2ב׳
1 א

אֵלּוּ מְצִיאוֹת שֶׁלּוֹ, וְאֵלּוּ חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז. אֵלּוּ מְצִיאוֹת שֶׁלּוֹ, מָצָא פֵרוֹת מְפֻזָּרִין, מָעוֹת מְפֻזָּרוֹת, כְּרִיכוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְעִגּוּלֵי דְבֵלָה, כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁל נַחְתּוֹם, מַחֲרוֹזוֹת שֶׁל דָּגִים, וַחֲתִיכוֹת שֶׁל בָּשָׂר, וְגִזֵּי צֶמֶר הַבָּאוֹת מִמְּדִינָתָן, וַאֲנִיצֵי פִשְׁתָּן, וּלְשׁוֹנוֹת שֶׁל אַרְגָּמָן, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלּוֹ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כָּל שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ שִׁנּוּי, חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז. כֵּיצַד. מָצָא עִגּוּל וּבְתוֹכוֹ חֶרֶס, כִּכָּר וּבְתוֹכוֹ מָעוֹת. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר, כָּל כְּלֵי אֶנְפּוֹרְיָא אֵינוֹ חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז:

Which found objects belong to the finder and which ones must be proclaimed [in the lost and found]? These found objects belong to the finder: if a man found scattered fruit, scattered money, small sheaves in the public domain, cakes of figs, bakers’ loaves, strings of fish, pieces of meat, wool shearings [as they come] from the country of origin, stalks of flax and strips of purple wool, according to Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: “Anything which has in it something unusual, must be proclaimed. How is this so? If he found a fig cake with a potsherd in it or a loaf with coins in it [he must proclaim them].” Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: “New merchandise need not be proclaimed.”

2 ב

וְאֵלוּ חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז, מָצָא פֵרוֹת בִּכְלִי אוֹ כְלִי כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא, מָעוֹת בְּכִיס אוֹ כִיס כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא, צִבּוּרֵי פֵרוֹת, צִבּוּרֵי מָעוֹת, שְׁלשָׁה מַטְבְּעוֹת זֶה עַל גַּב זֶה, כְּרִיכוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, וְכִכָּרוֹת שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, וְגִזֵּי צֶמֶר הַלְּקוּחוֹת מִבֵּית הָאֻמָּן, כַּדֵּי יַיִן וְכַדֵּי שֶׁמֶן, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז:

And these must be proclaimed: if a man found fruit in a vessel, or an empty vessel; or money in a bag, or an empty bag; piles of fruit or piles of money; three coins one on top of the other; small sheaves in the private domain; home-made loaves of bread; wool shearings as they come from the craftsman’s shop; jugs of wine or jugs of oil, these must be proclaimed.

3 ג

מָצָא אַחַר הַגַּפָּה אוֹ אַחַר הַגָּדֵר גּוֹזָלוֹת מְקֻשָּׁרִין, אוֹ בִשְׁבִילִין שֶׁבַּשָּׂדוֹת, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִגַּע בָּהֶן. מָצָא כְלִי בָּאַשְׁפָּה, אִם מְכֻסֶּה, לֹא יִגַּע בּוֹ, אִם מְגֻלֶּה, נוֹטֵל וּמַכְרִיז. מָצָא בְגַל אוֹ בְכֹתֶל יָשָׁן, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלּוֹ. מָצָא בְכֹתֶל חָדָשׁ, מֵחֶצְיוֹ וְלַחוּץ, שֶׁלּוֹ, מֵחֶצְיוֹ וְלִפְנִים, שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבָּיִת. אִם הָיָה מַשְׂכִּירוֹ לַאֲחֵרִים, אֲפִלּוּ בְתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלּוֹ:

If a man found pigeons tied together behind a fence or a hedge or on footpaths in the fields, he may not touch them. If he found an object in the dungheap and it was covered up he may not touch it, but if it was exposed he should take it and proclaim. If he found it in a pile of stones or in an old wall it belongs to him. If he found it in a new wall and it was on the outside [of the wall] it belongs to him. If it was on the inner side it belongs to the householder. But if the house had been hired to others, even if a man found something within the house, it belongs to him.

