6ו׳
1 א

עַל אֵלּוּ מוּמִין שׁוֹחֲטִין אֶת הַבְּכוֹר, נִפְגְּמָה אָזְנוֹ מִן הַסְּחוּס, אֲבָל לֹא מִן הָעוֹר, נִסְדְּקָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא חָסְרָה, נִקְּבָה מְלֹא כַרְשִׁינָה, אוֹ שֶׁיָּבָשָׁה. אֵיזוֹ הִיא יְבֵשָׁה, כֹּל שֶׁתִּנָּקֵב וְאֵינָהּ מוֹצִיאָה טִפַּת דָּם. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן מְשֻׁלָּם אוֹמֵר, יְבֵשָׁה, שֶׁתְּהֵא נִפְרָכֶת:

In consequence of the following blemishes a first-born animal may be slaughtered:If its ear has become defective, from the cartilages [inward] but not if the defect is in the ear-flap; If it is slit although there was no loss [of substance]; If it is perforated with a hole as large as a karshinah Or if [the ear] has become dry. What is considered “becoming dry”? If when pierced no drop of blood comes out. Rabbi Yose ben Meshullam says: [it] is dry when it crumbles [when touched].

2 ב

רִיס שֶׁל עַיִן שֶׁנִּקַּב, שֶׁנִּפְגַּם, שֶׁנִּסְדַּק, הֲרֵי בְעֵינָיו דַּק, תְּבַלּוּל, חִלָּזוֹן נָחָשׁ, וְעֵנָב. וְאֵיזֶהוּ תְּבַלּוּל, לָבָן הַפוֹסֵק בַּסִּירָא וְנִכְנָס בַּשָּׁחוֹר. בַּשָּׁחוֹר וְנִכְנָס בַּלָּבָן, אֵינוֹ מוּם, שֶׁאֵין מוּמִים בַּלָּבָן:

One whose eyelid is pierced, defected or slit, Or if the eye has a cataract, or a tevalul, halazon [snail-shaped], nahash [snake-shaped] or a [berry-shaped] growth on the eye, [the animal is disqualified]. What is a tevalul? The white of the eye breaking through the ring and entering into the black. But if the black breaks through the ring and goes into the white, it is not a [disqualifying] blemish, because there are no disqualifying blemishes as regards the white of the eye.

3 ג

חֲוַרְוָד וְהַמַּיִם הַקְּבוּעִים. אֵיזֶהוּ חֲוַרְוָד הַקָּבוּעַ, כֹּל שֶׁשָּׁהָה שְׁמוֹנִים יוֹם. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אוֹמֵר, בּוֹדְקִין אוֹתוֹ שְׁלשָׁה פְעָמִים בְּתוֹךְ שְׁמוֹנִים יוֹם. וְאֵלּוּ הֵם מַיִם הַקְּבוּעִים, אָכַל לַח וְיָבֵשׁ שֶׁל גְּשָׁמִים, לַח וְיָבֵשׁ שֶׁל שְׁלָחִים. אָכַל הַיָּבֵשׁ וְאַחַר כָּךְ אָכַל הַלַּח, אֵינוֹ מוּם, עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל הַיָּבֵשׁ אַחַר הַלַּח:

Havarvar [white spots] on the cornea and water constantly dripping from the eye, [are disqualifying blemishes]. What do we mean by a permanent hawarwar? If it remained for a period of eighty days. Rabbi Hanina ben Antigonus says: we must examine it three times in the eighty days. And the following are cases of constant dripping from the eye [and how to test its permanency]: if it ate [for a cure] fresh [fodder] and dry [fodder] from a field sufficiently watered by rain [it is a permanent blemish, if not cured]. [If it ate] fresh [fodder] and then dry [fodder] from a field requiring artificial irrigation, or if it ate dry [fodder] first and then fresh [fodder from field watered by rain] it is not a blemish unless it eats dry [fodder] after the fresh.

4 ד

חָטְמוֹ שֶׁנִּקַּב, שֶׁנִּפְגַּם, שֶׁנִּסְדַּק, שְׂפָתוֹ שֶׁנִּקְּבָה, שֶׁנִּפְגְּמָה, שֶׁנִּסְדְּקָה, חִטָּיו הַחִיצוֹנוֹת שֶׁנִּפְגְּמוּ אוֹ שֶׁנִּגְמְמוּ, וְהַפְנִימִיּוֹת שֶׁנֶּעֱקָרוּ. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אוֹמֵר, אֵין בּוֹדְקִין מִן הַמַּתְאִימוֹת וְלִפְנִים, אַף לֹא אֶת הַמַתְאִימוֹת:

If its nose is perforated, defective, or slit, or its upper lip perforated, defective, or slit [these are disqualifying blemishes]. If the outer incisors are defective or leveled [to the gum] or the molars are torn out [completely], [these are disqualifying blemishes]. But Rabbi Hanina ben Antigonus says: we do not examine behind the molars, nor the molars themselves.

