מוּמִין אֵלּוּ, בֵּין קְבוּעִין בֵּין עוֹבְרִין, פּוֹסְלִין בָּאָדָם. יוֹתֵר עֲלֵיהֶן בָּאָדָם, הַכִּילוֹן, וְהַלַּפְתָּן, הַמַּקָּבָן, וְשֶׁרֹאשׁוֹ שָׁקוּעַ, וּשְׁקִיפָס. וּבַעֲלֵי הַחֲטוֹטֶרֶת, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מַכְשִׁיר, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹסְלִין: Concerning these blemishes which were taught with regard to an animal, whether they are permanent or transient, they also disqualify in the case of a person, i.e., they disqualify a priest from performing the Temple service. And in addition to those blemishes, there are other blemishes that apply only to a priest: One whose head is pointed, narrow above and wide below; and one whose head is turnip-like, wide above and narrow below; and one whose head is hammer-like, with his forehead protruding; and one whose head has an indentation; and one wherein the back of his head protrudes. And with regard to those with humped backs, Rabbi Yehuda deems them fit for service and the Rabbis deem them disqualified.
הַקֵּרֵחַ, פָּסוּל. אֵיזֶהוּ קֵרֵחַ, כֹּל שֶׁאֵין לוֹ שִׁטָּה שֶׁל שֵׂעָר מַקֶּפֶת מֵאֹזֶן לְאֹזֶן. וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ, הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר. אֵין לוֹ גְבִּינִים, אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא גְבִין אֶחָד, הוּא גִבֵּן הָאָמוּר בַּתּוֹרָה. רַבִּי דוֹסָא אוֹמֵר, כֹּל שֶׁגְּבִּינָיו שׁוֹכְבִין. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶן אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אוֹמֵר, כֹּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי גַבִּים וּשְׁתֵּי שִׁדְרָאוֹת: The kere’aḥ is disqualified from performing the Temple service. What is a kere’aḥ? It is anyone who does not have a row of hair encircling his head from ear to ear. If he has a row of hair from ear to ear, that person is fit for service. If a priest has no eyebrows, or if he has only one eyebrow, that is the gibben that is stated in the Torah in the list of blemished priests (see Leviticus 21:20). Rabbi Dosa says: A gibben is one whose eyebrows are so long that they lie flat and cover his eyes. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus says: A gibben is one who has two backs and two spines.
הֶחָרוּם, פָּסוּל. אֵיזֶהוּ חָרוּם, הַכּוֹחֵל שְׁתֵּי עֵינָיו כְּאֶחָת. שְׁתֵּי עֵינָיו לְמַעְלָה, וּשְׁתֵּי עֵינָיו לְמַטָּה, עֵינוֹ אַחַת לְמַעְלָה, וְעֵינוֹ אַחַת לְמַטָּה, רוֹאֶה אֶת הַחֶדֶר וְאֶת הָעֲלִיָּה כְּאֶחָת, סָכֵי שֶׁמֶשׁ, זוּגְדוֹס, וְהַצִּירָן. וְשֶׁנָּשְׁרוּ רִיסֵי עֵינָיו, פָּסוּל, מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעָיִן: The ḥarum is disqualified from performing the Temple service. What is a ḥarum? It is one who can paint both of his eyes as one, with one brushstroke, because he has a sunken nose. If both of one’s eyes are above or both of his eyes are below; or if one of his eyes is above and one of his eyes is below; or if both eyes are in the proper place but he sees both the room on the ground floor and the upper story as one, at the same time; and likewise those unable to look at the sun; and one whose eyes are different; and one whose eyes tear constantly, these are disqualified from performing the Temple service. And one whose eyelashes have fallen out is disqualified from performing the Temple service due to the appearance of a blemish. Unlike the others listed in this mishna, who are disqualified by Torah law, one with this condition is not disqualified by Torah law. Rather, the Sages issued a decree prohibiting a priest with such a condition to perform the Temple service.
