9ט׳
1 א

מִי שֶׁמֵּת וְהִנִּיחַ בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַנְּכָסִים מְרֻבִּים, הַבָּנִים יִירְשׁוּ וְהַבָּנוֹת יִזּוֹנוּ. נְכָסִים מֻעָטִין, הַבָּנוֹת יִזּוֹנוּ וְהַבָּנִים יִשְׁאֲלוּ עַל הַפְּתָחִים. אַדְמוֹן אוֹמֵר, בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁאֲנִי זָכָר הִפְסַדְתִּי. אָמַר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, רוֹאֶה אֲנִי אֶת דִּבְרֵי אַדְמוֹן:

If a man died and left sons and daughters, and the property was great, the sons inherit and the daughters receive maintenance. But if the property was small the daughters receive maintenance and the sons go begging at people’s doors. Admon says: “The son may say, ‘Must I suffer a loss because I am a male’”. Rabban Gamaliel says: “I approve of Admon’s opinion.”

2 ב

הִנִּיחַ בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת וְטֻמְטוּם, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַנְּכָסִים מְרֻבִּים, הַזְּכָרִים דּוֹחִין אוֹתוֹ אֵצֶל נְקֵבוֹת. נְכָסִים מֻעָטִין, הַנְּקֵבוֹת דּוֹחוֹת אוֹתוֹ אֵצֶל זְכָרִים. הָאוֹמֵר אִם תֵּלֵד אִשְׁתִּי זָכָר יִטֹּל מָנֶה, יָלְדָה זָכָר, נוֹטֵל מָנֶה. נְקֵבָה מָאתַיִם, יָלְדָה נְקֵבָה, נוֹטֶלֶת מָאתָיִם. אִם זָכָר מָנֶה אִם נְקֵבָה מָאתַיִם, וְיָלְדָה זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, זָכָר נוֹטֵל מָנֶה וְהַנְּקֵבָה נוֹטֶלֶת מָאתָיִם. יָלְדָה טֻמְטוּם, אֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל. אִם אָמַר כָּל מַה שֶּׁתֵּלֵד אִשְׁתִּי יִטֹּל, הֲרֵי זֶה יִטֹּל. וְאִם אֵין שָׁם יוֹרֵשׁ אֶלָּא הוּא, יוֹרֵשׁ אֶת הַכֹּל:

If a man left sons and daughters and one that was of doubtful gender, if the property was great the males may push him (the one of doubtful gender) onto the females; if the property was small the females may thrust him onto the males. If a man said, “If my wife shall bear a male he shall be given 100 zuz”, and she had a male, he receives 100 zuz. [If he said, “If my wife shall bear a] female she shall be given 200 zuz”, and she had a female, she receives 200 zuz. [If he said, “If may wife shall bear a] male he shall be given 100 zuz and if a female 200 zuz” and she had a male and a female, the male receives 100 zuz and the female 200 zuz. If she had one of doubtful gender, he does not take. But if he said, “Whatsoever my wife shall bear shall be given [such an amount], he receives. If he [the one of doubtful gender] was the only heir, he inherits everything.

3 ג

הִנִּיחַ בָּנִים גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים, הִשְׁבִּיחוּ גְּדוֹלִים אֶת הַנְּכָסִים, הִשְׁבִּיחוּ לָאֶמְצַע. אִם אָמְרוּ רְאוּ מַה שֶּׁהִנִּיחַ לָנוּ אַבָּא, הֲרֵי אָנוּ עוֹשִׂים וְאוֹכְלִין, הִשְׁבִּיחוּ לְעַצְמָן. וְכֵן הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהִשְׁבִּיחָה אֶת הַנְּכָסִים, הִשְׁבִּיחָה לָאֶמְצַע. אִם אָמְרָה רְאוּ מַה שֶּׁהִנִּיחַ לִי בַּעְלִי, הֲרֵי אֲנִי עוֹשָׂה וְאוֹכֶלֶת, הִשְׁבִּיחָה לְעַצְמָהּ:

If a man left elder sons and younger sons, and the elder sons improved the property, they improve it to the common benefit. If they said, “See, what our father has left us, lo, we will work and from that we will eat”, they improve it to their own benefit. So, too, if a woman (a widow) improved the property, she improves it to the common benefit. If she had said, “See, what my husband left to me, lo, I will work and from that I will eat”, she improves it to her own benefit.