5 ה

נִפְגַּם הַזּוֹבָן, אוֹ עֶרְיָה שֶׁל נְקֵבָּה בַּמֻּקְדָּשִׁים, נִפְגַּם הַזָּנָב מִן הָעֶצֶם, אֲבָל לֹא מִן הַפֶּרֶק, אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה רֹאשׁ הַזָּנָב מַפְצִיל עֶצֶם, אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ (בָּשָׂר) בֵּין חֻלְיָא לְחֻלְיָא מְלֹא אֶצְבַּע:

Today’s mishnah deals with defects in an animal’s genitalia.If the sheath [of the penis] is defective or the genitals of a female animal in the case of sacrificial offerings [it is defective.] If the tail is mutilated from the bone but not from the joint; or if the top end [root] of the tail is bared to the bone; or if there is flesh between one joint and another [in the tail] to the amount of a finger's breadth [the animal is defective].

6 ו

אֵין לוֹ בֵיצִים, (אוֹ) אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא בֵּיצָה אֶחָת. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי כִיסִין, יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁתֵּי בֵיצִים. אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא כִיס אֶחָד, אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא בֵיצָה אֶחָת. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, מוֹשִׁיבוֹ עַל עַכּוּזוֹ וּמְמַעֵךְ, אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם בֵּיצָה, סוֹפָהּ לָצֵאת. מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁמִּעֵךְ וְלֹא יָצָאת, וְנִשְׁחַט וְנִמְצֵאת דְּבוּקָה בַּכְּסָלִים, וְהִתִּיר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא וְאָסַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי:

If [a first born] has no testicles or if it only has one testicle, [it is a blemish]. Rabbi Ishmael says: if it has two pouches, then it has two testicles, but if it only has one pouch, then it only has one testicle. Rabbi Akiva says: [the animal] is placed on its buttocks and he squeezes [the pouch]. If a testicle is [in there, inside the pouch] it will eventually come out. It happened that one squeezed it and [the testicle] did not come out, but when it was slaughtered [the testicle] was found attached to the loins, and Rabbi Akiva permitted [the animal] while Rabbi Yohanan ben Nuri prohibited it.

7 ז

בַּעַל חָמֵשׁ רַגְלַיִם, אוֹ שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא שָׁלשׁ, וְשֶׁרַגְלָיו קְלוּטוֹת כְּשֶׁל חֲמוֹר, וְהַשָּׁחוּל, וְהַכָּסוּל. אֵיזֶהוּ שָׁחוּל, שֶׁנִּשְׁמְטָה יְרֵכוֹ. וְכָסוּל, שֶׁאַחַת מִיַּרְכוֹתָיו גְּבוֹהָה:

If [a first born] has five legs or if it has only three legs, or if its feet are uncloven like that of a donkey, or if it is a shahul or a kasul [these are blemishes]. What is a shahul? [An animal] with a dislocated hip. What is a kasul? [An animal] one of whose hips is higher than the other.

8 ח

נִשְׁבַּר עֶצֶם יָדוֹ, וְעֶצֶם רַגְלוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִכָּר. מוּמִין אֵלּוּ מָנָה אִילָא בְיַבְנֶה, וְהוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים. וְעוֹד שְׁלשָׁה הוֹסִיף. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ אֶת אֵלּוּ. אֵת שֶׁגַּלְגַּל עֵינוֹ עָגוֹל כְּשֶׁל אָדָם, וּפִיו דּוֹמֶה לְשֶׁל חֲזִיר, וְשֶׁנִּטַּל רֹב הַמְדַבֵּר שֶׁל לְשׁוֹנוֹ. וּבֵית דִּין שֶׁל אַחֲרֵיהֶן אָמְרוּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מוּמִין:

If the bone of the fore-leg or of its hind-leg is broken, even though it is not noticeable, [this is a blemish]. These blemishes Ila enumerated in Yavneh and the sages agreed with him. He also added another three cases [of blemishes]. They said to him: we have only heard these [already mentioned previously]. [The three added by Ila were]: one whose eyeball is round like that of a human or whose mouth is like that of a pig or if the greater part of the speaking part of the tongue has been removed. A subsequent court ruled however: each of these cases is a [disqualifying] blemish.

