3ג׳
1 א

כֵּיצַד מַפְרִישִׁין הַבִּכּוּרִים. יוֹרֵד אָדָם בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ וְרוֹאֶה תְּאֵנָה שֶׁבִּכְּרָה, אֶשְׁכּוֹל שֶׁבִּכֵּר, רִמּוֹן שֶׁבִּכֵּר, קוֹשְׁרוֹ בְגֶמִי, וְאוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ בִּכּוּרִים. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן חוֹזֵר וְקוֹרֵא אוֹתָם בִּכּוּרִים מֵאַחַר שֶׁיִּתָּלְשׁוּ מִן הַקַּרְקָע:

How does one designate the Bikkurim [first-fruits that must be brought to the Temple in Jerusalem and given to the Kohen]? A person goes to one's field and sees a date that is bearing fruit, a bunch [of grapes] that is bearing fruit, or a pomegranate that is bearing fruit, and ties it with a string and says, "Behold these are Bikkurim." Rabbi Shimon says, even so, he reiterates and declares them Bikkurim once they have been picked from the ground.

2 ב

כֵּיצַד מַעֲלִין אֶת הַבִּכּוּרִים. כָּל הָעֲיָרוֹת שֶׁבַּמַּעֲמָד מִתְכַּנְּסוֹת לָעִיר שֶׁל מַעֲמָד, וְלָנִין בִּרְחוֹבָהּ שֶׁל עִיר, וְלֹא הָיוּ נִכְנָסִין לַבָּתִּים. וְלַמַּשְׁכִּים, הָיָה הַמְמֻנֶּה אוֹמֵר (ירמיה לא), קוּמוּ וְנַעֲלֶה צִיּוֹן אֶל בֵּית ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ:

How do they bring the Bikkurim up [to Jerusalem]? All the cities of a Ma'amad [one of 24 regions, each of which sent in turn a delegation to the Temple to be present and represent the entire people at the public sacrifices] would go into [central] city of the Ma'amad and sleep in the streets of that city without going into the houses. When they arose, the supervisor would say, "Arise! Let us go up to Zion, to the house of the Lord our God!"

3 ג

הַקְּרוֹבִים מְבִיאִים הַתְּאֵנִים וְהָעֲנָבִים, וְהָרְחוֹקִים מְבִיאִים גְּרוֹגָרוֹת וְצִמּוּקִים. וְהַשּׁוֹר הוֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם, וְקַרְנָיו מְצֻפּוֹת זָהָב, וַעֲטֶרֶת שֶׁל זַיִת בְּרֹאשׁוֹ. הֶחָלִיל מַכֶּה לִפְנֵיהֶם, עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעִים קָרוֹב לִירוּשָׁלָיִם. הִגִּיעוּ קָרוֹב לִירוּשָׁלַיִם, שָׁלְחוּ לִפְנֵיהֶם, וְעִטְּרוּ אֶת בִּכּוּרֵיהֶם. הַפַּחוֹת, הַסְּגָנִים וְהַגִּזְבָּרִים יוֹצְאִים לִקְרָאתָם. לְפִי כְבוֹד הַנִּכְנָסִים הָיוּ יוֹצְאִים. וְכָל בַּעֲלֵי אֻמָּנִיּוֹת שֶׁבִּירוּשָׁלַיִם עוֹמְדִים לִפְנֵיהֶם וְשׁוֹאֲלִין בִּשְׁלוֹמָם, אַחֵינוּ אַנְשֵׁי הַמָּקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי, בָּאתֶם לְשָׁלוֹם:

Those who were close would bring dates and grapes and the far ones would bring dried figs and raisins. A bull would go before them and its horns would be plated with gold and it would have a olive wreath around its head. The flute would play before them until they got close to Jerusalem. Once they got close to Jerusalem, they would send ahead of them [a messenger] and adorned their Bikkurim. The overseers and the officers and the treasurers would go out to greet them; in accordance with the stature of those coming in would they go out. All the artisans of Jerusalem would stand before them and greet them, "Our brothers from so-and-so, come in peace!"

4 ד

הֶחָלִיל מַכֶּה לִפְנֵיהֶם עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעִין לְהַר הַבָּיִת. הִגִּיעוּ לְהַר הַבַּיִת, אֲפִלּוּ אַגְרִיפַּס הַמֶּלֶךְ נוֹטֵל הַסַּל עַל כְּתֵפוֹ וְנִכְנָס, עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לָעֲזָרָה. הִגִּיעַ לָעֲזָרָה וְדִבְּרוּ הַלְוִיִּם בַּשִּׁיר, אֲרוֹמִמְךָ ה' כִּי דִלִּיתָנִי וְלֹא שִׂמַּחְתָּ אֹיְבַי לִי (תהלים ל):

The flute would continue playing before them until they arrived at the Temple Mount. Once they arrived at the Temple Mount, even Agripas the King would carry his basket on his shoulder and enter until he reached the courtyard. Once they got to the courtyard, the Levites would speak in song (Psalms 30:2), "I will extol you, O Lord, because you have raised me and not allowed my enemies to rejoice over me."

5 ה

הַגּוֹזָלוֹת שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַסַּלִּים, הָיוּ עוֹלוֹת. וּמַה שֶּׁבְּיָדָם, נוֹתְנִים לַכֹּהֲנִים:

The young birds on the baskets would be Olot [offerings burnt entirely upon the altar] and what was in their hands, they gave to the Kohanim.

