הַתְּרוּמָה וְהַבִּכּוּרִים, חַיָּבִים עֲלֵיהֶן מִיתָה וְחֹמֶשׁ, וַאֲסוּרִים לְזָרִים, וְהֵם נִכְסֵי כֹהֵן, וְעוֹלִין בְּאֶחָד וּמֵאָה, וּטְעוּנִין רְחִיצַת יָדַיִם וְהַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ בִתְרוּמָה וּבִכּוּרִים, מַה שֶׁאֵין כֵּן בַּמַּעֲשֵׂר:
Terumah [a portion of a crop given to a Kohen, priest; pl. Kohanim, which becomes holy upon separation, and can only be consumed by Kohanim or their household] and Bikkurim [first-fruits that must be brought to the Temple in Jerusalem and given to the Kohen] are subject to the [laws of the] death penalty [if a non-Kohen deliberately consumes them] and [the penalty of an additional] fifth, and they are forbidden to non-Kohanim, and they are the property of the Kohen, and they are neutralized in one hundred and one [of non-sanctified foodstuff], and they require hand-washing [before handling] and [a Kohen who became impure and then immersed himself to become pure again may eat them only] after sunset. All of the above is all for Terumah and Bikkurim, and not for Ma'aser [Sheni, the second tithe of produce, which must be taken to Jerusalem and consumed there].
יֵשׁ בְּמַעֲשֵׂר וּבִכּוּרִים מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בַּתְּרוּמָה, שֶׁהַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְהַבִּכּוּרִים טְעוּנִים הֲבָאַת מָקוֹם, וּטְעוּנִים וִדּוּי, וַאֲסוּרִין לָאוֹנֵן. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מַתִּיר. וְחַיָּבִין בַּבִּעוּר. וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן פּוֹטֵר. וַאֲסוּרִין כָּל שֶׁהֵן מִלֶּאֱכֹל בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם. וְגִדּוּלֵיהֶן אֲסוּרִים מִלֶּאֱכֹל בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם אַף לְזָרִים וְלַבְּהֵמָה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מַתִּיר. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ בַּמַּעֲשֵׂר וּבַבִּכּוּרִים, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בַּתְּרוּמָה:
Ma'aser and Bikkurim share [laws] that are lacking in Terumah: that Ma'aser and Bikkurim must be brought to a [specific] place, require verbal recitation, and are prohibited to an Onen [a person whose close relative has died but has not yet been buried], while Rabbi Shimon permits. They both require removal [from one's home], while Rabbi Shimon exempts. Any amount of them [when mixed with normal food] is prohibited to eaten in Jerusalem. Any growth that comes from them may not be eaten in Jerusalem, neither by a non-Kohen, nor an animal, while Rabbi Shimon permits. All of the above is for Ma’aser and Bikkurim, but not for Terumah.
יֵשׁ בַּתְּרוּמָה וְבַמַּעֲשֵׂר מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בַּבִּכּוּרִים, שֶׁהַתְּרוּמָה וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר אוֹסְרִין אֶת הַגֹּרֶן, וְיֵשׁ לָהֶם שִׁעוּר, וְנוֹהֲגִים בְּכָל הַפֵּרוֹת, בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת וְשֶׁלֹּא בִפְנֵי הַבַּיִת, וּבָאֲרִיסִין וּבֶחָכוֹרוֹת וּבַסִּקָּרִיקוֹן וּבַגַּזְלָן. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ בַתְּרוּמָה וּבַמַּעֲשֵׂר, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בַּבִּכּוּרִים:
Terumah and Ma’aser share [laws] that are lacking in Bikkurim: that Terumah and Ma’aser's threshing-floor remains are prohibited, and they have a specified amount to be given, and they are taken from all [species of] produce, [and their laws apply] both in Temple times and in post-Temple times and they are applied to produce of sharecroppers, renters, sikrikon [violent individuals who acquired fields and houses by use or threat of force, including murder], and thieves. All of the above is for Terumah and Ma’aser, but not for Bikkurim.
וְיֵשׁ בַּבִּכּוּרִים מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בַּתְּרוּמָה וּבַמַּעֲשֵׂר, שֶׁהַבִּכּוּרִים נִקְנִין בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע, וְעוֹשֶׂה אָדָם כָּל שָׂדֵהוּ בִּכּוּרִים, וְחַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָם, וּטְעוּנִים קָרְבָּן וְשִׁיר וּתְנוּפָה וְלִינָה:
Bikkurim has qualities that neither Terumah nor Ma’aser have: that Bikkurim may be designated while still in the ground and a person may make their entire field into Bikkurim and one is responsible for their end [i.e., bringing them to Jerusalem], and they require a sacrifice, singing, waving, and staying over the night [in Jerusalem].
תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר שָׁוָה לַבִּכּוּרִים בִּשְׁתֵּי דְרָכִים, וְלַתְּרוּמָה בִּשְׁתֵּי דְרָכִים. נִטֶּלֶת מִן הַטָּהוֹר עַל הַטָּמֵא, וְשֶׁלֹּא מִן הַמֻּקָּף, כַּבִּכּוּרִים. וְאוֹסֶרֶת אֶת הַגֹּרֶן, וְיֶשׁ לָהּ שִׁעוּר, כַּתְּרוּמָה:
Terumat Ma’aser [a tenth of the tithe given to a Levite which must, in turn, be given to a Kohen and which becomes holy upon separation, and can only be consumed by Kohanim or their household] is similar to Bikkurim in two ways, and to Terumah in two ways. It may be taken from pure produce to [permit] impure produce [to be eaten], and [it may be taken] from produce that is not in proximity [to the produce it is making permissible], like Bikkurim. And it makes what is on the threshing floor forbidden [before it is separated], and it has a required amount, like Terumah.
