6ו׳
1 א

עַל אֵלּוּ מוּמִין שׁוֹחֲטִין אֶת הַבְּכוֹר, נִפְגְּמָה אָזְנוֹ מִן הַסְּחוּס, אֲבָל לֹא מִן הָעוֹר, נִסְדְּקָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא חָסְרָה, נִקְּבָה מְלֹא כַרְשִׁינָה, אוֹ שֶׁיָּבָשָׁה. אֵיזוֹ הִיא יְבֵשָׁה, כֹּל שֶׁתִּנָּקֵב וְאֵינָהּ מוֹצִיאָה טִפַּת דָּם. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן מְשֻׁלָּם אוֹמֵר, יְבֵשָׁה, שֶׁתְּהֵא נִפְרָכֶת:

For which blemishes do we slaughter a firstborn? If its ear is punctured through the cartilage, but not through the skin, if it is slit but not missing anything, if there is a hole the size of a vetch seed, or if it is dried up. What is considered dry? Anything that would not bleed if pierced. Rabbi Yossi ben Meshulam says: It is dry if it would crumble.

2 ב

רִיס שֶׁל עַיִן שֶׁנִּקַּב, שֶׁנִּפְגַּם, שֶׁנִּסְדַּק, הֲרֵי בְעֵינָיו דַּק, תְּבַלּוּל, חִלָּזוֹן נָחָשׁ, וְעֵנָב. וְאֵיזֶהוּ תְּבַלּוּל, לָבָן הַפוֹסֵק בַּסִּירָא וְנִכְנָס בַּשָּׁחוֹר. בַּשָּׁחוֹר וְנִכְנָס בַּלָּבָן, אֵינוֹ מוּם, שֶׁאֵין מוּמִים בַּלָּבָן:

If the eyelid is pierced, punctured or slit, if the eyes have a cataract or a tevalul or a or a fleshy appendage or an blister. What is a tevalul? If the white breaks through the iris and enters the black. If the black enters the white it is not a blemish because there are no blemishes in the white.

3 ג

חֲוַרְוָד וְהַמַּיִם הַקְּבוּעִים. אֵיזֶהוּ חֲוַרְוָד הַקָּבוּעַ, כֹּל שֶׁשָּׁהָה שְׁמוֹנִים יוֹם. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אוֹמֵר, בּוֹדְקִין אוֹתוֹ שְׁלשָׁה פְעָמִים בְּתוֹךְ שְׁמוֹנִים יוֹם. וְאֵלּוּ הֵם מַיִם הַקְּבוּעִים, אָכַל לַח וְיָבֵשׁ שֶׁל גְּשָׁמִים, לַח וְיָבֵשׁ שֶׁל שְׁלָחִים. אָכַל הַיָּבֵשׁ וְאַחַר כָּךְ אָכַל הַלַּח, אֵינוֹ מוּם, עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל הַיָּבֵשׁ אַחַר הַלַּח:

Persistent white spots or tearing. What is a persistent white spot? anything that lasts for eighty days. Rabbi Chaninah ben Antignos says they check it three times during the eighty days. Which [circumstances allow us to identify] persistent tearing: If it ate moist and [then] dry [grasses] from [a field watered by] rain. [But if it ate] moist and [then] dry [grasses] from [a field watered by] irrigation, [or if] it ate dry [grass] and then moist - it is not [considered] a blemish until [we see] he eats the dry after the moist.

4 ד

חָטְמוֹ שֶׁנִּקַּב, שֶׁנִּפְגַּם, שֶׁנִּסְדַּק, שְׂפָתוֹ שֶׁנִּקְּבָה, שֶׁנִּפְגְּמָה, שֶׁנִּסְדְּקָה, חִטָּיו הַחִיצוֹנוֹת שֶׁנִּפְגְּמוּ אוֹ שֶׁנִּגְמְמוּ, וְהַפְנִימִיּוֹת שֶׁנֶּעֱקָרוּ. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אוֹמֵר, אֵין בּוֹדְקִין מִן הַמַּתְאִימוֹת וְלִפְנִים, אַף לֹא אֶת הַמַתְאִימוֹת:

If its nose was pierced or punctured or slit or if its lip was was pierce, punctured or slit, or if its front gums were punctured or [completely] receded, or if [its] back [gums] were uprooted - [these are blemishes]. Rabbi Chaninah ben Antignos says, we do not examine from the molars on back, nor do we examine the molars [themselves].

