הַבַּיִת וְהָעֲלִיָּה שֶׁל שְׁנַיִם שֶׁנָּפְלוּ, שְׁנֵיהֶם חוֹלְקִים בָּעֵצִים וּבָאֲבָנִים וּבֶעָפָר, וְרוֹאִים אֵילוּ אֲבָנִים הָרְאוּיוֹת לְהִשְׁתַּבֵּר. אִם הָיָה אֶחָד מֵהֶן מַכִּיר מִקְצָת אֲבָנָיו, נוֹטְלָן וְעוֹלוֹת לוֹ מִן הַחֶשְׁבּוֹן:
In the case of the house and the upper story belonging to two people, i.e., the lower story was owned by one individual, while the upper story belonged to someone else, that collapsed, the two of them divide the timber and the stones and the earth of the collapsed structure. And the court considers which stones were likely to break, those of the lower or upper story, and gives those broken stones to the one who presumably owned them. If one of them recognized some of his stones he may take them for himself, and they count toward his amount of stones, and the other party takes other stones accordingly. They do not divide the remaining stones equally.
הַבַּיִת וְהָעֲלִיָּה שֶׁל שְׁנַיִם, נִפְחֲתָה הָעֲלִיָּה וְאֵין בַּעַל הַבַּיִת רוֹצֶה לְתַקֵּן, הֲרֵי בַעַל הָעֲלִיָּה יוֹרֵד וְדָר לְמַטָּה, עַד שֶׁיְּתַקֵּן לוֹ אֶת הָעֲלִיָּה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, הַתַּחְתּוֹן נוֹתֵן אֶת הַתִּקְרָה, וְהָעֶלְיוֹן אֶת הַמַּעֲזִיבָה:
If there was a house and an upper story owned by one person, and the upper story was rented out to another, if the floor of the upper story was broken, i.e., it fell in or collapsed, and the owner of the house does not want to repair it, the resident of the upper story can go down and live in the house below until the owner repairs the upper story for him. Rabbi Yosei says: With regard to a house of two stories owned by two people, i.e., the lower level was owned by one and the upper level by the other, in which the ceiling collapsed; the owner of the lower story provides the ceiling of beams or stones, and the owner of the upper story provides the plaster.
הַבַּיִת וְהָעֲלִיָּה שֶׁל שְׁנַיִם שֶׁנָּפְלוּ, אָמַר בַּעַל הָעֲלִיָּה לְבַעַל הַבַּיִת לִבְנוֹת, וְהוּא אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לִבְנוֹת, הֲרֵי בַעַל הָעֲלִיָּה בּוֹנֶה אֶת הַבַּיִת וְדָר בְּתוֹכוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּתֶּן לוֹ אֶת יְצִיאוֹתָיו. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף זֶה דָּר בְּתוֹךְ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ, צָרִיךְ לְהַעֲלוֹת לוֹ שָׂכָר, אֶלָּא בַעַל הָעֲלִיָּה בּוֹנֶה אֶת הַבַּיִת וְאֶת הָעֲלִיָּה וּמְקָרֶה אֶת הָעֲלִיָּה, וְיוֹשֵׁב בַּבַּיִת עַד שֶׁיִּתֶּן לוֹ אֶת יְצִיאוֹתָיו:
In the case of the house and the upper story belonging to two different people, and that house and upper story collapsed, and the owner of the upper story told the owner of the house to build the lower story in order to enable him to rebuild the upper story, and he does not want to build it, the owner of the upper story may build the house and reside in it, until the other gives him his expenses for the construction of the house, and he then rebuilds his upper story. Rabbi Yehuda says: This one too, i.e., the owner of the upper story, who is meanwhile residing inside the property of the other, must pay him rent. Since he derived benefit by living in the house of the other, as he had no other place in which he could live, he must pay rent. This solution is therefore flawed. Rather, the owner of the upper story builds the house and the upper story, and he roofs the upper story, i.e., he completes the entire construction of the upper story, and he may then sit in the house, i.e., the lower story, until the other gives him his expenses for the building of the house, at which point he returns to his upper story. Since in any event he could have lived in the upper story, he is not considered to have derived any benefit by living in the lower story, and is not obligated to pay rent.
