8ח׳
1 א

יֵשׁ נוֹחֲלִין וּמַנְחִילִין, וְיֵשׁ נוֹחֲלִין וְלֹא מַנְחִילִין, מַנְחִילִין וְלֹא נוֹחֲלִין, לֹא נוֹחֲלִין וְלֹא מַנְחִילִין. וְאֵלּוּ נוֹחֲלִין וּמַנְחִילִין, הָאָב אֶת הַבָּנִים וְהַבָּנִים אֶת הָאָב וְהָאַחִין מִן הָאָב, נוֹחֲלִין וּמַנְחִילִין. הָאִישׁ אֶת אִמּוֹ וְהָאִישׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ, וּבְנֵי אֲחָיוֹת, נוֹחֲלִין וְלֹא מַנְחִילִין. הָאִשָּׁה אֶת בָּנֶיהָ וְהָאִשָּׁה אֶת בַּעְלָהּ וַאֲחֵי הָאֵם, מַנְחִילִין וְלֹא נוֹחֲלִין. וְהָאַחִים מִן הָאֵם, לֹא נוֹחֲלִין וְלֹא מַנְחִילִין:

There are those who inherit [from] and bequeath [to one another], there are those who inherit [from] but do not bequeath [to one another], there are those who bequeath [to] but do not inherit [from one another] and there are those who neither bequeath [to] nor inherit [from one another]. These inherit [from] and bequeath [to]: a father relative to his sons, and sons relative to their father, and brothers from the same father - these inherit [from] and bequeath [to one another]. A man relative to his mother, and a man relative to his wife, and the sons of [a man's] sisters - these inherit [from] but do not bequeath [to]. A woman relative to her sons, and a wife relative to her husband, and brothers of one's mother - these bequeath [to] but do not inherit [from]. And brothers from the [same] mother [but not father] neither inherit [from] nor bequeath [to].

2 ב

סֵדֶר נְחָלוֹת כָּךְ הוּא, (במדבר כז) אִישׁ כִּי יָמוּת וּבֵן אֵין לוֹ, וְהַעֲבַרְתֶּם אֶת נַחֲלָתוֹ לְבִתּוֹ, בֵּן קוֹדֵם לַבַּת, וְכָל יוֹצְאֵי יְרֵכוֹ שֶׁל בֵּן קוֹדְמִין לַבַּת. בַּת קוֹדֶמֶת לָאַחִין. יוֹצְאֵי יְרֵכָהּ שֶׁל בַּת, קוֹדְמִין לָאַחִין. אַחִין קוֹדְמִין לַאֲחֵי הָאָב. יוֹצְאֵי יְרֵכָן שֶׁל אַחִין, קוֹדְמִין לַאֲחֵי הָאָב. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל הַקּוֹדֵם בַּנַּחֲלָה, יוֹצְאֵי יְרֵכוֹ קוֹדְמִין. וְהָאָב קוֹדֵם לְכָל יוֹצְאֵי יְרֵכוֹ:

The order of inheritance is thus: “If a man dies without leaving a son, you shall transfer his property to his daughter” (Numbers 27:8)—the son precedes the daughter, and all the son’s offspring precede the daughter. A daughter precedes [a man's] brothers and the daughter's offspring precede the brothers. Brothers precede the father’s brothers and the brothers’ offspring precede the father’s brothers. This is the general rule: whosoever has precedence in inheritance, his offspring also have precedence, and the father has precedence over all his offspring.

3 ג

בְּנוֹת צְלָפְחָד נָטְלוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה חֲלָקִים בַּנַּחֲלָה. חֵלֶק אֲבִיהֶן שֶׁהָיָה עִם יוֹצְאֵי מִצְרַיִם, וְחֶלְקוֹ עִם אֶחָיו בְּנִכְסֵי חֵפֶר. וְשֶׁהָיָה בְכוֹר נוֹטֵל שְׁנֵי חֲלָקִים:

The daughters of Tzlofchad received three portions in the inheritence [of land in Israel]: their father's portion, for he was among those who left Egypt; their father's portion among his brothers from the portion of Chefer; and since he was a first born, he received two portions [among his brothers].

