9ט׳
1 א

מַעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה נוֹהֵג בָּאָרֶץ וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת וְשֶׁלֹּא בִפְּנֵי הַבַּיִת, בַּחֻלִּין אֲבָל לֹא בַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין. וְנוֹהֵג בַּבָּקָר וּבַצֹּאן, וְאֵינָן מִתְעַשְּׂרִים מִזֶּה עַל זֶה. בַּכְּבָשִׂים וּבָעִזִּים, וּמִתְעַשְּׂרִין מִזֶּה עַל זֶּה. בֶּחָדָשׁ, וּבַיָּשָׁן, וְאֵינָן מִתְעַשְּׂרִין מִזֶּה עַל זֶּה. שֶׁהָיָה בַּדִּין, מָה אִם הֶחָדָשׁ וְהַיָּשָׁן שֶׁאֵינָן כִּלְאַיִם זֶה בָזֶה, אֵין מִתְעַשְּׂרִין מִזֶּה עַל זֶה. הַכְּבָשִׂים וְהָעִזִּים שֶׁהֵם כִּלְאַיִם זֶה בָזֶה, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁלֹּא יִתְעַשְּׂרוּ מִזֶּה עַל זֶה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (ויקרא כז), וָצֹאן, מִשְׁמָע כָּל צֹאן, אֶחָד:

The animal tithe applies both in Israel and outside Israel, both when the Temple stands and when the Temple does not exist, for non-sacred animals but not for sacred animals. And it applies to cattle and flock [i.e., sheep and goats], but they cannot be tithed one for the other. [It applies to] sheep and goats, and they may be tithed one for the other. It applies to both new and old animals but they are not tithed one for the other. Because we could have said: If old and new animals which do not make a mixed breed, are not tithed one for the other, all the more so sheep and goats, which do create a mixed breed, certainly should not be tithed one for the other! Therefore it says (Leviticus 27) "and flock" which means all [types of] flock [animals] are one.

2 ב

מַעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה מִצְטָרֵף כִּמְלֹא רֶגֶל בְּהֵמָה רוֹעָה. וְכַמָּה הִיא רֶגֶל בְּהֵמָה רוֹעָה, שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר מִיל. הָיָה בֵּין אֵלּוּ לְאֵלּוּ שְׁלשִׁים וּשְׁנַיִם מִיל, אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִין. הָיָה לוֹ בָאֶמְצָע, מֵבִיא וּמְעַשְּׂרָן בָּאֶמְצָע. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, הַיַּרְדֵּן מַפְסִיק לְמַעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה:

Tithed animals join together as long as they are within grazing distance [of one another]. And what is grazing distance? Sixteen [Roman] miles. If there was between these [animals] and these [animals] thirty-two mils, they do not combine. If [however] he had one [animal] in the middle he brings them into the middle and tithes them. Rabbi Meir says: the [river] Jordan is divides for matters of tithing animals.

3 ג

הַלָּקוּחַ אוֹ שֶׁנִּתַּן לוֹ מַתָּנָה, פָּטוּר מִמַּעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה. הָאַחִים הַשֻּׁתָּפִין שֶׁחַיָּבִין בַּקָּלְבּוֹן, פְּטוּרִין מִמַּעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה. וְשֶׁחַיָּבִין בְּמַעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה, פְּטוּרִין מִן הַקָּלְבּוֹן. קָנוּ מִתְּפוּסַת הַבַּיִת, חַיָּבִין. וְאִם לָאו, פְּטוּרִין. חָלְקוּ וְחָזְרוּ וְנִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ, חַיָּבִּין בַּקָּלְבּוֹן וּפְטוּרִין מִמַּעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה:

That which was bought or given to him as a gift is exempt from the animal tithe. [Orphaned] brothers [who are are still] partners who are obligated in the kalbon [surcharge added, in certain cases, to the yearly half-shekel Temple dues] are exempt from the animal tithe and those who are obligated in the animal tithe are exempt from the kalbon. If they bought it with what they inherited they are obligated but if not they are exempt. If they divided [their jointly-held inheritance] and then became partners once again, they are obligated in the kalbon but exempt from the animal tithe.