5 ה

נִפְגַּם הַזּוֹבָן, אוֹ עֶרְיָה שֶׁל נְקֵבָּה בַּמֻּקְדָּשִׁים, נִפְגַּם הַזָּנָב מִן הָעֶצֶם, אֲבָל לֹא מִן הַפֶּרֶק, אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה רֹאשׁ הַזָּנָב מַפְצִיל עֶצֶם, אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ (בָּשָׂר) בֵּין חֻלְיָא לְחֻלְיָא מְלֹא אֶצְבַּע:

If the sheath of the male organ was punctured - or the female genitalia, in the case of [other] sanctified [animals]. If the tail is missing [a vertebra] from the bone - but not from the [connection] joint - or if the end of the tail is split [and reveals] the bone or if there is flesh the width of a finger between each vertebra.

6 ו

אֵין לוֹ בֵיצִים, (אוֹ) אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא בֵּיצָה אֶחָת. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי כִיסִין, יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁתֵּי בֵיצִים. אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא כִיס אֶחָד, אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא בֵיצָה אֶחָת. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, מוֹשִׁיבוֹ עַל עַכּוּזוֹ וּמְמַעֵךְ, אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם בֵּיצָה, סוֹפָהּ לָצֵאת. מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁמִּעֵךְ וְלֹא יָצָאת, וְנִשְׁחַט וְנִמְצֵאת דְּבוּקָה בַּכְּסָלִים, וְהִתִּיר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא וְאָסַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי:

If it does not have testicles, or if it only has one. Rabbi Yishmael says: if it has two pouches, then it had two testicles; if it has one one pouch, then it has only one testicle. Rabbi Akiva says: [in the latter case,] one should cause it to sit on its hind and squeeze, if there is a testicle there, it will come out. It once happened that they squeezed and it did not come out, and they slaughtered it and found it stuck to the flank - Rabbi Akiva permitted [it] but Rabbi Yochanan forbade [it].

7 ז

בַּעַל חָמֵשׁ רַגְלַיִם, אוֹ שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא שָׁלשׁ, וְשֶׁרַגְלָיו קְלוּטוֹת כְּשֶׁל חֲמוֹר, וְהַשָּׁחוּל, וְהַכָּסוּל. אֵיזֶהוּ שָׁחוּל, שֶׁנִּשְׁמְטָה יְרֵכוֹ. וְכָסוּל, שֶׁאַחַת מִיַּרְכוֹתָיו גְּבוֹהָה:

If it has five legs or only three, or if its hooves are rounded like a donkey's or it is a shachul or casul. What is a shachul? if its hip is dislocated. And casul? if one of its hips is [too] high.

8 ח

נִשְׁבַּר עֶצֶם יָדוֹ, וְעֶצֶם רַגְלוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִכָּר. מוּמִין אֵלּוּ מָנָה אִילָא בְיַבְנֶה, וְהוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים. וְעוֹד שְׁלשָׁה הוֹסִיף. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ אֶת אֵלּוּ. אֵת שֶׁגַּלְגַּל עֵינוֹ עָגוֹל כְּשֶׁל אָדָם, וּפִיו דּוֹמֶה לְשֶׁל חֲזִיר, וְשֶׁנִּטַּל רֹב הַמְדַבֵּר שֶׁל לְשׁוֹנוֹ. וּבֵית דִּין שֶׁל אַחֲרֵיהֶן אָמְרוּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מוּמִין:

If its foreleg or hind leg were broken even if [the break] is not discernable. These [last mentioned] are the blemishes that Ilah of Yavneh enumerated, and the Sages agreed with him. He added another three and they told him, we have never heard of these: One whose iris is round like that of a human, or whose mouth looks like a pig's or if most of the front [lit. "speaking"] part of the tongue has been removed. Subsequent courts said: these are blemishes.

9 ט

מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁהַלְּחִי הַתַּחְתּוֹן עוֹדֵף עַל הָעֶלְיוֹן, וְשָׁלַח רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל לַחֲכָמִים וְאָמְרוּ, הֲרֵי זֶה מוּם. אֹזֶן הַגְּדִי שֶׁהָיְתָה כְפוּלָה, אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהִיא עֶצֶם אֶחָד, מוּם. וְאִם אֵינָהּ עֶצֶם אֶחָד, אֵינָהּ מוּם. רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָא בֶן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, זְנַב הַגְּדִי שֶׁהִיא דוֹמָה לְשֶׁל חֲזִיר, וְשֶׁאֵין בָּהּ שָׁלשׁ חֻלְיוֹת, הֲרֵי זֶה מוּם:

It once happened that the lower jaw extended longer than the upper one, and Rabban Shimon Ben Gamliel sent [an inquiry] to the Sages and they said it is a blemish. The ear of a kid which was doubled - the Sages said: if it is a single upper lobe, it is a blemish, but if there isn't a single upper lobe, it is not a blemish. Rabbi Chaninah ben Gamliel says, the tail of a kid which looks like [that] of a pig or if it does not have three vertebrae, it is a blemish.

