3ג׳
1 א

אֵלּוּ טְרֵפוֹת בַּבְּהֵמָה. נְקוּבַת הַוֶּשֶׁט, וּפְסוּקַת הַגַּרְגֶּרֶת, נִקַּב קְרוּם שֶׁל מֹחַ, נִקַּב הַלֵּב לְבֵית חֲלָלוֹ, נִשְׁבְּרָה הַשִּׁדְרָה וְנִפְסַק הַחוּט שֶׁלָּהּ, נִטַּל הַכָּבֵד וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּיֵּר הֵימֶנּוּ כְלוּם, הָרֵאָה שֶׁנִּקְּבָה, אוֹ שֶׁחָסְרָה, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, עַד שֶׁתִּנָּקֵב לְבֵית הַסִּמְפּוֹנוֹת. נִקְּבָה הַקֵּבָה, נִקְּבָה הַמָּרָה, נִקְּבוּ הַדַּקִּין, הַכֶּרֶס הַפְּנִימִית שֶׁנִּקְּבָה, אוֹ שֶׁנִּקְרַע רֹב הַחִיצוֹנָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הַגְּדוֹלָה טֶפַח, וְהַקְּטַנָּה בְּרֻבָּהּ. הַמְסֵס וּבֵית הַכּוֹסוֹת שֶׁנִּקְּבוּ לַחוּץ, נָפְלָה מִן הַגַּג, נִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ רֹב צַלְעוֹתֶיהָ, וּדְרוּסַת הַזְּאֵב. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, דְּרוּסַת הַזְּאֵב בַּדַּקָּה, וּדְרוּסַת אֲרִי בַּגַּסָּה, דְּרוּסַת הַנֵּץ בָּעוֹף הַדַּק, וּדְרוּסַת הַגַּס בָּעוֹף הַגָּס. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁאֵין כָּמוֹהָ חַיָּה, טְרֵפָה:

The following [defects] render cattle terefah:If the esophagus was pierced; If the windpipe severed; If the membrane of the brain was pierced; If the heart was pierced as far as its cavity thereof; If the spine was broken and the cord severed; If the liver was gone and none of it remained; If the lung was pierced, Or if part of it was missing Rabbi Shimon says: only if it was pierced as far as the main bronchi; If the stomach, If the gall-bladder was pierced, If the intestines were pierced; If the innermost stomach was pierced, If the greater part of the outer stomach was pierced. Rabbi Judah says: in a large animal [if it was torn] to the extent of a handbreadth, and in a small animal the greater part. If the omasum (the third stomach of a ruminant) [was pierced]; Of if the second stomach was pierced on the outside; If the animal fell from the roof; If most of its ribs were fractured; Or if it was mauled by a wolf Rabbi Judah says: small animals [are terefah] if mauled by a wolf, large cattle if mauled by a lion; small fowl if mauled by a hawk, large fowl if mauled by a falcon. This is the rule: if an animal with a similar defect could not continue to live, it is terefah.

2 ב

וְאֵלּוּ כְשֵׁרוֹת בַּבְּהֵמָה. נִקְּבָה הַגַּרְגֶּרֶת אוֹ שֶׁנִּסְדְּקָה. עַד כַּמָּה תֶּחְסַר. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, עַד כָּאִסָּר הָאִיטַלְקִי. נִפְחֲתָה הַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת וְלֹא נִקַּב קְרוּם שֶׁל מֹחַ, נִקַּב הַלֵּב וְלֹא לְבֵית חֲלָלוֹ, נִשְׁבְּרָה הַשִּׁדְרָה וְלֹא נִפְסַק הַחוּט שֶׁלָּהּ, נִטְּלָה הַכָּבֵד וְנִשְׁתַּיֵּר הֵימֶנָּה כַזָּיִת, הַמְסֵס וּבֵית הַכּוֹסוֹת שֶׁנִּקְּבוּ זֶה לְתוֹךְ זֶה, נִטַּל הַטְּחוֹל, נִטְּלוּ הַכְּלָיוֹת, נִטַּל לְחִי הַתַּחְתּוֹן, נִטַּל הָאֵם שֶׁלָּהּ, וַחֲרוּתָה בִידֵי שָׁמָיִם. הַגְּלוּדָה, רַבִּי מֵאִיר מַכְשִׁיר, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹסְלִין:

And the following [defects] do not render cattle terefah:If the windpipe was pierced, or cracked [lengthwise]. To what extent may it be deficient? Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: up to an Italian issar. If the skull was cracked but the membrane of the brain was not pierced; If the heart was pierced but not as far as its cavity; If the spine was broken but the cord was not severed; If the liver was removed but an olive's size of it remained. If the omasum or the third stomach were pierced at their juncture; If the spleen was removed, or the kidneys, or the lower jaw-bone or the womb. If [the lung] was shrunken up by an act of Heaven. If an animal was stripped of its hide: Rabbi Meir declares it valid But the rabbis declare it invalid.