4 ד

הַכֹּל נִכְנָס לַדִּיר לְהִתְעַשֵּׂר, חוּץ מִן הַכִּלְאַיִם, וְהַטְּרֵפָה, וְיוֹצֵא דֹפֶן, וּמְחֻסַּר זְמָן, וְיָתוֹם. אֵיזֶהוּ יָתוֹם, כּל שֶׁמֵּתָה אִמּוֹ אוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁחָטָה. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ נִשְׁחֲטָה אִמּוֹ וְהַשֶּׁלַח קַיָּם, אֵין זֶה יָתוֹם:

All enter the pen to be tithed except mixed species, a terefah, [one delivered by] cesarean section, an animal too young for sacrifice, and an orphan. And what is an orphan? When its mother has died during its birth or was slaughtered [and subsequently gave birth.] Rabbi Joshua says: even if its mother has been slaughtered, if the [mother's] hide is still intact the offspring is not an orphan.

5 ה

שָׁלשׁ גְּרָנוֹת לְמַעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה, בִּפְרוֹס הַפֶּסַח, בִּפְרוֹס הָעֲצֶרֶת, בִּפְרוֹס הֶחָג, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. בֶּן עַזַּאי אוֹמֵר, בְּעֶשְׂרִים וְתִשְׁעָה בַּאֲדָר, בְּאֶחָד בְּסִיוָן, בְּעֶשְׂרִים וְתִשְׁעָה בְאָב. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמְרִים, בְּאֶחָד בְּנִיסָן, בְּאֶחָד בְּסִיוָן, בְּעֶשְׂרִים וְתִשְׁעָה בֶאֱלוּל. וְלָמָּה אָמְרוּ בְּעֶשְׂרִים וְתִשְׁעָה בֶאֱלוּל וְלֹא אָמְרוּ בְּאֶחָד בְּתִשְׁרֵי, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא יוֹם טוֹב, וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְעַשֵּׂר בְּיוֹם טוֹב, לְפִיכָךְ הִקְדִּימוּהוּ בְּעֶשְׂרִים וְתִשְׁעָה בֶאֱלוּל. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, בְּאֶחָד בֶּאֱלוּל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה לְמַעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה. בֶּן עַזַּאי אוֹמֵר, הָאֱלוּלִיִּין מִתְעַשְּׂרִין בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן:

There are three granot [calving season cut-off date, after which it is prohibited to sell or slaughter, before tithing them, animals born during that period]for animal tithes: before Pesach, before Shavuot and before Sukkot, [these are] the words of Rabbi Akiva. Ben Azzai says: on the twenty-ninth of Adar, on the first of Sivan and on the twenty-ninth of Av. Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon say: on the first of Nisan, on the first of Sivan and on the twenty-ninth of Elul. And why did they say the twenty-ninth of Elul and not the first of Tishrei? Because it is a holy day and it is impossible to tithe on a holy day. Therefore, they moved it up to the twenty-ninth of Elul. Rabbi Meir says: the first of Elul is the New Year for the animal tithe. Ben Azzai says: those born in Elul are tithed by themselves.

6 ו

כָּל הַנּוֹלָדִים מֵאֶחָד בְּתִשְׁרֵי עַד עֶשְׂרִים וְתִשְׁעָה בֶּאֱלוּל, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפִין. חֲמִשָּׁה לִפְנֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה לְאַחַר רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִין. חֲמִשָּׁה לִפְנֵי הַגֹּרֶן וַחֲמִשָּׁה לְאַחַר הַגֹּרֶן, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפִין. אִם כֵּן לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר שָׁלשׁ גְּרָנוֹת לְמַעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה, שֶׁעַד שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ הַגֹּרֶן, מֻתָּר לִמְכּוֹר וְלִשְׁחוֹט. הִגִּיעַ הַגֹּרֶן, לֹא יִשְׁחוֹט. וְאִם שָׁחַט, פָּטוּר:

All animals born from the first of Tishrei till the 29th of Elul joint together [for tithing]. Five from before Rosh Hashanah and five from after Rosh Hashanah do not join together. Five before a goren and five after goren join together. If so why did they say there are three granot for the animal tithe? Because until the goren has arrived, it is permitted to sell and slaughter [without tithing], once it has arrived one may not slaughter [without tithing] but if he did, he is exempt [from punishment].