4 ד

אֶחָד הַבֵּן וְאֶחָד הַבַּת בַּנַּחֲלָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַבֵּן נוֹטֵל פִּי שְׁנַיִם בְּנִכְסֵי הָאָב וְאֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל פִּי שְׁנַיִם בְּנִכְסֵי הָאֵם. וְהַבָּנוֹת נִזּוֹנוֹת מִנִּכְסֵי הָאָב וְאֵינָן נִזּוֹנוֹת מִנִּכְסֵי הָאֵם:

A son and a daughter are alike concerning inheritance, except that only a son [could] take a double portion of the father’s property, though he [could] not take a double portion of the mother’s property. And the daughters are fed from the father’s property, though they are not fed from the mother’s property.

5 ה

הָאוֹמֵר אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי בְנִי בְּכוֹר לֹא יִטֹּל פִּי שְׁנַיִם, אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי בְנִי לֹא יִירַשׁ עִם אֶחָיו, לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם, שֶׁהִתְנָה עַל מַה שֶּׁכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה. הַמְחַלֵּק נְכָסָיו לְבָנָיו עַל פִּיו, רִבָּה לְאֶחָד וּמִעֵט לְאֶחָד וְהִשְׁוָה לָהֶן אֶת הַבְּכוֹר, דְּבָרָיו קַיָּמִין. וְאִם אָמַר מִשּׁוּם יְרֻשָּׁה, לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם. כָּתַב בֵּין בַּתְּחִלָּה בֵּין בָּאֶמְצַע בֵּין בַּסּוֹף מִשּׁוּם מַתָּנָה, דְּבָרָיו קַיָּמִין. הָאוֹמֵר אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי יִירָשֵׁנִי בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁיֵשׁ בַּת, בִּתִּי תִירָשֵׁנִי בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁיֶּשׁ בֵּן, לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם, שֶׁהִתְנָה עַל מַה שֶּׁכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָה אוֹמֵר, אִם אָמַר עַל מִי שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לְיָרְשׁוֹ, דְּבָרָיו קַיָּמִין. וְעַל מִי שֶׁאֵין רָאוּי לְיָרְשׁוֹ, אֵין דְּבָרָיו קַיָּמִין. הַכּוֹתֵב אֶת נְכָסָיו לַאֲחֵרִים וְהִנִּיחַ אֶת בָּנָיו, מַה שֶּׁעָשָׂה עָשׂוּי, אֲבָל אֵין רוּחַ חֲכָמִים נוֹחָה הֵימֶנּוּ. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, אִם לֹא הָיוּ בָנָיו נוֹהֲגִין כַּשּׁוּרָה, זָכוּר לְטוֹב:

One who says, “So-and-so, who is my firstborn, shall not receive a double portion," [or] “So-and-so, my son, shall not inherit with his brothers," has said nothing, for he has stipulated against what is written in the Torah. [If] one apportioned his property to his sons by word of mouth, and [either] increased for one and decreased for another or made the first-born equal to them, his words stand. But if he stated it "as an inheritance," he has said nothing. [However, if] he had written down, whether at the beginning or in the middle or at the end [of the sentence] "as a gift," his words are valid. One who says, “That man So-and-shall inherit from me,” and he has a daughter; or “My daughter shall inherit from me," and he has a son, he has said nothing, for he has stipulated against what is written in the Torah. Rabbi Yohanan ben Baroka says: If he refers to one who is qualified to inherit from him, his words are valid, but if he refers to one who is not qualified to inherit from him, his words his words are not valid.” One who wrote his property off to others and passed over his sons, what he has done is done, but the sages are not pleased with him. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: If has sons did not behave properly, he should be remembered for good.

6 ו

הָאוֹמֵר זֶה בְּנִי, נֶאֱמָן. זֶה אָחִי, אֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן וְנוֹטֵל עִמּוֹ בְּחֶלְקוֹ. מֵת, יַחְזְרוּ נְכָסִים לִמְקוֹמָן. נָפְלוּ לוֹ נְכָסִים מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר, יִירְשׁוּ אֶחָיו עִמּוֹ. מִי שֶׁמֵּת וְנִמְצֵאת דְּיָתֵיקֵי קְשׁוּרָה עַל יְרֵכוֹ, הֲרֵי זוֹ אֵינָהּ כְּלוּם. זִכָּה בָהּ לְאַחֵר, בֵּין מִן הַיּוֹרְשִׁין בֵּין שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִן הַיּוֹרְשִׁין, דְּבָרָיו קַיָּמִין:

One who says “this is my son” is believed. "This is my brother" - he is not believed, though [his supposed brother] does share a claim on his portion. If [the supposed brother] died, the property returns to its source. If [the supposed brother] inherited property from elsewhere, his [known] brothers inherit it together with him. [If] someone died and a will was found bound to his thigh, this counts as nothing. But if, through it, he had granted title to another, whether from among his heirs or from among those who are not his heirs, his words are valid.