4 ד

הָאַחִין הַשֻּׁתָּפִין שֶׁנָּפַל אֶחָד מֵהֶן לָאֻמָּנוּת, נָפַל לָאֶמְצַע. חָלָה וְנִתְרַפָּא, נִתְרַפָּא מִשֶּׁל עַצְמוֹ. הָאַחִין שֶׁעָשׂוּ מִקְצָתָן שׁוּשְׁבִינוּת בְּחַיֵּי הָאָב, חָזְרָה שׁוּשְׁבִינוּת, חָזְרָה לָאֶמְצַע, שֶׁהַשּׁוּשְׁבִינוּת נִגְבֵּית בְּבֵית דִּין. אֲבָל הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ לַחֲבֵרוֹ כַּדֵּי יַיִן וְכַדֵּי שֶׁמֶן, אֵינָן נִגְבִּין בְּבֵית דִּין, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן גְּמִילוּת חֲסָדִים:

If brothers were partners and one of them fell into a public office, it falls to the common benefit. If one [of them] got sick and needed healing, his healing is at his own expense. If certain of the brothers in their father’s lifetime had made a present as groomsmen [at their father’s expense] and [after his death] the present was restored to them, it is restored to the common benefit, for the groomsmen’s gift [counts as a loan] and can be recovered in a court of law. But if [one of the brothers in his father’s lifetime] sent his fellow jars of wine or jars of oil, they cannot be recovered through a court of law, since they count [not as a loan but] as a charitable deed.

5 ה

הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ סִבְלוֹנוֹת לְבֵית חָמִיו, שָׁלַח שָׁם מֵאָה מָנֶה וְאָכַל שָׁם סְעוּדַת חָתָן אֲפִלּוּ בְדִינָר, אֵינָן נִגְבִּין. לֹא אָכַל שָׁם סְעוּדַת חָתָן, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נִגְבִּין. שָׁלַח סִבְלוֹנוֹת מְרֻבִּין שֶׁיַּחְזְרוּ עִמָּהּ לְבֵית בַּעְלָהּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נִגְבִּין. סִבְלוֹנוֹת מֻעָטִין שֶׁתִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בְּבֵית אָבִיהָ, אֵינָן נִגְבִּין:

If a man sent betrothal gifts to his father-in-law’s house, and he sent there 100 maneh (10,000 dinar) and he ate a betrothal meal of but one dinar, [and he afterward divorced his wife] they (the betrothal gifts) are not recoverable. But if he did not eat the betrothal meal, they are recoverable. If he sent many betrothal gifts in order for them to return with her to her his house [when he marries her], they are recoverable. If he sent few betrothal gifts which were to be used in her father’s house, they are not recoverable.

6 ו

שְׁכִיב מְרַע שֶׁכָּתַב כָּל נְכָסָיו לַאֲחֵרִים וְשִׁיֵּר קַרְקַע כָּל שֶׁהוּא, מַתְּנָתוֹ קַיֶּמֶת. לֹא שִׁיֵּר קַרְקַע כָּל שֶׁהוּא, אֵין מַתְּנָתוֹ קַיֶּמֶת. לֹא כָתַב בָּהּ שְׁכִיב מְרַע, הוּא אוֹמֵר שְׁכִיב מְרַע הָיָה וְהֵן אוֹמְרִים בָּרִיא הָיָה, צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁהָיָה שְׁכִיב מְרַע, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, הַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה:

If a man who lies dying wrote over his property to others [as a gift] and kept back any land whatsoever, his gift remains valid [even should he not die]. If he did not keep back any land whatsoever, his gift does not remain valid [if he should not die]. If it was not written in the document, “who lies dying”, but he said that [he had written the document] while he lay dying and they (those who received the gift) said that he was healthy [when he wrote the document], he must bring proof that he had been dying, according to Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: “He who makes a claim against his fellow bears the burden of proof.”

7 ז

הַמְחַלֵּק נְכָסָיו עַל פִּיו, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אֶחָד בָּרִיא וְאֶחָד מְסֻכָּן, נְכָסִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן אַחֲרָיוּת נִקְנִין בְּכֶסֶף וּבִשְׁטָר וּבַחֲזָקָה, וְשֶׁאֵין לָהֶן אַחֲרָיוּת אֵין נִקְנִין אֶלָּא בִמְשִׁיכָה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מַעֲשֶׂה בְאִמָּן שֶׁל בְּנֵי רוֹכֵל שֶׁהָיְתָה חוֹלָה וְאָמְרָה תְּנוּ כְבִינָתִי לְבִתִּי וְהִיא בִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר מָנֶה, וָמֵתָה, וְקִיְּמוּ אֶת דְּבָרֶיהָ. אָמַר לָהֶן, בְּנֵי רוֹכֵל תְּקַבְּרֵם אִמָּן. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בְּשַׁבָּת, דְּבָרָיו קַיָּמִין, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִכְתּוֹב. אֲבָל לֹא בְחֹל. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, בְּשַׁבָּת אָמְרוּ, קַל וָחֹמֶר בְּחֹל. כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, זָכִין לַקָּטָן, וְאֵין זָכִין לַגָּדוֹל. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, לַקָּטָן אָמְרוּ, קַל וָחֹמֶר לַגָּדוֹל:

