9ט׳
1 א

הָעוֹר, וְהָרֹטֶב, וְהַקִּפָּה, וְהָאֱלָל, וְהָעֲצָמוֹת, וְהַגִּידִין, וְהַקַּרְנַיִם, וְהַטְּלָפַיִם, מִצְטָרְפִין לְטַמֵּא טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִים, אֲבָל לֹא טֻמְאַת נְבֵלוֹת. כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה לְנָכְרִי וּמְפַרְכֶּסֶת, מְטַמְּאָה טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִין, אֲבָל לֹא טֻמְאַת נְבֵלוֹת, עַד שֶׁתָּמוּת אוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּתִּיז אֶת רֹאשָׁהּ. רִבָּה לְטַמֵּא טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִין מִמַּה שֶׁרִבָּה לְטַמֵּא טֻמְאַת נְבֵלוֹת. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הָאֱלָל הַמְכֻנָּס, אִם יֶשׁ בּוֹ כַזַּיִת בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד, חַיָּב עָלָיו:

The hide, meat juice, sediment, dried-up meat, bones, sinews, horns and hooves join together [to make up the minimum quantity in order] to convey food-uncleanness, but not to [make up the minimum quantity in order to] convey nevelah-uncleanness. Similarly, if a man slaughtered an unclean animal for a Gentile and it still has convulsions, it can convey food-uncleanness, but it conveys nevelah-uncleanness only after it is dead, or its head has been chopped off. [Scripture] has [thus] made more cases that convey food-uncleanness than those that convey nevelah-uncleanness. Rabbi Judah says: if an olive’s bulk of dried-up meat was gathered in one place, one would thereby become liable [for nevelah-uncleanness].

2 ב

אֵלּוּ שֶׁעוֹרוֹתֵיהֶן כִּבְשָׂרָן, עוֹר הָאָדָם, וְעוֹר חֲזִיר שֶׁל יִשּׁוּב. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אַף עוֹר חֲזִיר הַבָּר. וְעוֹר חֲטוֹטֶרֶת שֶׁל גָּמָל הָרַכָּה, וְעוֹר הָרֹאשׁ שֶׁל עֵגֶל הָרַךְ, וְעוֹר הַפְּרָסוֹת, וְעוֹר בֵּית הַבֹּשֶׁת, וְעוֹר הַשָּׁלִיל, וְעוֹר שֶׁתַּחַת הָאַלְיָה, וְעוֹר הָאֲנָקָה וְהַכֹּחַ וְהַלְּטָאָה וְהַחֹמֶט. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הַלְּטָאָה כַחֻלְדָּה. וְכֻלָּן שֶׁעִבְּדָן אוֹ שֶׁהִלֵּךְ בָּהֶן כְּדֵי עֲבוֹדָה, טְהוֹרִין, חוּץ מֵעוֹר הָאָדָם. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי אוֹמֵר, שְׁמֹנָה שְׁרָצִים יֵשׁ לָהֶן עוֹרוֹת:

In the following cases the skin is considered flesh: The skin of a person, The skin of the domesticated pig. Rabbi Yose says: even the skin of the wild pig. The skin of the hump of a young camel. The skin of the head of a young calf. The skin around the hooves. The skin of the pudenda. The skin of a fetus. The skin beneath the fat tail. The skin of the gecko, the monitor, the lizard and the skink. Rabbi Judah says: the lizard is like the weasel. If any of these skins was tanned or trampled upon as much as [was usual] for tanning, it becomes clean, excepting the skin of a man. Rabbi Yohanan ben Nuri says: the eight reptiles have [real] skins.

3 ג

הַמַּפְשִׁיט בַּבְּהֵמָה וּבַחַיָּה, בַּטְּהוֹרָה וּבַטְּמֵאָה, בַּדַּקָּה וּבַגַּסָּה, לְשָׁטִיחַ, כְּדֵי אֲחִיזָה. וּלְחֵמֶת, עַד שֶׁיַּפְשִׁיט אֶת הֶחָזֶה. הַמַּרְגִּיל, כֻּלּוֹ חִבּוּר לַטֻּמְאָה, לִטָּמֵא וּלְטַמֵּא. עוֹר שֶׁעַל הַצַּוָּאר, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, חִבּוּר, עַד שֶׁיַּפְשִׁיט אֶת כֻּלּוֹ:

One who was flaying cattle or wild animals, clean or unclean, small or large: In order to use the hide for a covering, if he stripped as can be taken hold of [the hide is no longer considered as connected to the flesh.] In order to make a water-skin, until the breast has been flayed. If he was flaying from the feet upwards, until the whole hide [has been flayed]. [All of these measures apply] for both conveying uncleanness and becoming unclean. As for the skin that is on the neck: Rabbi Yohanan ben Nuri says: it is not connected. But the sages say it is connected until the whole hide has been flayed.