7 ז

הַכּוֹתֵב נְכָסָיו לְבָנָיו, צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּכְתֹּב מֵהַיּוֹם וּלְאַחַר מִיתָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ. הַכּוֹתֵב נְכָסָיו לִבְנוֹ לְאַחַר מוֹתוֹ, הָאָב אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִמְכֹּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כְּתוּבִין לַבֵּן, וְהַבֵּן אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִמְכֹּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן בִּרְשׁוּת הָאָב. מָכַר הָאָב, מְכוּרִין עַד שֶׁיָּמוּת. מָכַר הַבֵּן, אֵין לַלּוֹקֵחַ בָּהֶן כְּלוּם עַד שֶׁיָּמוּת הָאָב. הָאָב תּוֹלֵשׁ וּמַאֲכִיל לְכָל מִי שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. וּמַה שֶּׁהִנִּיחַ תָּלוּשׁ, הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל יוֹרְשִׁין. הִנִּיחַ בָּנִים גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים, אֵין הַגְּדוֹלִים מִתְפַּרְנְסִים עַל הַקְּטַנִּים וְלֹא הַקְּטַנִּים נִזּוֹנִין עַל הַגְּדוֹלִים, אֶלָּא חוֹלְקִין בְּשָׁוֶה. נָשְׂאוּ הַגְּדוֹלִים, יִשְׂאוּ הַקְּטַנִּים. וְאִם אָמְרוּ קְטַנִּים הֲרֵי אָנוּ נוֹשְׂאִים כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁנְּשָׂאתֶם אַתֶּם, אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לָהֶם, אֶלָּא מַה שֶּׁנָּתַן לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם נָתָן:

Regarding one who signs his property [over] to his sons, it is necessary for him to write "from today and after death" - these are the words of Rabbi Yehudah. Rabbi Yose says: He need not do so. Regarding one who signs his property [over] to his son "[from today and] after his death", the father is not able to sell it because it is signed [over] to the son; and the son is not able to sell it because it is in the father's possession. If the father sells it, [the fruits] are sold until he dies. If the son sells it, the buyer has no claim on it until after the father dies. The father may pick [from the produce of that property] and feed anyone he wishes [with it], and that which he left behind that was already picked shall surely belong to the inheritors. If one left sons of the age of adulthood [as well as] minors, those who are of age are not financed at the expense of the minors, and the minors are not fed at the expense of those of age. Rather, they divide it equally. Just as those of the age of adulthood [draw on the estate to] marry, the minors [draw on the estate to] marry. But if, [after the father died,] the minors said, "We will marry in the manner that you married [while father was alive]," we do not listen to them. Rather, that which their father gave to them is given.

8 ח

הִנִּיחַ בָּנוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת וּקְטַנּוֹת, אֵין הַגְּדוֹלוֹת מִתְפַּרְנְסוֹת עַל הַקְּטַנּוֹת וְלֹא הַקְּטַנּוֹת נִזּוֹנוֹת עַל הַגְּדוֹלוֹת, אֶלָּא חוֹלְקוֹת בְּשָׁוֶה. נָשְׂאוּ גְדוֹלוֹת, יִשְׂאוּ קְטַנּוֹת. וְאִם אָמְרוּ קְטַנּוֹת, הֲרֵי אָנוּ נוֹשְׂאוֹת כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁנְּשָׂאתֶם אַתֶּם, אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לָהֶן. זֶה חֹמֶר בַּבָּנוֹת מִבַּבָּנִים, שֶׁהַבָּנוֹת נִזּוֹנוֹת עַל הַבָּנִים וְאֵין נִזּוֹנוֹת עַל הַבָּנוֹת:

If he left adult daughters and minor daughters, the adult daughters are not financed at the expense of the minor daughters, and the minor daughters are not maintained at the expense of the adult daughters. Rather, they divide equally. Just as the adult daughters [draw on the estate to] marry, the minors [draw on the estate to] marry. But if, [after the father died,] the minors said, "We will marry in the manner that you married [while father was alive]," we do not listen to them. This is a greater stringency that applies to daughters over sons: daughters are maintained at the expense of the sons, but they are not maintained at the cost of the [other daughters].