If a man divided his property orally, Rabbi Eliezer says: “Whether he was healthy or at the point of death, property for which there is security (land) can be acquired only by money, by a document or by possession; property for which there is no security (movable objects) can be acquired only by being drawn [into the possession of the one acquiring]. They (the Sages) said to him: “It once happened that the mother of the sons of Rokhel was sick and said, ‘Give my veil to my daughter’, and it was worth twelve hundred maneh (1,200 dinars) and she died and they fulfilled her words. He said to them: “May their mother bury the sons of Rokhel.” The Sages say: “On a Sabbath his words remain valid, since he cannot write, but not on a weekday.” Rabbi Joshua says: “If they have stated this rule on the Sabbath, how much more so on a weekday.” Similarly, others may acquire possession on behalf of a minor, but not on behalf of an adult. Rabbi Joshua says: “If they have stated this rule with regards to a minor, how much more so does the rule apply to an adult.

8 ח

נָפַל הַבַּיִת עָלָיו וְעַל אָבִיו אוֹ עָלָיו וְעַל מוֹרִישָׁיו, וְהָיְתָה עָלָיו כְּתֻבַּת אִשָּׁה וּבַעַל חוֹב, יוֹרְשֵׁי הָאָב אוֹמְרִים, הַבֵּן מֵת רִאשׁוֹן וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵת הָאָב, בַּעֲלֵי הַחוֹב אוֹמְרִים, הָאָב מֵת רִאשׁוֹן וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵת הַבֵּן, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, יַחֲלֹקוּ. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, נְכָסִים בְּחֶזְקָתָן:

If the house fell down on a man and his father, or upon a man and any from whom he inherits, and he was liable for his wife’s ketubah or to a creditor: the father’s heirs say, “The son died first and the father died afterward”, and the creditors say, “The father died first and the son died afterward.” The School of Shammai says: “Let them split [the property].” The School of Hillel says: “The property remains in its former status [in the hands of those who inherit the father].”

9 ט

נָפַל הַבַּיִת עָלָיו וְעַל אִשְׁתּוֹ, יוֹרְשֵׁי הַבַּעַל אוֹמְרִים, הָאִשָּׁה מֵתָה רִאשׁוֹנָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵת הַבַּעַל, יוֹרְשֵׁי הָאִשָּׁה אוֹמְרִים, הַבַּעַל מֵת רִאשׁוֹן וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵתָה הָאִשָּׁה, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, יַחֲלֹקוּ. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, נְכָסִים בְּחֶזְקָתָן, כְּתֻבָּה בְּחֶזְקַת יוֹרְשֵׁי הַבַּעַל, נְכָסִים הַנִּכְנָסִים וְהַיּוֹצְאִין עִמָּהּ בְּחֶזְקַת יוֹרְשֵׁי הָאָב:

If the house fell down on a man and his wife, the husband’s heirs say, “The wife died first and the husband died afterward” and the wife’s heirs say, “The husband died first and the wife died afterward”. The School of Shammai says: “Let them split [the property].” The School of Hillel says: “The property remains in its former status the Ketubah to the husband’s heirs and the property that comes in and goes out with her to her father’s heirs.”

10 י

נָפַל הַבַּיִת עָלָיו וְעַל אִמּוֹ, אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ מוֹדִים שֶׁיַּחֲלֹקוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, מוֹדֶה אֲנִי בָזֶה שֶׁהַנְּכָסִים בְּחֶזְקָתָן. אָמַר לוֹ בֶן עַזַּאי, עַל הַחֲלוּקִין אָנוּ מִצְטַעֲרִין, אֶלָּא שֶׁבָּאתָ לְחַלֵּק עָלֵינוּ אֶת הַשָּׁוִין:

If the house fell down on a man and his mother, they (the Schools of Shammai and Hillel) agree that the they split the property. Rabbi Akiva said: “I agree here, that the property remains in its former status.” Ben Azzai said to him: “We already are distressed over those things upon which there is disagreement, and you are coming to bring disagreement on the points in which they agree.”