וְכֵן בֵּית הַבַּד שֶׁהוּא בָנוּי בְּסֶלַע, וְגִנָּה אַחַת עַל גַּבָּיו, וְנִפְחַת, הֲרֵי בַעַל הַגִּנָּה יוֹרֵד וְזוֹרֵעַ לְמַטָּה עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה לְבֵית בַּדּוֹ כִּפִּין. הַכֹּתֶל וְהָאִילָן שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהִזִּיקוּ, פָּטוּר מִלְּשַׁלֵּם. נָתְנוּ לוֹ זְמַן לָקֹץ אֶת הָאִילָן וְלִסְתֹּר אֶת הַכֹּתֶל, וְנָפְלוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַזְּמָן, פָּטוּר, לְאַחַר הַזְּמָן, חַיָּב:
And likewise, in the case of an olive press that is built inside a cave in a rock, and one garden, belonging to another person, was planted on top of it, and the roof of the olive press broke, which caused the garden to collapse inward, in such a case, the owner of the garden may descend and sow below until the other one constructs for his olive press sturdy arches to support the roof, so that the owner of the garden can once again sow above him. The mishna continues: In the case of a wall or a tree that fell into the public domain and caused damage, the owner is exempt from having to pay, as it was an accident. If the court saw that the wall was shaky, or that the tree was tilting, and they gave him time to cut down the tree or to dismantle the wall, and then they fell down, if this occurred during the allotted time, he is exempt, but if they collapsed after the time given to him had elapsed, he is liable to pay, since he was warned against this very occurrence.
מִי שֶׁהָיָה כֹתְלוֹ סָמוּךְ לְגִנַּת חֲבֵרוֹ וְנָפַל, וְאָמַר לוֹ פַּנֵּה אֲבָנֶיךָ, וְאָמַר לוֹ הִגִּיעוּךָ, אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ. מִשֶּׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו אָמַר לוֹ הֵילָךְ אֶת יְצִיאוֹתֶיךָ וַאֲנִי אֶטֹּל אֶת שֶׁלִּי, אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ. הַשּׂוֹכֵר אֶת הַפּוֹעֵל לַעֲשׂוֹת עִמּוֹ בְּתֶבֶן וּבְקַשׁ, וְאָמַר לוֹ תֶּן לִי שְׂכָרִי, וְאָמַר לוֹ טֹל מַה שֶּׁעָשִׂיתָ בִּשְׂכָרֶךָ, אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ. מִשֶּׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו וְאָמַר לוֹ הֵילָךְ שְׂכָרְךָ וַאֲנִי אֶטֹּל אֶת שֶׁלִּי, אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ. הַמּוֹצִיא זֶבֶל לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, הַמּוֹצִיא מוֹצִיא וְהַמְזַבֵּל מְזַבֵּל. אֵין שׁוֹרִין טִיט בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְאֵין לוֹבְנִים לְבֵנִים. אֲבָל גּוֹבְלִין טִיט בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אֲבָל לֹא לְבֵנִים. הַבּוֹנֶה בִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, הַמֵּבִיא אֲבָנִים מֵבִיא וְהַבּוֹנֶה בּוֹנֶה. וְאִם הִזִּיק, מְשַׁלֵּם מַה שֶּׁהִזִּיק. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, אַף מְתַקֵּן הוּא אֶת מְלַאכְתּוֹ לִפְנֵי שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם:
In the case of one whose wall was adjacent to another’s garden, and the wall fell, and the owner of the garden said to him: Clear away your stones, and the owner of the stones said to him: They are yours, as I hereby declare them ownerless, and you can take them for yourself; the court does not listen to him, since he cannot force the other to acquire the stones. If after the owner of the garden voluntarily accepted ownership of the stones upon himself, the owner of the wall said to him: Here you are, take your expenditures for the removal of the stones, and I will take the stones that are mine; the court does not listen to him, as they had already been acquired by the owner of the garden. The mishna continues: In the case of one who hires a laborer to do work with him with hay or with straw, and after he finished the task, the laborer said to the employer: Give me my wages, and the employer said to him: Take what you have worked with as your wages, i.e., take some of the hay or straw as payment, the court