3ג׳
1 א

אֵלּוּ טְרֵפוֹת בַּבְּהֵמָה. נְקוּבַת הַוֶּשֶׁט, וּפְסוּקַת הַגַּרְגֶּרֶת, נִקַּב קְרוּם שֶׁל מֹחַ, נִקַּב הַלֵּב לְבֵית חֲלָלוֹ, נִשְׁבְּרָה הַשִּׁדְרָה וְנִפְסַק הַחוּט שֶׁלָּהּ, נִטַּל הַכָּבֵד וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּיֵּר הֵימֶנּוּ כְלוּם, הָרֵאָה שֶׁנִּקְּבָה, אוֹ שֶׁחָסְרָה, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, עַד שֶׁתִּנָּקֵב לְבֵית הַסִּמְפּוֹנוֹת. נִקְּבָה הַקֵּבָה, נִקְּבָה הַמָּרָה, נִקְּבוּ הַדַּקִּין, הַכֶּרֶס הַפְּנִימִית שֶׁנִּקְּבָה, אוֹ שֶׁנִּקְרַע רֹב הַחִיצוֹנָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הַגְּדוֹלָה טֶפַח, וְהַקְּטַנָּה בְּרֻבָּהּ. הַמְסֵס וּבֵית הַכּוֹסוֹת שֶׁנִּקְּבוּ לַחוּץ, נָפְלָה מִן הַגַּג, נִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ רֹב צַלְעוֹתֶיהָ, וּדְרוּסַת הַזְּאֵב. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, דְּרוּסַת הַזְּאֵב בַּדַּקָּה, וּדְרוּסַת אֲרִי בַּגַּסָּה, דְּרוּסַת הַנֵּץ בָּעוֹף הַדַּק, וּדְרוּסַת הַגַּס בָּעוֹף הַגָּס. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁאֵין כָּמוֹהָ חַיָּה, טְרֵפָה:

These are the terefot [an animal with a mortal condition such that it would die within one year] for cattle: a puncture of the esophagus; and a split [width-wise] of the trachea; the membrane of the brain is perforated; the heart chamber is perforated; the spine is broken and its cord is split; the liver is removed and none of it remains; the lung which is punctured or missing - Rabbi Shimon says, "Only when it is punctured through the bronchial tubes;" the stomach was pierced; the abomasum was pierced; the gall-bladder was pierced; the small intestines were pierced; the inner rumen was pierced; or if the majority of the outer was ripped - Rabbi Yehuda says, "[For] the larger [animals] a tefach [a specific unit of length] and for the smaller [animals] the majority; the omasum or reticulum which were punctured to the outside; fallen from a roof; most of its ribs were fractured; or clawed by a wolf. Rabbi Yehuda says, "Clawed by a wolf for small cattle and clawed by a lion for large cattle. Clawed by a hawk for a small bird and clawed by a large bird for a large bird." This is the general rule: anything where something similar to it cannot live is a terefah.

2 ב

וְאֵלּוּ כְשֵׁרוֹת בַּבְּהֵמָה. נִקְּבָה הַגַּרְגֶּרֶת אוֹ שֶׁנִּסְדְּקָה. עַד כַּמָּה תֶּחְסַר. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, עַד כָּאִסָּר הָאִיטַלְקִי. נִפְחֲתָה הַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת וְלֹא נִקַּב קְרוּם שֶׁל מֹחַ, נִקַּב הַלֵּב וְלֹא לְבֵית חֲלָלוֹ, נִשְׁבְּרָה הַשִּׁדְרָה וְלֹא נִפְסַק הַחוּט שֶׁלָּהּ, נִטְּלָה הַכָּבֵד וְנִשְׁתַּיֵּר הֵימֶנָּה כַזָּיִת, הַמְסֵס וּבֵית הַכּוֹסוֹת שֶׁנִּקְּבוּ זֶה לְתוֹךְ זֶה, נִטַּל הַטְּחוֹל, נִטְּלוּ הַכְּלָיוֹת, נִטַּל לְחִי הַתַּחְתּוֹן, נִטַּל הָאֵם שֶׁלָּהּ, וַחֲרוּתָה בִידֵי שָׁמָיִם. הַגְּלוּדָה, רַבִּי מֵאִיר מַכְשִׁיר, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹסְלִין:

These are permitted for cattle: the trachea was perforated or if it was split [lengthwise]. Up to how much can it lack? Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says, "Up to an Italian issar [a specific unit of money]." The skull is chipped but the membrane of the brain is not perforated; the heart is perforated but not through to its chamber; the spine is broken but its cord is not split; the liver is removed but an olive's size of it remains; the omasum and reticulum which we perforated from this to the other; the spleen is removed; the kidneys are removed; the lower jaw is removed; its womb is removed; or dried up [lungs] at the hands of Heaven. The flayed [animal]: Rabbi Meir declares valid, but the Sages invalidate.

