עַל אֵלּוּ מוּמִין שׁוֹחֲטִין אֶת הַבְּכוֹר, נִפְגְּמָה אָזְנוֹ מִן הַסְּחוּס, אֲבָל לֹא מִן הָעוֹר, נִסְדְּקָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא חָסְרָה, נִקְּבָה מְלֹא כַרְשִׁינָה, אוֹ שֶׁיָּבָשָׁה. אֵיזוֹ הִיא יְבֵשָׁה, כֹּל שֶׁתִּנָּקֵב וְאֵינָהּ מוֹצִיאָה טִפַּת דָּם. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן מְשֻׁלָּם אוֹמֵר, יְבֵשָׁה, שֶׁתְּהֵא נִפְרָכֶת: For these blemishes, one may slaughter the firstborn animal outside the Temple: If the firstborn’s ear was damaged and lacking from the cartilage [haḥasḥus], but not if the skin was damaged; and likewise, if the ear was split, although it is not lacking; or if the ear was pierced with a hole the size of a bitter vetch, which is a type of legume; or if it was an ear that is desiccated. What is a desiccated ear that is considered a blemish? It is any ear that if it is pierced it does not discharge a drop of blood. Rabbi Yosei ben HaMeshullam says: Desiccated means that the ear is so dry that it will crumble if one touches it.
רִיס שֶׁל עַיִן שֶׁנִּקַּב, שֶׁנִּפְגַּם, שֶׁנִּסְדַּק, הֲרֵי בְעֵינָיו דַּק, תְּבַלּוּל, חִלָּזוֹן נָחָשׁ, וְעֵנָב. וְאֵיזֶהוּ תְּבַלּוּל, לָבָן הַפוֹסֵק בַּסִּירָא וְנִכְנָס בַּשָּׁחוֹר. בַּשָּׁחוֹר וְנִכְנָס בַּלָּבָן, אֵינוֹ מוּם, שֶׁאֵין מוּמִים בַּלָּבָן: For these blemishes of the eye, one may slaughter the firstborn animal outside the Temple: The eyelid that was pierced, an eyelid that was damaged and is lacking, or an eyelid that was split; and likewise, one may slaughter a firstborn animal outside the Temple if there was in his eye a cataract, a tevallul, or a growth in the shape of a snail, a snake, or a berry that covers the pupil. What is a tevallul? It is a white thread that bisects the iris and enters the black pupil. If it is a black thread that bisects the iris and enters the white of the eye it is not a blemish.
חֲוַרְוָד וְהַמַּיִם הַקְּבוּעִים. אֵיזֶהוּ חֲוַרְוָד הַקָּבוּעַ, כֹּל שֶׁשָּׁהָה שְׁמוֹנִים יוֹם. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אוֹמֵר, בּוֹדְקִין אוֹתוֹ שְׁלשָׁה פְעָמִים בְּתוֹךְ שְׁמוֹנִים יוֹם. וְאֵלּוּ הֵם מַיִם הַקְּבוּעִים, אָכַל לַח וְיָבֵשׁ שֶׁל גְּשָׁמִים, לַח וְיָבֵשׁ שֶׁל שְׁלָחִים. אָכַל הַיָּבֵשׁ וְאַחַר כָּךְ אָכַל הַלַּח, אֵינוֹ מוּם, עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל הַיָּבֵשׁ אַחַר הַלַּח: Pale spots on the eye and tears streaming from the eye that are constant are blemishes that enable the slaughter of the firstborn. Which are the pale spots that are constant? They are any spots that persisted for eighty days. Rabbi Ḥananya ben Antigonus said: One examines it three times within eighty days. Only if the spots are found during all three examinations are they considered constant. And these are the constant tears, i.e., this is how it is known whether the blemish is temporary or permanent: In a case where the animal ate, for medicinal purposes, moist fodder and dry fodder from a field watered exclusively with rain, or if the animal ate moist fodder and dry fodder from an irrigated field, or even if the animal did not eat them together but ate the dry fodder and thereafter ate the moist fodder, and the condition of constant tears was not healed, it is not a blemish. It is not a blemish unless the animal eats the moist fodder and thereafter eats the dry fodder and is not thereby healed.
