8ח׳
1 א

הַשּׁוֹאֵל אֶת הַפָּרָה וְשָׁאַל בְּעָלֶיהָ עִמָּהּ אוֹ שָׂכַר בְּעָלֶיהָ עִמָּה. שָׁאַל הַבְּעָלִים אוֹ שְׂכָרָן, וּלְאַחַר כָּךְ שָׁאַל אֶת הַפָּרָה, וָמֵתָה, פָּטוּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב) אִם בְּעָלָיו עִמּוֹ לֹא יְשַׁלֵּם. אֲבָל שָׁאַל אֶת הַפָּרָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ שָׁאַל אֶת הַבְּעָלִים אוֹ שְׂכָרָן, וָמֵתָה, חַיָּב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) בְּעָלָיו אֵין עִמּוֹ שַׁלֵּם יְשַׁלֵּם:

If one borrowed a cow together with the service of its owner, or hired its owner together with the cow, or if he borrowed the service of the owner or hired him, and afterward borrowed the cow, and the cowed died he is not liable, for it is written, “If its owner was with it no restitution need be made” (Exodus 22:14). But if he first borrowed the cow and afterward borrowed or hired the service of its owner, and the cow died, he is liable, for it is written, “Its owner not being with it, he must make restitution” (Exodus 22:13).

2 ב

הַשּׁוֹאֵל אֶת הַפָּרָה, שְׁאָלָהּ חֲצִי הַיּוֹם וּשְׂכָרָהּ חֲצִי הַיּוֹם, שְׁאָלָהּ הַיּוֹם וּשְׂכָרָהּ לְמָחָר, שָׂכַר אַחַת וְשָׁאַל אַחַת, וָמֵתָה, הַמַּשְׁאִיל אוֹמֵר שְׁאוּלָה מֵתָה, בַּיּוֹם שֶׁהָיְתָה שְׁאוּלָה מֵתָה, בַּשָּׁעָה שֶׁהָיְתָה שְׁאוּלָה מֵתָה, וְהַלָּה אוֹמֵר אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ, חַיָּב. הַשּׂוֹכֵר אוֹמֵר שְׂכוּרָה מֵתָה, בַּיּוֹם שֶׁהָיְתָה שְׂכוּרָה מֵתָה, בַּשָּׁעָה שֶׁהָיְתָה שְׂכוּרָה מֵתָה, וְהַלָּה אוֹמֵר אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ, פָּטוּר. זֶה אוֹמֵר שְׁאוּלָה וְזֶה אוֹמֵר שְׂכוּרָה, יִשָּׁבַע הַשּׂוֹכֵר שֶׁשְּׂכוּרָה מֵתָה. זֶה אוֹמֵר אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ וְזֶה אוֹמֵר אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ, יַחֲלֹקוּ:

If one borrowed a cow, and borrowed it for half a day and hired it for half a day; or borrowed it for one day and hired it for the next; or if he borrowed one cow, and hired another and the cow died if he that lent the cow says: “It was the borrowed cow that died”, [or] “On the day when it was borrowed it died”, [or] “During the time when it was borrowed it died” and the other one says: “I don’t know”, he is liable. If the hirer says, “It is the hired one that died”, [or] “On the day when it was hired it died”, and the other says, “I do not know”, he is not liable. If the one says, “It was borrowed”, and the other says, “It was hired”, the hirer must take an oath that it was the hired one that died. If the one says, “I do not know”, and the other says, “I do not know”, they share in the loss.

3 ג

הַשּׁוֹאֵל אֶת הַפָּרָה, וְשִׁלְּחָהּ לוֹ בְּיַד בְּנוֹ, בְּיַד עַבְדּוֹ, בְּיַד שְׁלוּחוֹ, אוֹ בְיַד בְּנוֹ, בְּיַד עַבְדּוֹ, בְּיַד שְׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל שׁוֹאֵל, וָמֵתָה, פָּטוּר. אָמַר לוֹ הַשּׁוֹאֵל, שַׁלְּחָהּ לִי בְּיַד בְּנִי, בְּיַד עַבְדִּי, בְּיַד שְׁלוּחִי, אוֹ בְּיַד בִּנְךָ, בְּיַד עַבְדְּךָ, בְּיַד שְׁלוּחֲךָ, אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הַמַּשְׁאִיל, הֲרֵינִי מְשַׁלְּחָהּ לְךָ בְּיַד בְּנִי, בְּיַד עַבְדִּי, בְּיַד שְׁלוּחִי, אוֹ בְּיַד בִּנְךָ, בְּיַד עַבְדְּךָ, בְּיַד שְׁלוּחֲךָ, וְאָמַר לוֹ הַשּׁוֹאֵל, שַׁלַּח, וְשִׁלְּחָהּ וָמֵתָה, חַיָּב. וְכֵן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמַּחֲזִירָהּ:

If one borrowed a cow and the owner sent it by the hand of his son or his slave or his agent, or by the hand of the borrower’s son or slave or agent and it died [on the way], the borrower is not liable. But if the borrower said, “Send it to me by the hand of my son or my slave or my agent, or by the hand of your son or your slave or your agent”, or if the lender said, “I am sending it to you by the hand of my son or my slave or my agent”, or “by the hand of your son or your slave or your agent”, and the borrower said, “Send it”, and he sent it and it died [on the way], the borrower is liable. So, too, when the cow is returned.

4 ד

הַמַּחֲלִיף פָּרָה בַּחֲמוֹר וְיָלְדָה, וְכֵן הַמּוֹכֵר שִׁפְחָתוֹ וְיָלְדָה, זֶה אוֹמֵר עַד שֶׁלֹּא מָכָרְתִּי, וְזֶה אוֹמֵר מִשֶּׁלָּקָחְתִּי, יַחֲלֹקוּ. הָיוּ לוֹ שְׁנֵי עֲבָדִים, אֶחָד גָּדוֹל וְאֶחָד קָטָן, וְכֵן שְׁתֵּי שָׂדוֹת, אַחַת גְּדוֹלָה וְאַחַת קְטַנָּה, הַלּוֹקֵחַ אוֹמֵר גָּדוֹל לָקַחְתִּי, וְהַלָּה אוֹמֵר אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ, זָכָה בַגָּדוֹל. הַמּוֹכֵר אוֹמֵר קָטָן מָכָרְתִּי, וְהַלָּה אוֹמֵר אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ, אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא קָטָן. זֶה אוֹמֵר גָּדוֹל וְזֶה אוֹמֵר קָטָן, יִשָּׁבַע הַמּוֹכֵר שֶׁהַקָּטָן מָכָר. זֶה אוֹמֵר אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ וְזֶה אוֹמֵר אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ, יַחֲלֹקוּ:

If one swapped a cow for a donkey, and it gave birth, So too if one sold his slave and she gave birth, [And] one (the seller) says, “It was born before I sold her”, and the other (the buyer) says, “It was born after I bought her”, they shall divide [the value of what was born]. If one had two slaves, one large and the other small, or two fields, one large and the other small,[And he sold one of them], If the buyer says, “I bought the large one” and the other says, “I don’t know”, the buyer can rightly claim the large one. If the seller said, “I sold the small one” and the buyer said, “I do not know”, he may only take the small one. If one said, “It was the large one” and the other said, “It was the small one”, the seller must take an oath that it was the small one that he sold [and the buyer can only take the small one]. If one said, “I do not know”, and the other said, “I do not know”, they shall divide the value [of both slaves or fields].

5 ה

הַמּוֹכֵר זֵיתָיו לְעֵצִים, וְעָשׂוּ פָּחוֹת מֵרְבִיעִית לִסְאָה, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁל בַּעַל הַזֵּיתִים. עָשׂוּ רְבִיעִית לִסְאָה, זֶה אוֹמֵר זֵיתַי גִּדְּלוּ, וְזֶה אוֹמֵר אַרְצִי גִדְּלָה, יַחֲלֹקוּ. שָׁטַף נָהָר זֵיתָיו וּנְתָנָם לְתוֹךְ שְׂדֵה חֲבֵרוֹ, זֶה אוֹמֵר זֵיתַי גִּדְּלוּ, וְזֶה אוֹמֵר אַרְצִי גִדְּלָה, יַחֲלֹקוּ:

If one sold his olive trees as firewood and they bore fruit that gave less than a quarter-log of oil per seah, this belongs to the [new] owner of the olive trees. If they bore fruit that gave a quarter-log of oil [or more] per seah, and the one said, “It was my trees that produced it”, and the other said, “It was my land that produced it”, let them share the produce. If a flood washed away a man’s olive trees and set them in the midst of his fellow’s field [where they bore fruit], and the one said, “It was my trees that produced it”, and the other said, “It was my land that produced it”, let them share the produce.