7 ז

כֵּיצַד מְעַשְּׂרָן, כּוֹנְסָן לַדִּיר וְעוֹשֶׂה לָהֶן פֶּתַח קָטָן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ שְׁנַיִם יְכוֹלִין לָצֵאת כְּאַחַת, וּמוֹנֶה בַשֵּׁבֶט, אֶחָד, שְׁנַיִם, שְׁלשָׁה, אַרְבָּעָה, חֲמִשָּׁה, שִׁשָּׁה, שִׁבְעָה, שְׁמוֹנָה, תִּשְׁעָה, וְהַיוֹצֵא עֲשִׂירִי סוֹקְרוֹ בְסִקְרָא וְאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי זֶה מַעֲשֵׂר. לֹא סְקָרוֹ בְסִקְרָא וְלֹא מְנָאָם בַּשֵּׁבֶט, אוֹ שֶׁמְּנָאָם רְבוּצִים, אוֹ עוֹמְדִים, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְעֻשָּׂרִים, הָיָה לוֹ מֵאָה וְנָטַל עֲשָׂרָה, עֲשָׂרָה וְנָטַל אֶחָד, אֵין זֶה מַעֲשֵׂר. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי זֶה מַעֲשֵׂר, קָפַץ (אֶחָד) מִן הַמְּנוּיִין לְתוֹכָן, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְטוּרִין. מִן הַמְעֻשָּׂרִים לְתוֹכָן, כֻּלָּן יִרְעוּ עַד שֶׁיִּסְתָּאֲבוּ, וְיֵאָכְלוּ בְמוּמָן לַבְּעָלִים:

How does one tithe animals? He brings them to a pen and makes for them a small opening so that two cannot go out at the same time. And he counts them with a rod: one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine. And the one that comes out tenth he marks with red chalk and he says: “Behold, this is the tithe.” If he did not mark it, or if he did not count them with a rod, or if he counted them while they were crouching or standing [still], they are [nevertheless] tithed. If he had one hundred [lambs] and he took ten or if he had ten and he took one [without counting], this is not [a valid] tithe. Rabbi Yose bar Judah says: this is a [valid] tithe. If one of the [animals] already counted jumped back into the [uncounted] flock, they are all exempt. If one of the [animals] already tithed [jumped back] into the flock, they all go to pasture until they become blemished, and [then] the owners may eat them due to their blemish.

8 ח

יָצְאוּ שְׁנַיִם כְּאֶחָד, מוֹנֶה אוֹתָן שְׁנַיִם שְׁנָיִם. מְנָאָן אֶחָד, תְּשִׁיעִי וַעֲשִׂירִי מְקֻלְקָלִין. יָצְאוּ תְּשִׁיעִי וַעֲשִׂירִי כְּאַחַת, תְּשִׁיעִי וַעֲשִׂירִי מְקֻלְקָלִין. קָרָא לַתְּשִׁיעִי עֲשִׂירִי וְלָעֲשִׂירִי תְּשִׁיעִי וּלְאַחַד עָשָׂר עֲשִׂירִי, שְׁלָשְׁתָּן מְקֻדָּשִׁין. הַתְּשִׁיעִי נֶאֱכָל בְּמוּמוֹ, וְהָעֲשִׂירִי מַעֲשֵׂר, וְאַחַד עָשָׂר קָרֵב שְׁלָמִים וְעוֹשֶׂה תְמוּרָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, וְכִי יֵשׁ תְּמוּרָה עוֹשָׂה תְמוּרָה. אָמְרוּ מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי מֵאִיר, אִלּוּ הָיָה תְמוּרָה, לֹא הָיָה קָרֵב. קָרָא לַתְּשִׁיעִי עֲשִׂירִי וְלָעֲשִׂירִי עֲשִׂירִי וּלְאַחַד עָשָׂר עֲשִׂירִי, אֵין אַחַד עָשָׂר מְקֻדָּשׁ. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁלֹּא נֶעֱקַר שֵׁם עֲשִׂירִי מִמֶּנּוּ, אֵין אַחַד עָשָׂר מְקֻדָּשׁ:

If two came out at the same time, he counts them two at a time. If he counted [the two] as one, the ninth and the tenth are spoiled. If the ninth and the tenth came out at the same time, the ninth and the tenth are spoiled. If he called the ninth "tenth", the tenth "ninth" and the eleventh "tenth", all three are holy: the ninth may be eaten when it becomes blemished, the tenth is the tithe and the eleventh is sacrificed as a shelamim offering, and it can make a temurah- [these are] the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah said: can one temurah make another temurah? They said in the name of Rabbi Meir: if it were a temurah, it would not have been sacrificed. If he called the ninth "tenth", tenth "tenth" and the eleventh "tenth", the eleventh is not holy. The following is the general rule: wherever the name of the tenth [animal] has not been uprooted, the eleventh is not holy.