אֶתְרוֹג שָׁוֶה לָאִילָן בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה דְרָכִים, וְלַיָּרָק בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶחָד. שָׁוֶה לָאִילָן, בָּעָרְלָה וּבָרְבָעִי וּבַשְּׁבִיעִית. וְלַיָּרָק בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶחָד, שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת לְקִיטָתוֹ עִשּׂוּרוֹ, דִּבְרֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, שָׁוֶה לָאִילָן בְּכָל דָּבָר:
A citron is similar to a fruit tree in three ways, and to a vegetable in one way. It is similar to a fruit tree in that [it is obligated in] Orlah [the fruit of a tree during the first three years after its planting, the consumption or usage of which is forbidden] and [Neta] Reva'i [the fruit of a tree in the fourth year after its planting, which must be taken to Jerusalem and consumed there], and the Sabbatical year. It is similar to a vegetable in one way, in that its Ma’aser time is determined by when it is picked; these are the words of Rabban Gamliel. Rabbi Eliezer says, it is similar to a fruit tree in all ways.
דַּם מְהַלְּכֵי שְׁתַּיִם, שָׁוֶה לְדַם בְּהֵמָה, לְהַכְשִׁיר אֶת הַזְּרָעִים. וְדַם הַשֶּׁרֶץ, אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו:
Human [lit., biped] blood is similar to animal blood with regard to the laws of agricultural impurity, and like insect blood in that one is not liable [for its consumption].
כּוֹי, יֶשׁ בּוֹ דְרָכִים שָׁוֶה לַחַיָּה, וְיֶשׁ בּוֹ דְרָכִים שָׁוֶה לַבְּהֵמָה, וְיֶשׁ בּוֹ דְרָכִים שָׁוֶה לַבְּהֵמָה וְלַחַיָּה, וְיֶשׁ בּוֹ דְרָכִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ שָׁוֶה לֹא לַבְּהֵמָה וְלֹא לַחַיָּה:
A Koi [animal of ambiguous status, exhibiting characteristics of wild and domesticated animals] is similar to a wild animal in some ways, and is similar to a domestic animal in other ways, and is similar to both in some ways, and is like neither in other ways.
כֵּיצַד שָׁוֶה לַחַיָּה, דָּמוֹ טָעוּן כִּסּוּי כְּדַם חַיָּה, וְאֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין אוֹתוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב, וְאִם שְׁחָטוֹ, אֵין מְכַסִּין אֶת דָּמוֹ, וְחֶלְבּוֹ מְטַמֵּא בְטֻמְאַת נְבֵלָה כַּחַיָּה, וְטֻמְאָתוֹ בְסָפֵק, וְאֵין פּוֹדִין בּוֹ פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר:
How is it similar to a wild animal? [If slaughtered], its blood requires burial as that of a wild animal and it may not be slaughtered on a Festival; though if slaughtered, its blood should not be covered. Its [prohibited] fats cause impurity as a Nevelah [an improperly slaughtered animal of a permitted species] like a wild animal, and its impurity is doubtful and a firstborn donkey cannot be redeemed through it.
כֵּיצַד שָׁוֶה לַבְּהֵמָה, חֶלְבּוֹ אָסוּר כְּחֵלֶב בְּהֵמָה, וְאֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו כָּרֵת, וְאֵינוֹ נִלְקָח בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר לֶאֱכֹל בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְחַיָּב בִּזְרוֹעַ וּלְחָיַיִם וְקֵבָה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר פּוֹטֵר, שֶׁהַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה:
How is it similar to a domesticated animal? Its [prohibited] fats are prohibited like that of a domesticated animal, while eating of it doesn't induce Karet [to be cut off, spiritually, from the Jewish nation]. It cannot be purchased with tithe money to be eaten in Jerusalem. [The Kohanim] are entitled to its shank, cheeks, and stomach; Rabbi Eliezer exempts this, [due to the law] that if one possesses an item, it is incumbent on the other [who desires it] to prove his claim to it.
כֵּיצַד אֵינוֹ שָׁוֶה לֹא לַחַיָּה וְלֹא לַבְּהֵמָה, אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם כִּלְאַיִם עִם הַחַיָּה וְעִם הַבְּהֵמָה, הַכּוֹתֵב חַיָּתוֹ וּבְהֶמְתּוֹ לִבְנוֹ, לֹא כָתַב לוֹ אֶת הַכּוֹי, אִם אָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שֶׁזֶּה חַיָּה אוֹ בְהֵמָה, הֲרֵי הוּא נָזִיר. וּשְׁאָר כָּל דְּרָכָיו, שָׁוִים לַחַיָּה וְלַבְּהֵמָה, וְטָעוּן שְׁחִיטָה כָּזֶה וְכָזֶה, וּמְטַמֵּא מִשּׁוּם נְבֵלָה וּמִשּׁוּם אֵבֶר מִן הַחַי כָּזֶה וְכָזֶה:
How is it unlike both a wild animal and a domesticated animal? It is forbidden as Kilayim [the product of forbidden crossbreeding or working of certain animals with one another] with a wild animal and with a domesticated animal. If one writes that his wild animal or domesticated animal will pass to his child, he did not write over the Koi. If one said "I am hereby a Nazirite if it is a wild animal or a domesticated animal," one becomes a Nazirite. And in all other matters, it is similar to a wild animal and to a domesticated animal, and requires ritual slaughter like both of them, and imparts impurity as Nevelah, and [one is liable for eating] a limb from it [while it is still] alive like both of them.