עַד כַּמָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל חַיָּבִים לְהִטַּפֵּל בַּבְּכוֹר. בִּבְהֵמָה דַקָּה, עַד שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם. וּבַגַּסָּה, חֲמִשִּׁים יוֹם. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, בַּדַּקָּה שְׁלשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים. אָמַר לוֹ הַכֹּהֵן בְּתוֹךְ זְמַן זֶה תְּנֵהוּ לִי, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִתְּנוֹ לוֹ. אִם הָיָה בַעַל מוּם, אָמַר לוֹ תֶּן לִי שֶׁאוֹכְלֶנּוּ, מֻתָּר. וּבִשְׁעַת הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, אִם הָיָה תָמִים, אָמַר לוֹ תֶּן לִי שֶׁאַקְרִיבֶנּוּ, מֻתָּר. הַבְּכוֹר נֶאֱכָל שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה בֵּין תָּמִים בֵּין בַּעַל מוּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים טו), לִפְנֵי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ תֹאכְלֶנּוּ שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה: Until when must an Israelite tend to and raise a firstborn animal before giving it to the priest? With regard to a small animal, e.g., a sheep or goat, it is thirty days, and with regard to a large animal, e.g., cattle, it is fifty days. Rabbi Yosei says: With regard to a small animal, it is three months. If the priest said to the owner within that period: Give it to me, that owner may not give it to him. And if it is a blemished firstborn and the priest said to him: Give it to me so I may eat it, it is permitted for the owner to give it to him. And at the time that the Temple is standing, if it is unblemished and the priest said to him: Give it to me and I will sacrifice it, it is permitted for the owner to give it to him. The firstborn animal is eaten year by year, i.e., within its first year, whether it is blemished or whether it is unblemished, as it is stated: “You shall eat it before the Lord your God year by year” (Deuteronomy 15:20).
נוֹלַד לוֹ מוּם בְּתוֹךְ שְׁנָתוֹ, מֻתָּר לְקַיְּמוֹ כָּל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. לְאַחַר שְׁנָתוֹ, אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לְקַיְּמוֹ אֶלָּא עַד שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם: If a blemish developed within its first year, it is permitted for the owner to maintain the animal for the entire twelve months. If a blemish developed after twelve months have passed, it is permitted for the owner to maintain the animal for only thirty days.
הַשּׁוֹחֵט הַבְּכוֹר וּמַרְאֶה אֶת מוּמוֹ, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מַתִּיר. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא נִשְׁחַט שֶׁלֹּא עַל פִּי מֻמְחֶה, אָסוּר: In the case of one who slaughters the firstborn animal and only then shows its blemish to an expert to determine whether it is a blemish, and it was established by the expert that it is in fact a blemish that renders its slaughter permitted, Rabbi Yehuda deems it permitted for a priest to derive benefit from the firstborn. Rabbi Meir says: Since it was slaughtered not according to the ruling of an expert, it is prohibited.
מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻמְחֶה וְרָאָה אֶת הַבְּכוֹר וְנִשְׁחַט עַל פִּיו, הֲרֵי זֶה יִקָּבֵר, וִישַׁלֵּם מִבֵּיתוֹ. דָּן אֶת הַדִּין, זִכָּה אֶת הַחַיָּב וְחִיֵּב אֶת הַזַּכַּאי, טִמֵּא אֶת הַטָהוֹר וְטִהֵר אֶת הַטָּמֵא, מַה שֶּׁעָשָׂה עָשׂוּי וִישַׁלֵּם מִבֵּיתוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה מֻמְחֶה לְבֵית דִּין, פָּטוּר מִלְּשַׁלֵּם. מַעֲשֶׂה בְפָרָה שֶׁנִּטְּלָה הָאֵם שֶׁלָּהּ, וְהֶאֱכִילָהּ רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן לַכְּלָבִים, וּבָא מַעֲשֶׂה לִפְנֵי חֲכָמִים וְהִתִּירוּהָ. אָמַר תוֹדוֹס הָרוֹפֵא, אֵין פָּרָה וַחֲזִירָה יוֹצְאָה מֵאֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִיָּא עַד שֶׁהֵם חוֹתְכִין אֶת הָאֵם שֶׁלָּהּ, בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא תֵלֵד. אָמַר רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן, הָלְכָה חֲמוֹרְךָ טַרְפוֹן. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן, פָּטוּר אַתָּה, שֶׁאַתָּה מֻמְחֶה לְבֵית דִּין, וְכָל הַמֻּמְחֶה לְבֵית דִּין פָּטוּר מִלְּשַׁלֵּם: In a case involving one who is not an expert, and he examined the firstborn animal and it was slaughtered on the basis of his ruling, that animal must be buried, and the non-expert must pay compensation to the priest from his property. Apropos the previous mishna, which taught that a judge who was an expert for the court and who erred is exempt from payment, this mishna teaches: There was an incident involving a cow whose womb was removed, and when Rabbi Tarfon was consulted he ruled that it is an animal with a wound that will cause it to die within twelve months [tereifa], which is forbidden for consumption. And based on the ruling of Rabbi Tarfon, the questioner fed it to the dogs. And the incident came before the Sages of the court in Yavne, and they ruled that such an animal is permitted and is not a tereifa. And Theodosius [Todos] the doctor said: A cow or pig does not emerge from Alexandria of Egypt unless the residents sever its womb so that it will not give birth in the future. The breeds of cows and pigs in Alexandria were of exceptional quality and the people of Alexandria did not want them reproduced elsewhere. The fact that these animals lived long lives after their wombs were removed proves that the hysterectomy did not render them tereifot. Upon hearing this, Rabbi Tarfon said: Your donkey is gone, Tarfon, as he believed he was required to compensate the owner for the cow that he ruled to be a tereifa. Rabbi Akiva said to him: Rabbi Tarfon, you are an expert for the court, and any expert for the court is exempt from liability to pay.
הַנּוֹטֵל שְׂכָרוֹ לִהְיוֹת רוֹאֶה בְכוֹרוֹת, אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין עַל פִּיו, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה מֻמְחֶה כְּאִילָא בְיַבְנֶה, שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים לִהְיוֹת נוֹטֵל אַרְבָּעָה אִסָּרוֹת בִּבְהֵמָה דַקָּה, וְשִׁשָּׁה בַּגַּסָּה, בֵּין תָּמִים בֵּין בַּעַל מוּם: In the case of an individual who takes payment to be one who examines firstborn animals to determine whether they are blemished, one may not slaughter the firstborn on the basis of his ruling, unless he was an expert like Ila in Yavne, whom the Sages in Yavne permitted to take a wage of four issar for issuing a ruling concerning a small animal and six issar for issuing a ruling concerning a large animal. They permitted this provided that he would be paid whether it turned out that the firstborn was unblemished or whether it was blemished.
הַנּוֹטֵל שְׂכָרוֹ לָדוּן, דִּינָיו בְּטֵלִים. לְהָעִיד, עֵדוּתָיו בְּטֵלִין. לְהַזּוֹת וּלְקַדֵּשׁ, מֵימָיו מֵי מְעָרָה וְאֶפְרוֹ אֵפֶר מִקְלֶה. אִם הָיָה כֹהֵן וְטִמְּאָהוּ מִתְּרוּמָתוֹ, מַאֲכִילוֹ וּמַשְׁקוֹ וְסָכוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה זָקֵן, מַרְכִּיבוֹ עַל הַחֲמוֹר. וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ שְׂכָרוֹ כַּפּוֹעֵל: In the case of one who takes his wages to judge cases, his rulings are void. In the case of one who takes wages to testify, his testimonies are void. With regard to one who takes wages to sprinkle the purification waters of the red heifer upon one who contracted impurity imparted by a corpse, and one who takes wages to sanctify those waters, the halakhic status of his water is that of cave water, and the status of his ashes is that of mere burnt ashes. Although taking actual wages is prohibited, if the one examining the firstborn, or the judge, or the witness, was a priest, and the one who requires his services rendered him impure and prevented him from partaking of his teruma, that person must provide the priest with food, drink, and oil for smearing on his body from his own non-sacred property. And likewise if the one examining the firstborn, or the judge, or the witness, was an elderly person, the one who requires his services transports him on a donkey. And in all these cases, although it is prohibited to take wages, the one who requires his services gives him his wages like the wages of a laborer, as he was unable to perform his usual labor that day.