עֵינָיו גְּדוֹלוֹת כְּשֶׁל עֵגֶל, אוֹ קְטַנּוֹת כְּשֶׁל אַוָּז, גּוּפוֹ גָּדוֹל מֵאֵבָרָיו אוֹ קָטָן מֵאֵבָרָיו, חָטְמוֹ גָּדוֹל מֵאֵבָרָיו אוֹ קָטָן מֵאֵבָרָיו, הַצִּמֵּם, וְהַצִּמֵּעַ. אֵיזֶה הוּא צִמֵּעַ, שֶׁאָזְנָיו קְטַנּוֹת. וְהַצִּמֵּם, שֶׁאָזְנָיו דּוֹמוֹת לִסְפוֹג: The mishna lists additional blemishes that disqualify a priest from performing the Temple service: If a priest’s eyes are large like those of a calf or small like those of a goose; if his body is disproportionately large relative to his limbs or disproportionately small relative to his limbs; if his nose is disproportionately large relative to his limbs or disproportionately small relative to his limbs, he is disqualified. And the tzomem and the tzome’a are also disqualified. What is a tzome’a? It is anyone whose ears are small. And what is the tzomem? It is anyone whose ears are similar to a sponge.
שְׂפָתוֹ הָעֶלְיוֹנָה עוֹדֶפֶת עַל הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה, וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנָה עוֹדֶפֶת עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנָה, הֲרֵי זֶה מוּם. וְשֶׁנִּטְּלוּ שִׁנָּיו, פָּסוּל, מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעָיִן. דַּדָּיו שׁוֹכְבִים כְּשֶׁל אִשָּׁה, כְּרֵסוֹ צָבָה, טַבּוּרוֹ יוֹצֵא, נִכְפֶּה אֲפִלּוּ אַחַת לְיָמִים, רוּחַ קַצְרִית בָּאָה עָלָיו, הַמְאֻשְׁכָּן, וּבַעַל גֶּבֶר. אֵין לוֹ בֵיצִים, אוֹ אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא בֵיצָה אַחַת, זֶהוּ מְרוֹחַ אָשֶׁךְ הָאָמוּר בַּתּוֹרָה. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, כּל שֶׁנִּמְרְחוּ אֲשָׁכָיו. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, כּל שֶׁרוּחַ בַּאֲשָׁכָיו. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אוֹמֵר, כֹּל שֶׁמַּרְאָיו חֲשׁוּכִין: If his upper lip protrudes beyond the lower lip or his lower lip protrudes beyond the upper lip, that is a blemish. And one whose teeth fell out is disqualified due to the appearance of a blemish. The mishna lists additional blemishes that disqualify a priest from performing the Temple service: One who has breasts so large that they sag like those of a woman; or if one’s belly is swollen and protrudes; or if one’s navel protrudes; or if one is an epileptic, even if he experiences seizures only once in a long while; or one who is afflicted with a melancholy temper; or one whose scrotum is unnaturally long; or one whose penis is unnaturally long is disqualified from performing the Temple service. If one has no testicles, or if he has only one testicle, that is the mero’aḥ ashekh that is stated in the Torah (see Leviticus 21:20) among the blemishes that disqualify a priest from Temple service. Rabbi Yishmael says: A mero’aḥ ashekh is anyone whose testicles were crushed. Rabbi Akiva says: It is anyone that has wind in his testicles, i.e., they are swollen. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus says: Mero’aḥ ashekh does not refer to the testicles; rather, the reference is to anyone whose appearance [marav] is especially dark [ḥashukhin].
