מָבוֹי שֶׁהוּא גָבוֹהַּ לְמַעְלָה מֵעֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה, יְמַעֵט. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ. וְהָרָחָב מֵעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת, יְמַעֵט. וְאִם יֶשׁ לוֹ צוּרַת הַפֶּתַח, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא רָחָב מֵעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת, אֵין צָרִיךְ לְמַעֵט: If an alleyway is enclosed on three sides with courtyards opening into it from three sides, and the fourth side opens into a public domain, it is prohibited by rabbinic law to carry objects in it on Shabbat. However, carrying in an alleyway under those circumstances is permitted if a cross beam is placed horizontally over the entrance to the alleyway. The mishna teaches that if the cross beam spans the entrance to an alleyway at a height above twenty cubits, one must diminish the height of the cross beam so that it is less than twenty cubits. Rabbi Yehuda says: He need not diminish it, since the cross beam enables one to carry in the alleyway even at that height. If the entrance to the alleyway is wider than ten cubits, one must diminish its width. However, if the entrance to the alleyway has the form of a doorway, i.e., two vertical posts on the two sides, and a horizontal beam spanning the space between them, even if it is wider than ten cubits, he need not diminish it, as it is then regarded as an entrance, rather than a breach, even if it is very wide.
הֶכְשֵׁר מָבוֹי, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, לֶחִי וְקוֹרָה, וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, לֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, לְחָיַיִן. מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אָמַר תַּלְמִיד אֶחָד לִפְנֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, לֹא נֶחְלְקוּ בֵּית שַׁמַּאי וּבֵית הִלֵּל עַל מָבוֹי שֶׁהוּא פָחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, שֶׁהוּא אוֹ בְלֶחִי אוֹ בְקוֹרָה. עַל מַה נֶּחְלְקוּ, עַל רָחָב מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְעַד עֶשֶׂר, שֶׁבֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, לֶחִי וְקוֹרָה, וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אוֹ לֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, עַל זֶה וְעַל זֶה נֶחֱלָקוּ: There is a basic dispute with regard to the method of rendering an alleyway fit for one to carry within it on Shabbat. Beit Shammai say: Both a side post and a cross beam are required. Beit Hillel say: Either a side post or a cross beam. Rabbi Eliezer says: Two side posts are required, one on each side of the alleyway. In the name of Rabbi Yishmael, one student said before Rabbi Akiva: Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel did not disagree about an alleyway that is less than four cubits wide, as they both agree that carrying is rendered permitted by either a side post or a cross beam. With regard to what did they disagree? It is with regard to an alleyway that is wider than four cubits, and up to ten cubits wide; as Beit Shammai say: It requires both a side post and a cross beam. And Beit Hillel say: It requires either a side post or a cross beam. Rabbi Akiva said to the disciple: It is not so, as they disagree both about this case, i.e., an alleyway that is less than four cubits wide, and about that case, i.e., an alleyway that is between four and ten cubits wide.
הַקּוֹרָה שֶׁאָמְרוּ, רְחָבָה כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל אָרִיחַ. וְאָרִיחַ, חֲצִי לְבֵנָה שֶׁל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. דַּיָּה לַקּוֹרָה שֶׁתְּהֵא רְחָבָה טֶפַח, כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל אָרִיחַ לְאָרְכּוֹ: The cross beam, which the Sages stated may be used to render an alleyway fit for one to carry within it, must be wide enough to receive and hold a small brick. And this small brick is half a large brick, which measures three handbreadths, i.e., a handbreadth and a half. It is sufficient that the cross beam will be a handbreadth in width, not a handbreadth and a half, enough to hold a small brick across its width.
רְחָבָה, כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל אָרִיחַ, וּבְרִיאָה, כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל אָרִיחַ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, רְחָבָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בְּרִיאָה: And the cross beam must be wide enough to hold a small brick and also sturdy enough to hold a small brick and not collapse. Rabbi Yehuda says: If it is wide enough to hold the brick, even though it is not sturdy enough to actually support it, it is sufficient.
הָיְתָה שֶׁל קַשׁ אוֹ שֶׁל קָנִים, רוֹאִין אוֹתָהּ כְּאִלּוּ הִיא שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת. עֲקֻמָּה, רוֹאִין אוֹתָהּ כְּאִלּוּ הִיא פְשׁוּטָה. עֲגֻלָּה, רוֹאִין אוֹתָהּ כְּאִלּוּ הִיא מְרֻבַּעַת. כֹּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּהֶקֵּפוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים, יֶשׁ בּוֹ רֹחַב טָפַח: Therefore, even if the cross beam is made of straw or reeds, one considers it as though it were made of metal. If the cross beam is curved, so that a small brick cannot rest on it, one considers it as though it were straight; if it is round, one considers it as though it were square. The following principle was stated with regard to a round cross beam: Any beam with a circumference of three handbreadths is a handbreadth in width, i.e., in diameter.