הֶחָשׁוּד עַל הַבְּכוֹרוֹת, אֵין לוֹקְחִין מִמֶּנּוּ בְּשַׂר צְבָאִים וְלֹא עוֹרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן עֲבוּדִין. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, לוֹקְחִים מִמֶּנּוּ עוֹרוֹת שֶׁל נְקֵבָה, וְאֵין לוֹקְחִין מִמֶּנּוּ צֶמֶר מְלֻּבָּן וְצוֹאִי, אֲבָל לוֹקְחִין מִמֶּנּוּ טָווּי וּבְגָדִים: In the case of one who is suspect with regard to firstborn animals of slaughtering them and selling their meat when it is prohibited to do so, one may neither purchase meat from him, including even deer meat, nor may one purchase from him hides that are not tanned. Rabbi Eliezer says: One may purchase hides of female animals from him, as the halakhot of firstborn animals are in effect only with regard to males. And one may not purchase bleached or dirty wool from him. But one may purchase spun thread from him, and all the more so may one purchase garments from him.
הֶחָשׁוּד עַל הַשְׁבִיעִית אֵין לוֹקְחִין מִמֶּנּוּ פִשְׁתָּן וַאֲפִלּוּ סֶרֶק, אֲבָל לוֹקְחִין מִמֶּנּוּ טָווּי וְאָרִיג: In the case of one who is suspect with regard to the Sabbatical Year, i.e., of sowing or engaging in commerce with Sabbatical-Year produce, one may not purchase flax from him, and this applies even to combed flax, in which much labor and exertion was invested. But one may purchase spun thread and woven fabric from such individuals.
הֶחָשׁוּד לִהְיוֹת מוֹכֵר תְּרוּמָה לְשֵׁם חֻלִּין, אֵין לוֹקְחִין מִמֶּנּוּ אֲפִלּוּ מַיִם אוֹ מֶלַח, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, כּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ זִקַּת תְּרוּמוֹת וּמַעַשְׂרוֹת, אֵין לוֹקְחִין מִמֶּנּוּ: In the case of one who is suspect with regard to selling teruma under the guise of non-sacred produce, one may not purchase even water and salt from him; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Shimon says: One may not purchase from him any item that has relevance to teruma and tithes. However, one may purchase water and salt from him, as teruma and tithes do not apply to them.
הֶחָשׁוּד עַל הַשְּׁבִיעִית, אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּד עַל הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. הֶחָשׁוּד עַל הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּד עַל הַשְּׁבִיעִית. הֶחָשׁוּד עַל זֶה וְעַל זֶה, חָשׁוּד עַל הַטָּהֳרוֹת. וְיֵשׁ שֶׁהוּא חָשׁוּד עַל הַטָּהֳרוֹת, וְאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּד לֹא עַל זֶה וְלֹא עַל זֶה. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל הֶחָשׁוּד עַל הַדָּבָר, לֹא דָנוֹ וְלֹא מְעִידוֹ: One who is suspect with regard to the Sabbatical Year is not suspect with regard to tithes; and likewise, one who is suspect with regard to tithes is not suspect with regard to the Sabbatical Year. One who is suspect with regard to this, the Sabbatical Year, or with regard to that, tithes, is suspect with regard to selling ritually impure foods as though they were ritually pure items. But there are those who are suspect with regard to ritually pure items who are not suspect with regard to this, the Sabbatical Year, nor with regard to that, tithes. This is the principle with regard to these matters: Anyone who is suspect with regard to a specific matter may neither adjudicate cases nor testify in cases involving that matter.