3 ג

וְאֵלּוּ טְרֵפוֹת בָּעוֹף. נְקוּבַת הַוֶּשֶׁט, פְּסוּקַת הַגַּרְגֶּרֶת, הִכַּתָּהּ חֻלְדָּה עַל רֹאשָׁהּ, מְקוֹם שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ טְרֵפָה, נִקַּב הַקֻּרְקְבָן, נִקְּבוּ הַדַּקִּין, נָפְלָה לָאוּר וְנֶחְמְרוּ בְנֵי מֵעֶיהָ, אִם יְרֻקִּים, פְּסוּלִין. אִם אֲדֻמִּים, כְּשֵׁרִים. דְּרָסָהּ, וּטְרָפָהּ בַּכֹּתֶל, אוֹ שֶׁרִצְּצַתָּהּ בְּהֵמָה וּמְפַרְכֶּסֶת, וְשָׁהֲתָה מֵעֵת לְעֵת וּשְׁחָטָהּ, כְּשֵׁרָה:

These are the terefot for a bird: a puncture of the esophagus; a split [width-wise] of the trachea; a weasel hit it on the head in a place that makes it a terefah; the gizzard is perforated; the small intestines are perforated; it fell into a fire and its intestines were scorched - if they are green, they are invalid, if they are red they are valid; or [if it was] trampled on, torn on a wall, or cattle ran over it and it jerks and then waits twenty-four hours and one slaughtered it, it is valid.

4 ד

וְאֵלּוּ כְשֵׁרוֹת בָּעוֹף. נִקְּבָה הַגַּרְגֶּרֶת אוֹ שֶׁנִּסְדְּקָה, הִכַּתָּהּ חֻלְדָּה עַל רֹאשָׁהּ, מְקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ טְרֵפָה, נִקַּב הַזֶּפֶק. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ נִטָּל. יָצְאוּ בְנֵי מֵעֶיהָ וְלֹא נִקְּבוּ, נִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ גַפֶּיהָ, נִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ רַגְלֶיהָ, נִמְרְטוּ כְנָפֶיהָ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם נִטְּלָה הַנּוֹצָה, פְּסוּלָה:

The following are permitted for a bird: the trachea was perforated or it was split [length-wise]; a weasel hit it on its head in a place which does not make it a terefah; the crop was perforated - Rebbi says, "Even if it was removed;" its insides came out but they were not perforated; its wing was broken; its leg was broken; or its wing feathers were plucked. Rabbi Yehuda says, "If the down was removed, it is invalid."

5 ה

אֲחוּזַת הַדָּם, וְהַמְּעֻשֶּׁנֶת, וְהַמְצֻנֶּנֶת, וְשֶׁאָכְלָה הַרְדֻּפְנִי, וְשֶׁאָכְלָה צוֹאַת תַּרְנְגוֹלִים, אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁתְתָה מַיִם הָרָעִים, כְּשֵׁרָה. אָכְלָה סַם הַמָּוֶת אוֹ שֶׁהִכִּישָׁהּ נָחָשׁ, מֻתֶּרֶת מִשּׁוּם טְרֵפָה, וַאֲסוּרָה מִשּׁוּם סַכָּנַת נְפָשׁוֹת:

Congestion of blood, one that inhaled smoke, one that became sick from cold; one that ate oleander; or one that ate chicken feces or drank poor water is fit. [If] it ate poison or a snake bit it, it is permissible in regards to [the category of] terefah, and forbidden in regards [to the category of] endangering lives.

6 ו

סִימָנֵי בְהֵמָה וְחַיָּה נֶאֶמְרוּ מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְסִימָנֵי הָעוֹף לֹא נֶאֱמָרוּ. אֲבָל אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, כָּל עוֹף הַדּוֹרֵס, טָמֵא. כֹּל שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ אֶצְבַּע יְתֵרָה, וְזֶפֶק, וְקֻרְקְבָנוֹ נִקְלָף, טָהוֹר. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בַּר צָדוֹק אוֹמֵר, כָּל עוֹף הַחוֹלֵק אֶת רַגְלָיו, טָמֵא:

The signs of cattle and a wild animal are stated from the Torah, but the signs of a bird are not stated. But the Sages said, "Any bird which attacks [prey] is prohibited. Any that has an extra digit, a crop, and gizzard that peels [away] is permitted." Rabbi Eliezer ben Rebbi Tzadok says, "Every bird which parts its toes is prohibited."

7 ז

וּבַחֲגָבִים, כֹּל שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ אַרְבַּע רַגְלַיִם, וְאַרְבַּע כְּנָפַיִם, וְקַרְסֻלַּיִם, וּכְנָפָיו חוֹפִין אֶת רֻבּוֹ. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, וּשְׁמוֹ חָגָב. וּבַדָּגִים, כֹּל שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקָשֶׂת. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שְׁנֵי קַשְׂקַשִּׂין וּסְנַפִּיר אֶחָד. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן קַשְׂקַשִּׂין, הַקְּבוּעִין בּוֹ. וּסְנַפִּירִין, הַפּוֹרֵחַ בָּהֶן:

And for locusts, any which has four legs, four wings, and jointed legs, and its wings cover the majority of it [is permitted]. Rabbi Yose says, "And [if] its name is [the] 'Arbeh.'" And for fish, any which has a fin and scales. Rabbi Yehuda says, "Two scales and one fin." These are they [types] of scales: those attached to it. And fins: the ones by which it swims.