4 ד

מָצָא בַחֲנוּת, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלּוֹ. בֵּין הַתֵּבָה וְלַחֶנְוָנִי, שֶׁל חֶנְוָנִי. לִפְנֵי שֻׁלְחָנִי, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלּוֹ. בֵּין הַכִּסֵּא וְלַשֻּׁלְחָנִי, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ לַשֻּׁלְחָנִי. הַלּוֹקֵחַ פֵּרוֹת מֵחֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁלַח לוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ פֵּרוֹת, וּמָצָא בָהֶן מָעוֹת, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלּוֹ. אִם הָיוּ צְרוּרִין, נוֹטֵל וּמַכְרִיז:

If he found [something] in a shop, it belongs to him. But if he found it between the counter and the shopkeeper it belongs to the shopkeeper. If he found it in front of the money-changer it belongs to him. But if between the stool and the money-changer it belongs to the money-changer. If a man bought fruit from his fellow or if his fellow sent him fruit and he found coins therein, they belong to him. But if they were tied up he must take them and proclaim them.

5 ה

אַף הַשִּׂמְלָה הָיְתָה בִכְלָל כָּל אֵלֶּה. לָמָּה יָצָאת. לְהָקִּישׁ אֵלֶיהָ, לוֹמַר לְךָ, מַה שִּׂמְלָה מְיֻחֶדֶת שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ סִימָנִים וְיֶשׁ לָהּ תּוֹבְעִים, אַף כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ סִימָנִים וְיֶשׁ לוֹ תוֹבְעִים, חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז:

A garment was also included amongst all these things (which one must proclaim, listed in Deut. 22:3). Why was it mentioned separately? To compare [other things] to it: to teach you just as a garment is distinct in that it has special marks and it has those who claim it, so too everything that has special marks and those who claim it must be proclaimed.

6 ו

וְעַד מָתַי חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז. עַד כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּדְעוּ בוֹ שְׁכֵנָיו, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שָׁלשׁ רְגָלִים, וְאַחַר הָרֶגֶל הָאַחֲרוֹן שִׁבְעָה יָמִים, כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ לְבֵיתוֹ שְׁלשָׁה וְיַחֲזֹר שְׁלשָׁה וְיַכְרִיז יוֹם אֶחָד:

For how long must a man proclaim [what he has found]? Until all of his neighbors know of it, according to Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: “At the three Pilgrimage Festivals and for seven days after the lest festival, to allow him three days to go back to his house, three days to return and one day on which to proclaim his loss.”

7 ז

אָמַר אֶת הָאֲבֵדָה וְלֹא אָמַר סִימָנֶיהָ, לֹא יִתֶּן לוֹ. וְהָ רַמַּאי, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר סִימָנֶיהָ, לֹא יִתֶּן לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב) עַד דְּרשׁ אָחִיךָ אֹתוֹ, עַד שֶׁתִּדְרשׁ אֶת אָחִיךָ אִם רַמַּאי הוּא אִם אֵינוֹ רַמָּאי. כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה וְאוֹכֵל, יַעֲשֶׂה וְיֹאכַל. וְדָבָר שֶׁאֵין עוֹשֶׂה וְאוֹכֵל, יִמָּכֵר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) וַהֲשֵׁבֹתוֹ לוֹ, רְאֵה הֵיאַךְ תְּשִׁיבֶנּוּ לוֹ. מַה יְּהֵא בַדָּמִים. רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אוֹמֵר, יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן, לְפִיכָךְ אִם אָבְדוּ חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לֹא יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן, לְפִיכָךְ אִם אָבְדוּ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן:

If he (the claimant) named what was lost but could not describe its distinctive marks, he should not give it back to him. And it should not be give to a [known] deceiver, even if he describes its distinctive marks, as it is said [in the verse, Deut. 22:2]: “Until your fellow claims it”, [which is to say] until you inquire about your fellow, if he is a deceiver or not. Whatsoever works and eats, let it work and eat [while in the finder’s care]. But whatsoever does not work and eat should be sold, as it is said [in the verse, Deut. 22:2]: “And you shall return it to him”, See how you can return it to him. What shall be with the money [from the sale]? Rabbi Tarfon says: “He may use it, therefore if it is lost he is responsible for it.” Rabbi Akiva says: “He may not use it, therefore if it is lost he is not responsible for it.”