4 ד

עוֹר שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו כַּזַּיִת בָּשָׂר, הַנּוֹגֵע בְּצִיב הַיּוֹצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ, וּבְשַׂעֲרָה שֶׁכְּנֶגְדּוֹ, טָמֵא. הָיוּ עָלָיו כִּשְׁנֵי חֲצָאֵי זֵיתִים, מְטַמֵּא בְמַשָּׂא וְלֹא בְמַגָּע, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לֹא בְמַגָּע וְלֹא בְמַשָּׂא. וּמוֹדֶה רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא בִּשְׁנֵי חֲצָאֵי זֵיתִים שֶׁתְּחָבָן בְּקֵיסָם וֶהֱסִיטָן, שֶׁהוּא טָמֵא. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא מְטַהֵר בָּעוֹר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָעוֹר מְבַטְּלָן:

A hide which had an olive’s bulk of [unclean] flesh clinging to it, one who touches a shred hanging from it, or a hair that was opposite to it, he becomes unclean. If there were two pieces of flesh attached to it, each the size of half an olive, they convey uncleanness by carrying but not by contact, the words of Rabbi Ishmael. Rabbi Akiva says: neither by contact nor by carrying. Rabbi Akiva agrees that if there were two pieces of flesh, each the size of half of an olive, that he stuck on a twig and he waved them, he becomes unclean. Why then does Rabbi Akiva declare him clean in the [case where they cling to the] hide? Because the hide renders them negligible.

5 ה

קוּלִית הַמֵּת וְקוּלִית הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁים, הַנּוֹגֵעַ בָּהֶן, בֵּין סְתוּמִים בֵּין נְקוּבִים, טָמֵא. קוּלִית נְבֵלָה וְקוּלִית הַשֶּׁרֶץ, הַנּוֹגֵעַ בָּהֶן סְתוּמִים, טְהוֹרִים. נְקוּבִים כָּל שֶׁהוּא, מִטַּמֵּא בְמַגָּע. מִנַּיִן שֶׁאַף בְּמַשָּׂא, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (ויקרא יא), הַנֹּגֵעַ וְהַנֹּשֵׂא, אֶת שֶׁבָּא לִכְלָל מַגָּע, בָּא לִכְלָל מַשָּׂא, לֹא בָא לִכְלָל מַגָּע, לֹא בָא לִכְלָל מַשָּׂא:

With regard to a thigh-bone of a corpse or a thigh-bone of a consecrated animal, he who touches it, whether it be stopped up or pierced, becomes unclean. With regard to a thighbone of a nevelah or of a [dead] sheretz, if it was stopped up, he who touches it remains clean, but if it was at all pierced it conveys uncleanness by contact. From where do we know [the same rules apply] for carrying? Scripture says, “He that touches and he that carries” (Leviticus 11:39-40), anything that [can become unclean] by contact [can become unclean] by carrying. And anything that cannot [become unclean] by contact, cannot become [unclean] by carrying.

6 ו

בֵּיצַת הַשֶּׁרֶץ הַמְרֻקֶּמֶת, טְהוֹרָה. נִקְּבָה כָל שֶׁהוּא, טְמֵאָה. עַכְבָּר שֶׁחֶצְיוֹ בָשָׂר וְחֶצְיוֹ אֲדָמָה, הַנּוֹגֵעַ בַּבָּשָׂר, טָמֵא. בָּאֲדָמָה, טָהוֹר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף הַנּוֹגֵעַ בָּאֲדָמָה שֶׁכְּנֶגֶד הַבָּשָׂר, טָמֵא:

The egg of a sheretz in which there has formed an embryo is clean. If it was pierced, however small the hole was, it is unclean. A mouse which is half flesh and half earth, if a man touched the flesh he becomes unclean, but if he touched the earth he remains clean. Rabbi Judah says: even if he touched the earth that is over against the flesh he becomes unclean.

7 ז

הָאֵבָר וְהַבָּשָׂר הַמְדֻלְדָּלִין בִּבְהֵמָה, מְטַמְּאִין טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִין בִּמְקוֹמָן, וּצְרִיכִין הֶכְשֵׁר. נִשְׁחֲטָה בְהֵמָה, הֻכְשְׁרוּ בְדָמֶיהָ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, לֹא הֻכְשָׁרוּ. מֵתָה הַבְּהֵמָה, הַבָּשָׂר צָרִיךְ הֶכְשֵׁר. הָאֵבָר מְטַמֵּא מִשּׁוּם אֵבָר מִן הַחַי וְאֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא מִשּׁוּם אֵבַר נְבֵלָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מְטַהֵר:

Limbs or pieces of flesh which hang loose from a [living] animal are susceptible to food uncleanness while they are in their place. And [in order to become unclean] they must be first rendered susceptible to uncleanness. If the animal was slaughtered, they have by the blood [of the slaughtering] become susceptible to uncleanness, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Shimon says: they have not become susceptible to uncleanness. If the animal died, the hanging flesh must be rendered susceptible to uncleanness. The limb is unclean as a limb severed from a living creature, but is not unclean as the limb of a nevelah (carcass), the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Shimon declares it clean.

8 ח

הָאֵבָר וְהַבָּשָׂר הַמְדֻלְדָּלִין בָּאָדָם, טְהוֹרִין. מֵת הָאָדָם, הַבָּשָׂר טָהוֹר. הָאֵבָר מְטַמֵּא מִשּׁוּם אֵבָר מִן הַחַי וְאֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא מִשּׁוּם אֵבָר מִן הַמֵּת, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מְטַהֵר:

A limb or a piece of flesh which hangs loose from a person are clean. If the man died, the flesh is clean, the limb is unclean as a limb severed from the living body but is not unclean as a limb severed from a corpse, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Shimon declares it clean.