6 ו

עוֹדֵהוּ הַסַּל עַל כְּתֵפוֹ, קוֹרֵא מֵהִגַּדְתִּי הַיּוֹם לַה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ (דברים כו), עַד שֶׁגּוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר עַד אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי. הִגִּיעַ לַאֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי, מוֹרִיד הַסַּל מֵעַל כְּתֵפוֹ וְאוֹחֲזוֹ בְשִׂפְתוֹתָיו, וְכֹהֵן מַנִּיחַ יָדוֹ תַחְתָּיו וּמְנִיפוֹ, וְקוֹרֵא מֵאֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי עַד שֶׁהוּא גוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וּמַנִּיחוֹ בְּצַד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוָה וְיָצָא:

With the basket still on one's shoulder, one would recite from "I declare today to the Lord my God" (Deuteronomy 26:3-10) until finishing the entire passage. Rabbi Judah says, until "My father was a wandering Aramean" (Deut. 26:5). Once one gets to "My father was a wandering Aramean", one takes the basket off one's shoulder and holds it by one's lip. The priest places his hand under it and waves it. He then recites from "My father was a wandering Aramean" until finishing the entire passage and rests [the basket] beside the altar and prostrates and leaves.

7 ז

בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה, כָּל מִי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לִקְרוֹת, קוֹרֵא. וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לִקְרוֹת, מַקְרִין אוֹתוֹ. נִמְנְעוּ מִלְּהָבִיא, הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיְּהוּ מַקְרִין אֶת מִי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ וְאֶת מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ:

In the beginning, anyone who knew how to read would read and anyone else would have it read for him. [Then,] people were reticent to bring and they declared that it would be read for those who know how to read and those who do not know.

8 ח

הָעֲשִׁירִים מְבִיאִים בִּכּוּרֵיהֶם בִּקְלָתוֹת שֶׁל כֶּסֶף וְשֶׁל זָהָב, וְהָעֲנִיִּים מְבִיאִין אוֹתָם בְּסַלֵּי נְצָרִים שֶׁל עֲרָבָה קְלוּפָה, וְהַסַּלִּים וְהַבִּכּוּרִים נִתָּנִין לַכֹּהֲנִים:

Wealthy people would bring their Bikkurim in baskets of silver and of gold. Poor people would bring theirs in reed baskets of woven willow stems. Both the baskets and the Bikkurim were given to the priests.

9 ט

רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן נַנָּס אוֹמֵר, מְעַטְּרִין אֶת הַבִּכּוּרִים חוּץ מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִים. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אֵין מְעַטְּרִין אֶת הַבִּכּוּרִים אֶלָּא מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִים:

Rabbi Shimon ben Nanas said, one may adorn the Bikkurim [basket with species] outside of the seven species. Rabbi Akiva said, the Bikkurim may be adorned only with the seven species.

10 י

רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שָׁלֹשׁ מִדּוֹת בַּבִּכּוּרִים, הַבִּכּוּרִים, וְתוֹסֶפֶת הַבִּכּוּרִים, וְעִטּוּר הַבִּכּוּרִים. תּוֹסֶפֶת הַבִּכּוּרִים, מִין בְּמִינוֹ. וְעִטּוּר הַבִּכּוּרִים, מִין בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ. תּוֹסֶפֶת הַבִּכּוּרִים נֶאֱכֶלֶת בְּטָהֳרָה, וּפְטוּרָה מִן הַדְּמַאי. וְעִטּוּר הַבִּכּוּרִים חַיָּב בַּדְּמַאי:

Rabbi Shimon says, there are three categories in Bikkurim: the Bikkurim themselves, the addition to the Bikkurim, and the adornment of the Bikkurim. The addition to the Bikkurim are from the same species. The adornment of the Bikkurim is from a different species. The addition to the Bikkurim are eaten in ritual purity, and are exempted from Demai [produce from which it is uncertain whether tithes were already taken]. The adornment of the Bikkurim are obligated in Demai [requiring the Kohen to tithe them].

11 יא

אֵימָתַי אָמְרוּ תּוֹסֶפֶת הַבִּכּוּרִים כַּבִּכּוּרִים, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהִיא בָאָה מִן הָאָרֶץ. וְאִם אֵינָהּ בָּאָה מִן הָאָרֶץ, אֵינָהּ כַּבִּכּוּרִים:

In what case do we say that the addition to the Bikkurim is like the Bikkurim? When it comes from the Land [of Israel]. If it doesn't come from the Land [of Israel], it's not like the Bikkurim.

12 יב

לְמָה אָמְרוּ הַבִּכּוּרִים כְּנִכְסֵי כֹהֵן, שֶׁהוּא קוֹנֶה מֵהֶם עֲבָדִים וְקַרְקָעוֹת וּבְהֵמָה טְמֵאָה, וּבַעַל חוֹב נוֹטְלָן בְּחוֹבוֹ, וְהָאִשָּׁה בִכְתֻבָּתָהּ, כְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה. וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵין נוֹתְנִים אוֹתָם אֶלָּא לְחָבֵר בְּטוֹבָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, נוֹתְנִין אוֹתָם לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר, וְהֵם מְחַלְּקִין בֵּינֵיהֶם, כְּקָדְשֵׁי הַמִּקְדָּשׁ:

Why do we say that the Bikkurim are like the property of a Kohen? Because he can buy with them slaves, land, or an impure animal, and a creditor takes them to pay a debt, and a women takes them to pay her marriage contract, [as the Bikkurim may be used] like a Torah scroll. And Rabbi Yehudah says, they are only given to a Chaver [one who scrupulously observes tithes and purity laws], [and only] as a gift. And the Sages say they are given to those [priests] of the watch, and they divide them among themselves, as sanctified Temple items.