10 י

רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אוֹמֵר, אֶת שֶׁיַּבֶּלֶת בְּעֵינוֹ, וְשֶׁנִּפְגַּם עֶצֶם יָדוֹ, וְעֶצֶם רַגְלוֹ, וְשֶׁנִּפְסַק עַצְמוֹ שֶׁבְּפִיו. עֵינוֹ אַחַת גְּדוֹלָה וְאַחַת קְטַנָּה, אָזְנוֹ אַחַת גְּדוֹלָה וְאַחַת קְטַנָּה, בְּמַרְאֶה אֲבָל לֹא בְמִדָּה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַחַת מִבֵּיצָיו גְּדוֹלָה כִּשְׁתַּיִם בַּחֲבֶרְתָּהּ, וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים:

Rabbi Chanina ben Antignos says: If it has a wart in its eye, or if its foreleg or hindleg was missing a piece or if the bone in its mouth [i.e. the jawbone] is split, f one eye is bigger than the other or if one ear is bigger than the other - [as judged] by appearance but not [if it must] be measured. Rabbi Yehuda says, if one of its testicles is twice as large as the other [it is a blemish] but the Sages disagree.

11 יא

זְנַב הָעֶגֶל שֶׁאֵינָהּ מַגַּעַת לָעַרְקוֹב, אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, כָּל מַרְבִּית הָעֲגָלִים כֵּן, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהֵן מַגְדִּילִין הֵם נִמְתָּחוֹת. לְאֵיזֶה עַרְקוֹב אָמְרוּ, רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אוֹמֵר, לָעַרְקוֹב שֶׁבְּאֶמְצַע הַיָּרֵךְ. עַל אֵלּוּ מוּמִין שׁוֹחֲטִין אֶת הַבְּכוֹר, וּפְסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין נִפְדִּין עֲלֵיהֶן:

The tail of a calf which does not reach the leg joint - the Sages said: all growing calves are such [that their tails reach their knee joint, and] while they are growing, their tails [also] extend. To which leg joint did they refer? Rabbi Chaninah ben Antignos says, to the joint in the middle of the thigh. For [all] these blemishes [in this chapter], we slaughter the first born and invalid sanctified animals are redeemed because of them.

12 יב

אֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין עֲלֵיהֶן לֹא בַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְלֹא בַמְּדִינָה, חֲוַרְוָד וְהַמַּיִם שֶׁאֵינָם קְבוּעִין, וְחִטָּיו הַפְּנִימִיּוֹת שֶׁנִּפְגְּמוּ, (אֲבָל לֹא) שֶׁנֶּעֶקְרוּ, וּבַעַל גָּרָב, וּבַעַל יַבֶּלֶת, וּבַעַל חֲזָזִית, וְזָקֵן, וְחוֹלֶה, וּמְזֻהָם, וְשֶׁנֶּעֶבְדָה בוֹ עֲבֵרָה, וְשֶׁהֵמִית אֶת הָאָדָם (עַל פִּי עֵד אֶחָד אוֹ עַל פִּי הַבְּעָלִים), וְטֻמְטוּם, וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס, לֹא בַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְלֹא בַמְּדִינָה. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, אֵין מוּם גָּדוֹל מִזֶּה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ בְכוֹר, אֶלָּא נִגְזָז וְנֶעֱבָד:

For the following they do not slaughter [as a sacrifice on the mizbeach] - neither in the Temple nor outside the Temple: If it had non-persistent white spots in its eye, or non-persistent tearing or if its inner gums are missing a piece but not uprooted, or if it had eczema, a wart or boils or if it was old or sick or smelled bad, or if a sin [of bestiality] was committed with it or if it killed a man [as determined] by the word of one witness or by the owners admission, a tumtum [an animal with recessed sexual organs whose sex is therefore impossible to determine, presently, by external examination. It is halachically uncertain whether such an animal is male or female] or an androginos [an animal with both male and female sexual organs. It is halachically uncertain whether such an animal is male, female or, perhaps, has a uniquely defined halachic sex], neither in the Temple or outside it. Rabbi Yishmael says, there is no blemish greater than this [i.e. being an androginos;] but the Sages say it is not a first born and can be sheared and worked.