הַמַּקִּישׁ בְּקַרְסֻלָּיו, וּבְאַרְכּוּבוֹתָיו, וּבַעַל פִּיקָה, וְהָעִקֵּל. אֵיזֶהוּ עִקֵּל, כֹּל שֶׁמַּקִּיף פַּרְסוֹתָיו וְאֵין אַרְכּוּבוֹתָיו נוֹשְׁקוֹת זוֹ לָזוֹ. פִּיקָה יוֹצְאָה מִגּוּדָלוֹ, עֲקֵבוֹ יוֹצֵא לַאֲחוֹרָיו, פַּרְסָתוֹ רְחָבָה כְּשֶׁל אַוָּז. אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו מֻרְכָּבוֹת זוֹ עַל זוֹ, אוֹ קְלוּטוֹת (לְמַעְלָה) עַד הַפֶּרֶק, כָּשֵׁר. לְמַטָּה מִן הַפֶּרֶק וַחֲתָכָהּ, כָּשֵׁר. הָיְתָה בוֹ יְתֶרֶת וַחֲתָכָהּ, אִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ עֶצֶם, פָּסוּל. וְאִם לָאו, כָּשֵׁר. יָתֵר בְּיָדָיו וּבְרַגְלָיו שֵׁשׁ וָשֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבַּע, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מַכְשִׁיר, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹסְלִים. הַשּׁוֹלֵט בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו, רַבִּי פּוֹסֵל, וַחֲכָמִים מַכְשִׁירִים. הַכּוּשִׁי, וְהַגִּיחוֹר, וְהַלַּבְקָן, וְהַקִּפֵּחַ, וְהַנַּנָּס, וְהַחֵרֵשׁ, וְהַשּׁוֹטֶה, וְהַשִּׁכּוֹר, וּבַעֲלֵי נְגָעִים טְהוֹרִין, פְּסוּלִין בָּאָדָם, וּכְשֵׁרִין בַּבְּהֵמָה. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, שׁוֹטָה בַבְּהֵמָה אֵינָהּ מִן הַמֻּבְחָר, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אַף בַּעֲלֵי דִלְדּוּלִין, פְּסוּלִין בָּאָדָם, וּכְשֵׁרִין בַּבְּהֵמָה: The mishna lists additional blemishes that disqualify a priest from performing the Temple service: One whose legs are crooked and bend inward, causing him to knock his ankles or his knees into each other as he walks, and a ba’al happikim, and the ikkel. What is the ikkel? It is anyone who places his feet together and his knees do not knock into each other, i.e., he is bowlegged. A priest with a protuberance emerging alongside the thumb of his hand or the big toe of his foot,or one whose heel emerges and protrudes back from his foot, or one whose feet are wide like those of a goose are all disqualified from performing the Temple service. A priest whose fingers or toes are configured one upon the other, or one whose fingers or toes are attached, is likewise disqualified. But if they were attached from above the palm of the hand or the bottom of the foot only until the middle joint, he is fit. If they were attached below the joint, higher up on the finger or toe, and he cut to separate them, he is fit. In a case where there was an extra finger or toe on his hand or foot and he cut it, if that extra appendage contains a bone, the priest is disqualified even after it was cut, and if there is no bone the priest is fit. If there was an extra appendage on his hands and on his feet, six on each for a total of twenty-four, Rabbi Yehuda deems the priest fit and the Rabbis deem him disqualified. With regard to one who is ambidextrous and has control of both of his hands, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi deems the priest disqualified, as his halakhic status is like that of one who is left-handed, and the Rabbis deem him fit. Concerning the kushi, the giḥor, the lavkan, the kipe’aḥ, the dwarf, the deaf-mute, the imbecile, the drunk, and those with ritually pure marks, their conditions disqualify a person from performing the Temple service and are valid, i.e., they do not disqualify with regard to being sacrificed, in the case of an animal. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: An imbecile among animals is not optimal for sacrifice. Rabbi Elazar says: Even with regard to those with flesh or skin that hangs from their body, that blemish disqualifies in the case of a person and is valid in the case of an animal.
אֵלּוּ כְּשֵׁרִין בָּאָדָם, וּפְסוּלִין בַּבְּהֵמָה, אוֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ, וּטְרֵפָה, וְיוֹצֵא דֹפֶן, (וְשֶׁנֶּעֶבְדָה בָהֶן עֲבֵרָה, וְשֶׁהֵמִית אֶת הָאָדָם). הַנּוֹשֵׂא נָשִׁים בַּעֲבֵרָה, פָּסוּל, עַד שֶׁיַּדִּיר הֲנָיָה. הַמִּטַּמֵּא לַמֵּתִים, פָּסוּל, עַד שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא מִטַּמֵּא לַמֵּתִים: These flaws do not disqualify a person from performing the Temple service, but they do disqualify an animal from being sacrificed: An animal whose mother or offspring were slaughtered that day, as slaughtering it would violate the prohibition against slaughtering the animal itself and its offspring on the same day; a tereifa; one born by caesarean section; one with which a transgression of bestiality was performed; and one that killed a person. And a priest who marries women by a transgression, e.g., a divorcée or a woman who underwent ḥalitza, is disqualified from performing the Temple service until he vows not to derive benefit from her. The vow ensures that he will divorce her promptly. And a priest who becomes impure through exposure to corpses is disqualified from performing the Temple service until he accepts upon himself a commitment that he will no longer become impure through exposure to corpses.