חָטְמוֹ שֶׁנִּקַּב, שֶׁנִּפְגַּם, שֶׁנִּסְדַּק, שְׂפָתוֹ שֶׁנִּקְּבָה, שֶׁנִּפְגְּמָה, שֶׁנִּסְדְּקָה, חִטָּיו הַחִיצוֹנוֹת שֶׁנִּפְגְּמוּ אוֹ שֶׁנִּגְמְמוּ, וְהַפְנִימִיּוֹת שֶׁנֶּעֱקָרוּ. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אוֹמֵר, אֵין בּוֹדְקִין מִן הַמַּתְאִימוֹת וְלִפְנִים, אַף לֹא אֶת הַמַתְאִימוֹת: For these additional blemishes, one may slaughter a firstborn animal outside the Temple: Its nose that was pierced, or that was damaged and is lacking, or that was split. Likewise, its lip that was pierced, or that was damaged, or that was split is considered a blemish. The mishna lists additional blemishes that permit the slaughter of the firstborn: The external gums that were damaged and lacking or that were scratched, and likewise, the internal gums that were extracted. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus says: One does not examine from the double teeth, i.e., the large molars that appear like two teeth, and inward, and one does not examine even the place of the double teeth themselves. This is because even if they were extracted, it is a concealed blemish, and it does not permit the slaughter of the firstborn.
נִפְגַּם הַזּוֹבָן, אוֹ עֶרְיָה שֶׁל נְקֵבָּה בַּמֻּקְדָּשִׁים, נִפְגַּם הַזָּנָב מִן הָעֶצֶם, אֲבָל לֹא מִן הַפֶּרֶק, אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה רֹאשׁ הַזָּנָב מַפְצִיל עֶצֶם, אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ (בָּשָׂר) בֵּין חֻלְיָא לְחֻלְיָא מְלֹא אֶצְבַּע: The mishna details additional blemishes that enable the slaughter of firstborn animals: If the pouch [hazoven] in which the genitals of the firstborn are concealed, or if the genitalia of a female sacrificial animal, were damaged and lacking; if the tail was damaged from the tailbone, but not if it was damaged from the joint, i.e., one of the joints between the vertebrae, because it heals; or in a case where the end of the tail is split, i.e., the skin and the flesh were removed and the bone remained exposed; or in a case where there is a full fingerbreadth of flesh between one joint and another joint; these are all blemishes.
אֵין לוֹ בֵיצִים, (אוֹ) אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא בֵּיצָה אֶחָת. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי כִיסִין, יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁתֵּי בֵיצִים. אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא כִיס אֶחָד, אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא בֵיצָה אֶחָת. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, מוֹשִׁיבוֹ עַל עַכּוּזוֹ וּמְמַעֵךְ, אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם בֵּיצָה, סוֹפָהּ לָצֵאת. מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁמִּעֵךְ וְלֹא יָצָאת, וְנִשְׁחַט וְנִמְצֵאת דְּבוּקָה בַּכְּסָלִים, וְהִתִּיר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא וְאָסַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי: The firstborn animal may be slaughtered if it has no testicles or if it has only one testicle. Rabbi Yishmael says: If the animal has two scrotal sacs, it can be assumed that it has two testicles; if the animal does not have two scrotal sacs, it can be assumed that it has only one testicle. Rabbi Akiva says: The matter can be ascertained: One seats the animal on its rump and mashes the sac; if there is a testicle, ultimately it is going to emerge. There was an incident where one mashed the sac and the testicle did not emerge. Then, the animal was slaughtered and the testicle was discovered attached to the loins. And Rabbi Akiva permitted the consumption of its flesh, as the testicle had not previously emerged, and Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri prohibited its consumption.