does not listen to him. Although debts can be paid with any item of value, even hay or straw, the wages of a laborer must be paid in accordance with the initial agreement between the laborer and the employer. But if after the laborer accepted upon himself to keep the hay or straw as payment, the employer changed his mind and said to him: Here you are, take your wages and I will take what is mine; the court does not listen to him, since the laborer had already acquired the hay. In the case of one who takes manure out to the public domain, in order for it to be transported to fertilize a field, he who takes it out from his property takes it out, and immediately, he who takes it to fertilize the field takes it to fertilize the field. They must relocate the manure immediately without allowing it to sit around in the public domain. Similarly, one may not soak clay in the public domain before it is kneaded, and one may not mold bricks in the public domain since this takes a long time and inhibits use of the public domain by others. But one may knead clay in the public domain, as this process does not take long, but not bricks. With regard to one who builds a structure, keeping the building materials in the public domain, he who brings the stones brings them, and immediately, he who builds the structure builds with them, and may not leave them there. And if the stones cause damage before he had a chance to build them into the structure, he must pay for what he damaged. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One may even prepare his work thirty days beforehand; he may keep the building materials in the public domain for that duration.
שְׁתֵּי גִנּוֹת זוֹ עַל גַּב זוֹ וְהַיָּרָק בֵּינְתַיִם, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, שֶׁל עֶלְיוֹן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שֶׁל תַּחְתּוֹן. אָמַר רַבִּי מֵאִיר, אִם יִרְצֶה הָעֶלְיוֹן לִקַּח אֶת עֲפָרוֹ אֵין כָּאן יָרָק. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, אִם יִרְצֶה הַתַּחְתּוֹן לְמַלְּאוֹת אֶת גִּנָּתוֹ אֵין כָּאן יָרָק. אָמַר רַבִּי מֵאִיר, מֵאַחַר שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶן יְכוֹלִין לִמְחוֹת זֶה עַל זֶה, רוֹאִין מֵהֵיכָן יָרָק זֶה חָי. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, כָּל שֶׁהָעֶלְיוֹן יָכוֹל לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יָדוֹ וְלִטֹּל, הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁלּוֹ, וְהַשְּׁאָר שֶׁל תַּחְתּוֹן:
In the case of two gardens that were located one above the other, i.e., a garden on a plateau that borders another garden below, and vegetables grew in-between, out of the wall of soil resulting from the difference in height between the two gardens, Rabbi Meir says: These vegetables belong to the owner of the upper garden. Rabbi Yehuda says: They belong to the owner of the lower one. Rabbi Meir said in explanation of his ruling: If the owner of the upper garden would want to dig and take his dirt and does so, no vegetables would grow here, as that wall made of soil would not exist. The vegetables therefore belong to him. In response, Rabbi Yehuda said: If the owner of the lower garden would want to fill his garden with dirt and does so, thereby raising its level, no vegetables would grow here, as that wall made of soil would not exist. The vegetables therefore belong to him. Rabbi Meir said: Since the two of them can object to each other, as they each have the ability to prevent the vegetable growth, nothing can be decided based on such considerations. Instead, the court considers from where this vegetable lives and derives nourishment, whether from above or from below. Rabbi Shimon said: Any vegetables that the owner of the upper garden can stretch out his hand and take, those vegetables are his, and the rest belong to the owner of the lower garden.