְּחִלָּה, כָּאן וְכָאן אָסוּר. חוֹתְכִין יַבֶּלֶת בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ, אֲבָל לֹא בַמְּדִינָה. וְאִם בִּכְלִי, כָּאן וְכָאן אָסוּר:
One may return to its place a bandage that became detached from a wound on Shabbat in the Temple. In the Temple, this is not prohibited as a preventive measure, lest one come to spread the ointment and thereby perform the prohibited labor of smoothing. However, one may not return a bandage to its place in the rest of the country. If one sought to apply the bandage for the first time to an untreated wound on Shabbat, it is prohibited in both places. One may tie up on Shabbat a string [nima] that came loose from a harp used in the Temple, but not in the rest of the country. And tying the string to the harp for the first time is prohibited both here and there. A wart is an example of a blemish that temporarily disqualifies a priest from performing the Temple service, and disqualifies an animal from being offered on the altar; they regain their fitness once the wart is removed. Consequently, on Shabbat one may cut off a wart by hand in the Temple, as this constitutes a preparatory act required for the sacrificial service. However, he may not cut off a wart in the rest of the country. And if he seeks to cut off the wart with an instrument, it is prohibited in both places.
כֹּהֵן שֶׁלָּקָה בְאֶצְבָּעוֹ, כּוֹרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ גֶמִי בַמִּקְדָּשׁ, אֲבָל לֹא בַמְּדִינָה. אִם לְהוֹצִיא דָם, כָּאן וְכָאן אָסוּר. בּוֹזְקִין מֶלַח עַל גַּבֵּי כֶבֶשׁ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲלִיקוּ, וּמְמַלְּאִים מִבּוֹר הַגּוֹלָה וּמִבּוֹר הַגָּדוֹל בַּגַּלְגַּל בְּשַׁבָּת, וּמִבְּאֵר הַקַּר בְּיוֹם טוֹב:
With regard to a priest who was injured on his finger on Shabbat, he may temporarily wrap it with a reed so that his wound is not visible while he is serving in the Temple. This leniency applies in the Temple, but not in the country, as it also heals the wound, and medical treatment is prohibited on Shabbat due to rabbinic decree. If his intention is to draw blood from the wound or to absorb blood, it is prohibited in both places. One may scatter salt on Shabbat on the ramp that leads to the altar so that the priests will not slip on their way up. And likewise, one may draw water from the Cistern of the Exiles and from the Great Cistern, which were located in the Temple, by means of the wheel designed for drawing water, even on Shabbat. And one may draw water from the Heker Well only on a Festival.
שֶׁרֶץ שֶׁנִּמְצָא בַמִּקְדָּשׁ, כֹּהֵן מוֹצִיאוֹ בְהֶמְיָנוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא לְשַׁהוֹת אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בִּצְבָת שֶׁל עֵץ, שֶׁלֹּא לְרַבּוֹת אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה. מֵהֵיכָן מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ, מִן הַהֵיכָל וּמִן הָאוּלָם וּמִבֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן נַנָּס. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, מְקוֹם שֶׁחַיָּבִין עַל זְדוֹנוֹ כָּרֵת וְעַל שִׁגְגָתוֹ חַטָּאת, מִשָּׁם מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ, וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַמְּקוֹמוֹת כּוֹפִין עָלָיו פְּסַכְתֵּר. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, מְקוֹם שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לְךָ חֲכָמִים, מִשֶּׁלְּךָ נָתְנוּ לְךָ, שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ לְךָ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת:
With regard to the carcass of a creeping animal, of one of the eight species of reptile or rodent listed in Leviticus 11:29–30, one of the primary sources of ritual impurity that is found in the Temple, a priest should carry it out on Shabbat in his girdle, which was one of the priestly garments. Although the girdle will be defiled by the carcass of the creeping animal, this is the best way to proceed, so as not to delay the removal of the impurity from the Temple. This is the statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka. Rabbi Yehuda says: The creeping animal carcass should be removed with wooden prongs, so as not to increase the impurity, as a wooden prong is not susceptible to impurity. It is obvious that on a weekday the creeping animal carcass is removed from wherever it is found in the Temple, but from where does one remove it on Shabbat? From the Sanctuary, from the Entrance Hall, and from the area in the courtyard between the Entrance Hall and the altar, the most sanctified precincts of the Temple. However, it need not be removed from the rest of the courtyard. This is the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Nannas. Rabbi Akiva says: Any place where one is liable to be punished with karet if he intentionally enters there in a state of ritual impurity, and is liable to bring a sin-offering if he does so unwittingly, from there one must remove it. This includes the entire area of the Temple courtyard. And as for the rest of the places in the Temple, one covers the creeping animal carcass with a bowl [pesakhter] and leaves it there until the conclusion of Shabbat. Rabbi Shimon says that this is the principle: Wherever the Sages permitted something to you, they granted you only from your own, as they permitted to you only activities that are prohibited due to rabbinic decree, not labors prohibited by Torah law.