6 ו

הַמַּשְׂכִּיר בַּיִת לַחֲבֵרוֹ, בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים, אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מִן הֶחָג וְעַד הַפֶּסַח, בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה, שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם. וּבַכְּרַכִּים, אֶחָד יְמוֹת הַחַמָּה וְאֶחָד יְמוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים, שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. וּבַחֲנוּיוֹת, אֶחָד עֲיָרוֹת וְאֶחָד כְּרַכִּים, שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, חֲנוּת שֶׁל נַחְתּוֹמִים וְשֶׁל צַבָּעִים, שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים:

If one leased a house to his fellow in the rainy season, he cannot make him leave it [during the time] from Sukkot to Pesach. In the summer, [he must give him] thirty days [warning]. And in large cities, whether it is during the rainy season or the summer [he must give] twelve months [warning]. [If one leased] a shop [to his fellow], whether in large cities or small towns, [he must give] twelve months [warning]. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: “If it is a shop occupied by bakers or dyers [he must give] three years [warning].

7 ז

הַמַּשְׂכִּיר בַּיִת לַחֲבֵרוֹ, הַמַּשְׂכִּיר חַיָּב בַּדֶּלֶת, בַּנֶּגֶר, וּבְמַנְעוּל, וּבְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁמַּעֲשֵׂה אֻמָּן. אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַעֲשֵׂה אֻמָּן, הַשּׂוֹכֵר עוֹשֵׂהוּ. הַזֶּבֶל, שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, וְאֵין לַשּׂוֹכֵר אֶלָּא הַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַתַּנּוּר וּמִן הַכִּירַיִם בִּלְבָד:

If one rented a house to his fellow, he is obligated to provide it with a door, a bolt a lock and anything which is the work of a craftsman. However, that which is not the work of a craftsman, the tenant must make himself. The manure [which collects in the courtyard] belongs to the owner of the house, and the tenant can only claim the refuse from the oven and the stove.

8 ח

הַמַּשְׂכִּיר בַּיִת לַחֲבֵרוֹ לְשָׁנָה, נִתְעַבְּרָה הַשָּׁנָה, נִתְעַבְּרָה לַשּׂוֹכֵר. הִשְׂכִּיר לוֹ לֶחֳדָשִׁים, נִתְעַבְּרָה הַשָּׁנָה, נִתְעַבְּרָה לַמַּשְׂכִּיר. מַעֲשֶׂה בְצִפּוֹרִי בְּאֶחָד שֶׁשָּׂכַר מֶרְחָץ מֵחֲבֵרוֹ בִּשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר זָהָב לְשָׁנָה, מִדִּינַר זָהָב לְחֹדֶשׁ, וּבָא מַעֲשֶׂה לִפְנֵי רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וְלִפְנֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, וְאָמְרוּ, יַחֲלֹקוּ אֶת חֹדֶשׁ הָעִבּוּר:

If one rented a house to his fellow by the year and the year was made a leap year, the extra month goes to the tenant. If he rented it by the month and the year was made a leap year, the extra month goes to the owner. It once happened in Tzippori that a person leased a bath-house from his fellow at “twelve golden dinars a year, one dinar per month”, and [when the year became a leap year] the case came before Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel and Rabbi Yose, and they said: “Let them share the extra month.”

9 ט

הַמַּשְׂכִּיר בַּיִת לַחֲבֵרוֹ וְנָפַל, חַיָּב לְהַעֲמִיד לוֹ בָּיִת. הָיָה קָטָן, לֹא יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ גָדוֹל, גָּדוֹל, לֹא יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ קָטָן. אֶחָד, לֹא יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ שְׁנַיִם, שְׁנַיִם, לֹא יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ אֶחָד. לֹא יִפְחֹת מֵהַחַלּוֹנוֹת וְלֹא יוֹסִיף עֲלֵיהֶן, אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת שְׁנֵיהֶם:

If one rented a house to his fellow and it fell down, the owner must build him a new house. If it was small he may not make it larger, and if it was large he may not make it smaller. If it was one house, he may not make it two; if it was two houses he may not make it one. He may not reduce or increase the number of windows, unless it is with both of their consent.