בַּעַל חָמֵשׁ רַגְלַיִם, אוֹ שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא שָׁלשׁ, וְשֶׁרַגְלָיו קְלוּטוֹת כְּשֶׁל חֲמוֹר, וְהַשָּׁחוּל, וְהַכָּסוּל. אֵיזֶהוּ שָׁחוּל, שֶׁנִּשְׁמְטָה יְרֵכוֹ. וְכָסוּל, שֶׁאַחַת מִיַּרְכוֹתָיו גְּבוֹהָה: An animal with five legs, or one that has only three, or one whose hooves on its legs were closed like those of a donkey and not split, or the shaḥul, or the kasul may be slaughtered. What is a shaḥul? It is an animal with a thighbone that was dislocated. And what is a kasul? It is an animal whose build is asymmetrical in that one of its thighs is higher than the other.
נִשְׁבַּר עֶצֶם יָדוֹ, וְעֶצֶם רַגְלוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִכָּר. מוּמִין אֵלּוּ מָנָה אִילָא בְיַבְנֶה, וְהוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים. וְעוֹד שְׁלשָׁה הוֹסִיף. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ אֶת אֵלּוּ. אֵת שֶׁגַּלְגַּל עֵינוֹ עָגוֹל כְּשֶׁל אָדָם, וּפִיו דּוֹמֶה לְשֶׁל חֲזִיר, וְשֶׁנִּטַּל רֹב הַמְדַבֵּר שֶׁל לְשׁוֹנוֹ. וּבֵית דִּין שֶׁל אַחֲרֵיהֶן אָמְרוּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מוּמִין: Additional blemishes that permit the slaughter of the firstborn include those where the bone of its foreleg or the bone of its hind leg was broken, even though it is not conspicuous. With regard to these blemishes listed in this chapter, Ila, who was expert in blemishes of the firstborn, enumerated them in Yavne, and the Sages deferred to his expertise. And Ila added three additional blemishes, and the Sages said to him: We did not hear about those. Ila added: An animal whose eye is round like that of a person, or whose mouth is similar to that of a pig, or where most of the segment of its tongue corresponding to the segment that facilitates speech in the tongue of a person was removed. The court that followed them said with regard to each of those three blemishes: That is a blemish that enables the slaughter of the firstborn.
מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁהַלְּחִי הַתַּחְתּוֹן עוֹדֵף עַל הָעֶלְיוֹן, וְשָׁלַח רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל לַחֲכָמִים וְאָמְרוּ, הֲרֵי זֶה מוּם. אֹזֶן הַגְּדִי שֶׁהָיְתָה כְפוּלָה, אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהִיא עֶצֶם אֶחָד, מוּם. וְאִם אֵינָהּ עֶצֶם אֶחָד, אֵינָהּ מוּם. רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָא בֶן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, זְנַב הַגְּדִי שֶׁהִיא דוֹמָה לְשֶׁל חֲזִיר, וְשֶׁאֵין בָּהּ שָׁלשׁ חֻלְיוֹת, הֲרֵי זֶה מוּם: And there was an incident where the lower jaw of the firstborn protruded beyond the upper jaw, and Rabban Gamliel asked the Sages for a ruling, and they said: That is a blemish that enables the slaughter of the firstborn. With regard to the ear of the kid that was doubled and appeared like two ears, the Sages said: When the additional ear is one bone, i.e., it has its own cartilage, it is a blemish; when it does not have its own bone it is not a blemish. Rabbi Ḥananya ben Gamliel says: In the case of the tail of a kid that is similar to that of a pig or one that is so short that it does not have three joints, that is a blemish.
רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אוֹמֵר, אֶת שֶׁיַּבֶּלֶת בְּעֵינוֹ, וְשֶׁנִּפְגַּם עֶצֶם יָדוֹ, וְעֶצֶם רַגְלוֹ, וְשֶׁנִּפְסַק עַצְמוֹ שֶׁבְּפִיו. עֵינוֹ אַחַת גְּדוֹלָה וְאַחַת קְטַנָּה, אָזְנוֹ אַחַת גְּדוֹלָה וְאַחַת קְטַנָּה, בְּמַרְאֶה אֲבָל לֹא בְמִדָּה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַחַת מִבֵּיצָיו גְּדוֹלָה כִּשְׁתַּיִם בַּחֲבֶרְתָּהּ, וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים: Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus says that these are blemished animals: One that has a wart in its eyes; and one where the bone of its foreleg or hind leg was damaged; and one where the bone of its mouth, i.e., its jaw, was dislocated; and an animal with one of its eyes large and one small, or one of its ears large and one small where the difference in size is detectable by sight, but not if it is detectable only by being measured. Rabbi Yehuda says: An animal is blemished if with regard to its two testicles, one is as large as two of the other, but the Rabbis did not agree with his opinion.
זְנַב הָעֶגֶל שֶׁאֵינָהּ מַגַּעַת לָעַרְקוֹב, אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, כָּל מַרְבִּית הָעֲגָלִים כֵּן, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהֵן מַגְדִּילִין הֵם נִמְתָּחוֹת. לְאֵיזֶה עַרְקוֹב אָמְרוּ, רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אוֹמֵר, לָעַרְקוֹב שֶׁבְּאֶמְצַע הַיָּרֵךְ. עַל אֵלּוּ מוּמִין שׁוֹחֲטִין אֶת הַבְּכוֹר, וּפְסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין נִפְדִּין עֲלֵיהֶן: In the case of the tail of a calf that does not reach the leg joint [la’arkov], the Sages said: It is a blemish, because all growth of calves is in this manner:As long as they grow, their tails are extended beneath the leg joint. Which is the leg joint about which the Sages spoke? Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus says: They are referring to the leg joint that is in the middle of the thigh. For these blemishes enumerated in the previous mishnayot, one slaughters the firstborn outside the Temple and disqualified consecrated animals may be redeemed on their account.
אֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין עֲלֵיהֶן לֹא בַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְלֹא בַמְּדִינָה, חֲוַרְוָד וְהַמַּיִם שֶׁאֵינָם קְבוּעִין, וְחִטָּיו הַפְּנִימִיּוֹת שֶׁנִּפְגְּמוּ, (אֲבָל לֹא) שֶׁנֶּעֶקְרוּ, וּבַעַל גָּרָב, וּבַעַל יַבֶּלֶת, וּבַעַל חֲזָזִית, וְזָקֵן, וְחוֹלֶה, וּמְזֻהָם, וְשֶׁנֶּעֶבְדָה בוֹ עֲבֵרָה, וְשֶׁהֵמִית אֶת הָאָדָם (עַל פִּי עֵד אֶחָד אוֹ עַל פִּי הַבְּעָלִים), וְטֻמְטוּם, וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס, לֹא בַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְלֹא בַמְּדִינָה. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, אֵין מוּם גָּדוֹל מִזֶּה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ בְכוֹר, אֶלָּא נִגְזָז וְנֶעֱבָד: And these are the blemishes that one does not slaughter the firstborn due to them, neither in the Temple nor in the rest of the country: Pale spots on the eye and tears streaming from the eye that are not constant; and internal gums that were damaged but that were not extracted; and an animal with boils that are moist inside and out [garav]; and an animal with warts; and an animal with boils [ḥazazit]; and an old or sick animal, or one with a foul odor; and one with which a transgression was performed, e.g., it copulated with a person or was the object of bestiality; and one that killed a person. In these latter two cases, the act of bestiality or killing became known on the basis of the testimony of one witness or on the basis of the owner. And one does not slaughter a tumtum, whose sexual organs are concealed, and a hermaphrodite [ve’anderoginos], which has both male and female sexual organs, neither in the Temple nor in the rest of the country. Rabbi Shimon says: You have no blemish greater than that, and it may be slaughtered. And the Rabbis say: The halakhic status of a hermaphrodite is not that of a firstborn; rather, its halakhic status is that of a non-sacred animal that may be shorn and utilized for labor.