9 ט

מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁהַלְּחִי הַתַּחְתּוֹן עוֹדֵף עַל הָעֶלְיוֹן, וְשָׁלַח רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל לַחֲכָמִים וְאָמְרוּ, הֲרֵי זֶה מוּם. אֹזֶן הַגְּדִי שֶׁהָיְתָה כְפוּלָה, אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהִיא עֶצֶם אֶחָד, מוּם. וְאִם אֵינָהּ עֶצֶם אֶחָד, אֵינָהּ מוּם. רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָא בֶן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, זְנַב הַגְּדִי שֶׁהִיא דוֹמָה לְשֶׁל חֲזִיר, וְשֶׁאֵין בָּהּ שָׁלשׁ חֻלְיוֹת, הֲרֵי זֶה מוּם:

It happened that the lower jaw [of a first born] was larger than the upper jaw. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel asked the sages [for a ruling] and they said: this is a blemish. The ear of a kid which was doubled: the sages ruled: if it is all one bone, it is a blemish, but if it is not all one bone, it is not a blemish. Rabbi Hanina ben Gamaliel says: if the tail of a kid is like that of a pig, or if the tail does not possess three vertebrae, this is a blemish.

10 י

רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אוֹמֵר, אֶת שֶׁיַּבֶּלֶת בְּעֵינוֹ, וְשֶׁנִּפְגַּם עֶצֶם יָדוֹ, וְעֶצֶם רַגְלוֹ, וְשֶׁנִּפְסַק עַצְמוֹ שֶׁבְּפִיו. עֵינוֹ אַחַת גְּדוֹלָה וְאַחַת קְטַנָּה, אָזְנוֹ אַחַת גְּדוֹלָה וְאַחַת קְטַנָּה, בְּמַרְאֶה אֲבָל לֹא בְמִדָּה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַחַת מִבֵּיצָיו גְּדוֹלָה כִּשְׁתַּיִם בַּחֲבֶרְתָּהּ, וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים:

Rabbi Hanina ben Antigonus says: if [a first born] has a wart in its eye or if a bone of its fore-leg or hind-leg is defective, or if the bone of the mouth split, or one eye is large and the other small, or one ear is large and the other small, being visibly so and not merely in measurement [all of these are blemishes]. Rabbi Judah says: if one testicle is as large as two of the other [this is a blemish]. But the sages didn’t agree with him.

11 יא

זְנַב הָעֶגֶל שֶׁאֵינָהּ מַגַּעַת לָעַרְקוֹב, אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, כָּל מַרְבִּית הָעֲגָלִים כֵּן, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהֵן מַגְדִּילִין הֵם נִמְתָּחוֹת. לְאֵיזֶה עַרְקוֹב אָמְרוּ, רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אוֹמֵר, לָעַרְקוֹב שֶׁבְּאֶמְצַע הַיָּרֵךְ. עַל אֵלּוּ מוּמִין שׁוֹחֲטִין אֶת הַבְּכוֹר, וּפְסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין נִפְדִּין עֲלֵיהֶן:

If the tail of a calf does not reach the joint, [it is a blemish]. The sages said: the growth of all calves is in this manner, as long as [the animals] grow, the tails also extend [below]. To which joint does this refer? Rabbi Hanina ben Antigonus says: the joint in the middle of the hip. In consequence of these blemishes we may slaughter a firstborn animal, and consecrated animals rendered unfit [for the altar] in consequence of these blemishes may be redeemed.

12 יב

אֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין עֲלֵיהֶן לֹא בַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְלֹא בַמְּדִינָה, חֲוַרְוָד וְהַמַּיִם שֶׁאֵינָם קְבוּעִין, וְחִטָּיו הַפְּנִימִיּוֹת שֶׁנִּפְגְּמוּ, (אֲבָל לֹא) שֶׁנֶּעֶקְרוּ, וּבַעַל גָּרָב, וּבַעַל יַבֶּלֶת, וּבַעַל חֲזָזִית, וְזָקֵן, וְחוֹלֶה, וּמְזֻהָם, וְשֶׁנֶּעֶבְדָה בוֹ עֲבֵרָה, וְשֶׁהֵמִית אֶת הָאָדָם (עַל פִּי עֵד אֶחָד אוֹ עַל פִּי הַבְּעָלִים), וְטֻמְטוּם, וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס, לֹא בַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְלֹא בַמְּדִינָה. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, אֵין מוּם גָּדוֹל מִזֶּה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ בְכוֹר, אֶלָּא נִגְזָז וְנֶעֱבָד:

And in consequence of the following blemishes one may not slaughter a first born either in the Temple or in the rest of the state: White spots on the cornea and water [dripping from the eye] which are not permanent, Or molars which have been broken but not torn out [completely]; Or [an animal] affected with garav, a wart, or hazazit. An old [animal] or a sick one, [an animal] of offensive smell; Or [an animal] which with a transgression has been committed or an animal which is known to have killed a human being on the testimony of one witness or of the owners. A tumtum or a hermaphrodite cannot be slaughtered, neither in the Temple or in the rest of the state. Rabbi Ishmael however says: there is no greater blemish than that [of a hermaphrodite]. But the sages say: it is not considered a first-born and it may be shorn and worked with.