8 ח

מָצָא סְפָרִים, קוֹרֵא בָהֶן אַחַת לִשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. וְאִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לִקְרוֹת, גּוֹלְלָן. אֲבָל לֹא יִלְמֹד בָּהֶן בַּתְּחִלָּה, וְלֹא יִקְרָא אַחֵר עִמּוֹ. מָצָא כְסוּת, מְנַעֲרָהּ אַחַת לִשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. וְשׁוֹטְחָהּ לְצָרְכָּהּ, אֲבָל לֹא לִכְבוֹדוֹ. כְּלֵי כֶסֶף וּכְלֵי נְחֹשֶׁת, מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן לְצָרְכָּן, אֲבָל לֹא לְשָׁחֳקָן. כְּלֵי זָהָב וּכְלֵי זְכוּכִית, לֹא יִגַּע בָּהֶן עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא אֵלִיָּהוּ. מָצָא שַׂק אוֹ קֻפָּה, וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לִטֹּל, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִטֹּל:

If he found scrolls he must read them once every thirty days, and if he does not know how to read he should unroll them. But he may not learn from them something he has not yet learned, nor may another read with him. If he found clothing he must shake it out once every thirty days, and spread it out for [the clothing’s] own good, but not for his own honor. [If he found] silver or copper vessels he must use them for their own good but not so as to wear them out. [If he found] vessels of gold or glass he may not touch them until Elijah comes. If he found a sack or a large basket or anything that is not generally carried about, he may not carry it.

9 ט

אֵיזוֹ הִיא אֲבֵדָה, מָצָא חֲמוֹר אוֹ פָרָה רוֹעִין בַּדֶּרֶךְ, אֵין זוֹ אֲבֵדָה. חֲמוֹר וְכֵלָיו הֲפוּכִין, פָּרָה רָצָה בֵּין הַכְּרָמִים, הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲבֵדָה. הֶחֱזִירָהּ וּבָרְחָה, הֶחֱזִירָהּ וּבָרְחָה, אֲפִילוּ אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה פְעָמִים, חַיָּב לְהַחֲזִירָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב) הָשֵׁב תְּשִׁיבֵם. הָיָה בָטֵל מִסֶּלַע, לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ תֶּן לִי סֶלַע, אֶלָּא נוֹתֵן לוֹ שְׂכָרוֹ כְּפוֹעֵל בָּטֵל. אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם בֵּית דִּין, מַתְנֶה בִּפְנֵי בֵית דִּין. אִם אֵין שָׁם בֵּית דִּין, בִּפְנֵי מִי יַתְנֶה, שֶׁלּוֹ קוֹדֵם:

What counts as lost property? If he found an ass or a cow grazing on the path, this does not count as lost property. But if he found an ass with its trappings turned over, or a cow running in the vineyards, this is lost property. If he returned it and it escaped again, and he returned it and it escaped again, even four or five times, he is obligated to return it [yet again], since it is stated (Deut. 22:1): “You shall surely return it to your brother”. If [the finder] lost time at work that was worth a sela (an amount of money), he may not say to the owner, “Give me a sela”. Rather the owner need only pay him the wages of an unemployed laborer. If there was a court of law in the that place the finder may stipulate before them [for damages for time lost]. If there was no court of law, before whom can he stipulate? His comes first.