3 ג

וְאֵלּוּ טְרֵפוֹת בָּעוֹף. נְקוּבַת הַוֶּשֶׁט, פְּסוּקַת הַגַּרְגֶּרֶת, הִכַּתָּהּ חֻלְדָּה עַל רֹאשָׁהּ, מְקוֹם שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ טְרֵפָה, נִקַּב הַקֻּרְקְבָן, נִקְּבוּ הַדַּקִּין, נָפְלָה לָאוּר וְנֶחְמְרוּ בְנֵי מֵעֶיהָ, אִם יְרֻקִּים, פְּסוּלִין. אִם אֲדֻמִּים, כְּשֵׁרִים. דְּרָסָהּ, וּטְרָפָהּ בַּכֹּתֶל, אוֹ שֶׁרִצְּצַתָּהּ בְּהֵמָה וּמְפַרְכֶּסֶת, וְשָׁהֲתָה מֵעֵת לְעֵת וּשְׁחָטָהּ, כְּשֵׁרָה:

The following [defects] render birds terefah:If the esophagus was pierced, If the windpipe was severed; If a weasel struck [the bird] on the head in such a place as would render it terefah. If the gizzard was pierced If the intestines were pierced. If it fell into the fire and its innards were scorched: If they turned green, it is invalid, But if they remained red it is valid. If one trod upon it or knocked it against a wall or if an animal trampled upon it, and it still jerks its limbs, and it remained alive after this for twenty-four hours, and it was thereafter slaughtered, it is valid.

4 ד

וְאֵלּוּ כְשֵׁרוֹת בָּעוֹף. נִקְּבָה הַגַּרְגֶּרֶת אוֹ שֶׁנִּסְדְּקָה, הִכַּתָּהּ חֻלְדָּה עַל רֹאשָׁהּ, מְקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ טְרֵפָה, נִקַּב הַזֶּפֶק. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ נִטָּל. יָצְאוּ בְנֵי מֵעֶיהָ וְלֹא נִקְּבוּ, נִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ גַפֶּיהָ, נִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ רַגְלֶיהָ, נִמְרְטוּ כְנָפֶיהָ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם נִטְּלָה הַנּוֹצָה, פְּסוּלָה:

And the following [defects] do not render birds terefah:If the windpipe was pierced or cracked lengthwise; If a weasel struck it on the head in such a place as would not render it terefah. If the crop was pierced Rabbi says: even if it was gone. If the innards protruded [from the body] but were not pierced. If its wings were broken, or its legs; or if [the wing’s] feathers were plucked. Rabbi Judah says: if its down was gone it is invalid.

5 ה

אֲחוּזַת הַדָּם, וְהַמְּעֻשֶּׁנֶת, וְהַמְצֻנֶּנֶת, וְשֶׁאָכְלָה הַרְדֻּפְנִי, וְשֶׁאָכְלָה צוֹאַת תַּרְנְגוֹלִים, אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁתְתָה מַיִם הָרָעִים, כְּשֵׁרָה. אָכְלָה סַם הַמָּוֶת אוֹ שֶׁהִכִּישָׁהּ נָחָשׁ, מֻתֶּרֶת מִשּׁוּם טְרֵפָה, וַאֲסוּרָה מִשּׁוּם סַכָּנַת נְפָשׁוֹת:

[If an animal] suffered from congestion of the blood, or was overcome by smoke or by a cold, or if it ate oleander or chicken dung, or if it drank noxious water, it is permitted. If it ate poison or was bitten by a snake, it is not forbidden as trefah but it is forbidden as a danger to life.

6 ו

סִימָנֵי בְהֵמָה וְחַיָּה נֶאֶמְרוּ מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְסִימָנֵי הָעוֹף לֹא נֶאֱמָרוּ. אֲבָל אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, כָּל עוֹף הַדּוֹרֵס, טָמֵא. כֹּל שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ אֶצְבַּע יְתֵרָה, וְזֶפֶק, וְקֻרְקְבָנוֹ נִקְלָף, טָהוֹר. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בַּר צָדוֹק אוֹמֵר, כָּל עוֹף הַחוֹלֵק אֶת רַגְלָיו, טָמֵא:

The characteristics of cattle and of wild animals are stated in the Torah. The characteristics of birds are not stated, but the sages said: every bird that seizes its prey is unclean. Every bird that has an extra toe, or a crop and a gizzard that can be peeled, is clean. Rabbi Elazar bar Zadok says: every bird that parts its toes is unclean.

7 ז

וּבַחֲגָבִים, כֹּל שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ אַרְבַּע רַגְלַיִם, וְאַרְבַּע כְּנָפַיִם, וְקַרְסֻלַּיִם, וּכְנָפָיו חוֹפִין אֶת רֻבּוֹ. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, וּשְׁמוֹ חָגָב. וּבַדָּגִים, כֹּל שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקָשֶׂת. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שְׁנֵי קַשְׂקַשִּׂין וּסְנַפִּיר אֶחָד. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן קַשְׂקַשִּׂין, הַקְּבוּעִין בּוֹ. וּסְנַפִּירִין, הַפּוֹרֵחַ בָּהֶן:

Of locusts: all that have four legs, four wings, leaping legs, and wings covering the greater part of the body, [are clean.] Rabbi Yose says: its name must be locust. Of fishes: all that have fins and scales [are clean]. Rabbi Judah says: there must be [at least] two scales and one fin. The scales are those which are immovable, the fins are those [wings] by which it swims.