לְחָיַיִן שֶׁאָמְרוּ, גָּבְהָן עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, וְרָחְבָּן וְעָבְיָן כָּל שֶׁהוּא. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, רָחְבָּן שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים: The side posts the Sages spoke of with regard to rendering an alleyway fit for one to carry within it, their height must be at least ten handbreadths, and their width and thickness may be any amount. Rabbi Yosei says: Their width must be at least three handbreadths.
בַּכֹּל עוֹשִׂין לְחָיַיִן, אֲפִלּוּ בְדָבָר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ רוּחַ חַיִּים. וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹסֵר. וּמְטַמֵּא מִשּׁוּם גּוֹלֵל, וְרַבִּי מֵאִיר מְטַהֵר. וְכוֹתְבִין עָלָיו גִּטֵּי נָשִׁים, וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי פוֹסֵל: One may construct side posts from anything, even a living creature, provided that it was properly attached to the entrance of the alleyway, and Rabbi Yosei prohibits using a living creature as a side post. The mishna continues with a similar dispute: Even a living creature imparts ritual impurity if it used as the covering of a grave. But Rabbi Meir deems it pure. Likewise, one may write women’s bills of divorce on anything, even a living creature. But Rabbi Yosei HaGelili invalidates a bill of divorce written on a living creature.
שַׁיָּרָא שֶׁחָנְתָה בְּבִקְעָה וְהִקִּיפוּהָ בִכְלֵי בְהֵמָה, מְטַלְטְלִין בְּתוֹכָהּ, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיְּהֵא גָדֵר גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, וְלֹא יִהְיוּ פְרָצוֹת יְתֵרוֹת עַל הַבִּנְיָן. כָּל פִּרְצָה שֶׁהִיא כְעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת, מֻתֶּרֶת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כְפֶתַח. יָתֵר מִכָּאן, אָסוּר: If a caravan camped in a valley, i.e., an open space not enclosed by walls, and the travelers enclosed their camp with partitions made of the animals’ equipment, e.g., saddles and the like, one may carry inside the enclosed area, provided that the resultant partition will be a fence ten handbreadths high, and that there will not be breaches in the partition greater than the built segment. Any breach that is approximately ten cubits wide is permitted and does not invalidate the partition because it is considered like an entrance. However, if one of the breaches is greater than ten cubits, it is prohibited to carry anywhere in the enclosed area.
מַקִּיפִין שְׁלֹשָׁה חֲבָלִים, זֶה לְמַעְלָה מִזֶּה וְזֶה לְמַעְלָה מִזֶּה, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בֵּין חֶבֶל לַחֲבֵרוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. שִׁעוּר חֲבָלִים וְעָבְיָן, יָתֵר עַל טֶפַח, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא הַכֹּל עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים: If a caravan is camped in a field, and the travelers seek to construct partitions to render the area fit for one to carry within it on Shabbat, one surrounds the area with three ropes, one above another, and a third one above the other two. One is permitted to carry within the circumscribed area provided that there will not be a gap of three handbreadths between one rope and the next. The measure of the ropes and their combined thickness must be greater than a handbreadth, so that the entire partition, consisting of three ropes and the empty spaces between them, will be ten handbreadths high.
מַקִּיפִין בְּקָנִים, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בֵין קָנֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. בְּשַׁיָּרָא דִבְּרוּ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, לֹא דִבְּרוּ בְשַׁיָּרָא אֶלָּא בַהֹוֶה. כָּל מְחִצָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ שֶׁל שְׁתִי וְשֶׁל עֵרֶב, אֵינָהּ מְחִצָּה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵי דְבָרִים. אַרְבָּעָה דְבָרִים פָּטְרוּ בַמַּחֲנֶה, מְבִיאִין עֵצִים מִכָּל מָקוֹם, וּפְטוּרִים מֵרְחִיצַת יָדַיִם, וּמִדְּמַאי, וּמִלְּעָרֵב: Alternatively, one may surround the area with boards that stand upright, provided that there will not be a gap of three handbreadths between one board and the next. When the Sages issued this ruling, they spoke exclusively of a caravan; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda, who maintains that a partition of this kind, which consists of only horizontal or vertical elements, is permitted exclusively in exigent circumstances. Otherwise, full-fledged partitions are required. However, the Rabbis say: They spoke of a caravan in the mishna only because they spoke in the present, citing the most typical case. Those traveling in caravans were typically unable to erect full-fledged partitions, so they would surround their camps with ropes or boards. However, the halakha in the mishna applies in all cases. The mishna cites an additional dispute: Any partition that is not constructed of both warp and woof, i.e., vertical and horizontal elements, is not a partition; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda. He holds that the vertical boards and the horizontal ropes are not considered a partition, even in the exigent circumstances of a caravan. However, the Rabbis say: One of the two elements, either vertical or horizontal, is sufficient. The Sages exempted a soldier in a military camp in four matters: One may bring wood for kindling from any place with no concern that he is stealing wood from its owners; and one is exempt from ritual washing of the hands before eating; and one is exempt from the separation of tithes from doubtfully tithed produce [demai], i.e., produce purchased from an am ha’aretz, one who is not diligent in separating tithes; and one is exempt from establishing an eiruv.