10 י

מְצָאָהּ בָּרֶפֶת, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בָּהּ. בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, חַיָּב בָּהּ. וְאִם הָיְתָה בֵית הַקְּבָרוֹת, לֹא יִטַּמָּא לָהּ. אִם אָמַר לוֹ אָבִיו, הִטַּמֵּא, אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ, אַל תַּחֲזִיר, לֹא יִשְׁמַע לוֹ. פָּרַק וְטָעַן, פָּרַק וְטָעַן, אֲפִלּוּ אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה פְעָמִים, חַיָּב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג) עָזֹב תַּעֲזֹב. הָלַךְ וְיָשַׁב לוֹ וְאָמַר, הוֹאִיל וְעָלֶיךָ מִצְוָה, אִם רְצוֹנְךָ לִפְרֹק פְּרֹק, פָּטוּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, עִמּוֹ. אִם הָיָה זָקֵן אוֹ חוֹלֶה, חַיָּב. מִצְוָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה לִפְרֹק, אֲבָל לֹא לִטְעֹן. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף לִטְעֹן. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי אוֹמֵר, אִם הָיָה עָלָיו יָתֵר עַל מַשָּׂאוֹ, אֵין זָקוּק לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, תַּחַת מַשָּׂאוֹ, מַשְּׂאוֹי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בּוֹ:

If he found an [animal] in a stable, he is not responsible for it [even though the stable door was loose and unguarded. But if he found it in the public domain he is responsible for it. If it was in a cemetery he need not contract uncleanness because of it. If his father said to him, “Contract uncleanness”, or if he said to him, “Do not return it”, he may not listen to him. If he unloaded [the ass fallen under its load] and reloaded it and again unloaded it and reloaded it, even four or five times he is still obligated, for it is written, “You must surely raise it with him”. If the owner went and sat down and said, “Since the commandment is upon you, if you wish to unload, unload”, he is not obligated, for it is written “with him”. But if the owner was aged or sick, he is obligated. It is a commandment from the Torah to unload but not to reload. Rabbi Shimon says, “To reload as well.” Rabbi Yose the Galilean says, “If the beast was carrying more than its proper load he is not obligated [to help unload it], for it is written, “under its load”, [which is to say] a load which it is able to endure.

11 יא

אֲבֵדָתוֹ וַאֲבֵדַת אָבִיו, אֲבֵדָתוֹ קוֹדֶמֶת. אֲבֵדָתוֹ וַאֲבֵדַת רַבּוֹ, שֶׁלּוֹ קוֹדֶמֶת. אֲבֵדַת אָבִיו וַאֲבֵדַת רַבּוֹ, שֶׁל רַבּוֹ קוֹדֶמֶת, שֶׁאָבִיו הֱבִיאוֹ לָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, וְרַבּוֹ שֶׁלִּמְּדוֹ חָכְמָה מְבִיאוֹ לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. וְאִם אָבִיו חָכָם, שֶׁל אָבִיו קוֹדֶמֶת. הָיָה אָבִיו וְרַבּוֹ נוֹשְׂאִין מַשְּׂאוֹי, מֵנִיחַ אֶת שֶׁל רַבּוֹ. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵנִיחַ אֶת שֶׁל אָבִיו. הָיָה אָבִיו וְרַבּוֹ בְּבֵית הַשֶּׁבִי, פּוֹדֶה אֶת רַבּוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ פּוֹדֶה אֶת אָבִיו. וְאִם הָיָה אָבִיו חָכָם, פּוֹדֶה אֶת אָבִיו, וְאַחַר כָּךְ פּוֹדֶה אֶת רַבּוֹ:

If a man found his own lost property and his father’s, his own takes priority. If his own and that of his teacher, his own takes priority. If he found his father’s and his teacher’s, his teacher’s takes priority for his father brought him into this world, but his teacher who taught him wisdom brings him into the world to come. If his father was a Sage, his father’s takes priority. If his father and teacher each were carrying a load, he must first relieve his teacher and afterward relieve his father. If his father and teacher were each taken captive, he must first ransom his teacher and afterward his father. But if his father was a Sage, he must first ransom his father and afterward his teacher.