3ג׳
1 א

חֶזְקַת הַבָּתִּים וְהַבּוֹרוֹת וְהַשִּׁיחִין וְהַמְּעָרוֹת וְהַשּׁוֹבָכוֹת וְהַמֶּרְחֲצָאוֹת וּבֵית הַבַּדִּין וּבֵית הַשְּׁלָחִין וְהָעֲבָדִים וְכָל שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה פֵרוֹת תָּדִיר, חֶזְקָתָן שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם. שְׂדֵה הַבַּעַל, חֶזְקָתָהּ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים, וְאֵינָהּ מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם, רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, שְׁלֹשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וּשְׁלֹשָׁה בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה וּשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ בָאֶמְצַע, הֲרֵי שְׁמֹנָה עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, חֹדֶשׁ בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וְחֹדֶשׁ בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה וּשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ בָּאֶמְצַע, הֲרֵי אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. אָמַר רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל, בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בִּשְׂדֵה לָבָן. אֲבָל בִּשְׂדֵה אִילָן, כָּנַס אֶת תְּבוּאָתוֹ, מָסַק אֶת זֵיתָיו, כָּנַס אֶת קֵיצוֹ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים:

The legal period of possession [in order to establish ownership] for houses, cisterns, trenches, caves, dovecotes, bath-houses, olive-presses, irrigated fields and slaves and anything which continually produces a yield is three complete years. The legal period of possession [in order to establish ownership] for a field irrigated by rain water is three years and they need not be completed. Rabbi Yishmael says: “Three months during the first year, and three months during the last year and twelve months during the middle year, which makes eighteen months.” Rabbi Akiva says: “One month during the first year and one month during the last year and twelve months during the middle year, which makes fourteen months.” Rabbi Yishmael said: “When does this apply? With regards to a sown field, but with tree plantation, if he brought in his produce (grapes), collected the olives and gathered in his fig harvest, this counts as three years.”

2 ב

שָׁלֹשׁ אֲרָצוֹת לַחֲזָקָה, יְהוּדָה וְעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן וְהַגָּלִיל. הָיָה בִיהוּדָה וְהֶחֱזִיק בַּגָּלִיל, בַּגָּלִיל וְהֶחֱזִיק בִּיהוּדָה, אֵינָהּ חֲזָקָה, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא עִמּוֹ בַמְּדִינָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, לֹא אָמְרוּ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים אֶלָּא כְדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא בְאַסְפַּמְיָא, וְיַחֲזִיק שָׁנָה, וְיֵלְכוּ וְיוֹדִיעוּהוּ שָׁנָה, וְיָבֹא לְשָׁנָה אַחֶרֶת:

There are three regions with regards to possession: Judea, beyond the Jordan and the Galilee. If the owner was in Judea and another took possession [of his property] in the Galilee; Or if he was in the Galilee and another took possession [of his property] in Judea, such possession does not demonstrate ownership, until he is in the same region. Rabbi Judah said: “They have specified a period of three years so that if the owner was in Spain and another took possession [of his property] during one year, they could make it known to the owner during the next year and he could return in the third year.”

3 ג

כָּל חֲזָקָה שֶׁאֵין עִמָּהּ טַעֲנָה, אֵינָהּ חֲזָקָה. כֵּיצַד, אָמַר לוֹ, מָה אַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה בְתוֹךְ שֶׁלִּי, וְהוּא אָמַר לוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא אָמַר לִי אָדָם דָּבָר מֵעוֹלָם, אֵינָהּ חֲזָקָה. שֶׁמָּכַרְתָּ לִי, שֶׁנָּתַתָּ לִי בְמַתָּנָה, אָבִיךָ מְכָרָהּ לִי, אָבִיךָ נְתָנָהּ לִי בְמַתָּנָה, הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲזָקָה. וְהַבָּא מִשּׁוּם יְרֻשָּׁה, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ טַעֲנָה. הָאֻמָּנִין וְהַשֻּׁתָּפִים וְהָאֲרִיסִין וְהָאַפּוֹטְרוֹפִּין, אֵין לָהֶם חֲזָקָה. אֵין לָאִישׁ חֲזָקָה בְּנִכְסֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ, וְלֹא לָאִשָּׁה חֲזָקָה בְּנִכְסֵי בַעְלָהּ, וְלֹא לָאָב בְּנִכְסֵי הַבֵּן, וְלֹא לַבֵּן בְּנִכְסֵי הָאָב. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בְּמַחֲזִיק, אֲבָל בְּנוֹתֵן מַתָּנָה, וְהָאַחִין שֶׁחָלְקוּ, וְהַמַּחֲזִיק בְּנִכְסֵי הַגֵּר, נָעַל וְגָדַר וּפָרַץ כָּל שֶׁהוּא, הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲזָקָה:

An act of possession without which there is no claim [on the ownership of the property] is not valid possession [to establish ownership]. How is this so? If he said to him: “What are you doing on my property? And the other answered: “No one ever said anything to me”, this is not valid possession [to establish ownership]. [If he said to him]: “You sold it to me”, “You gave it to me as a gift”, “Your father sold it to me”, “Your father gave it to me as a gift”, this is valid possession [to establish ownership]. He who holds possession [for three years] due to inheritance [from the previous owner], does not need to make a claim. Craftsmen, partners, sharecroppers and guardians cannot establish ownership through possession. A man cannot establish ownership through possession of his wife’s property, nor may a wife establish ownership through possession of her husband’s property, nor a father of his son’s property, nor a son of his father’s property. When is this so [that one needs three years to establish ownership]? When the person attempts to acquire the land through possession. But, when the property was given as a gift, or when brothers shared a piece of their inheritance, or when one claimed title by possession to the property of a convert [who died without inheritors], then if the claimant has shut in, walled up or broken down anything, this counts as securing ownership through possession.

4 ד

הָיוּ שְׁנַיִם מְעִידִין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁאֲכָלָהּ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים, וְנִמְצְאוּ זוֹמְמִין, מְשַׁלְּמִין לוֹ אֶת הַכֹּל. שְׁנַיִם בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה, וּשְׁנַיִם בַּשְּׁנִיָּה, וּשְׁנַיִם בַּשְּׁלִישִׁית, מְשָׁלְשִׁין בֵּינֵיהֶם. שְׁלֹשָׁה אַחִים וְאֶחָד מִצְטָרֵף עִמָּהֶם, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שָׁלֹשׁ עֵדֻיּוֹת, וְהֵן עֵדוּת אַחַת לַהֲזָמָה:

If two testify that he has had the use [of property] during three years and they are found to be false witnesses, they must make full restitution to the owner. If two [false witnesses] testify of the first year, two of the second, and two of the third, they divide up the costs of restitution between them. If three brothers testify and another is included with them, they offer three different acts of testimony, but their words count as a single act of testimony when the evidence is proved false.

5 ה

אֵלּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם חֲזָקָה, וְאֵלּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֲזָקָה. הָיָה מַעֲמִיד בְּהֵמָה בֶחָצֵר, תַּנּוּר, וְכִירַיִם, וְרֵחַיִם, וּמְגַדֵּל תַּרְנְגוֹלִין, וְנוֹתֵן זִבְלוֹ בֶחָצֵר, אֵינָהּ חֲזָקָה. אֲבָל עָשָׂה מְחִצָּה לִבְהֶמְתּוֹ גְּבוֹהָה עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, וְכֵן לַתַּנּוּר, וְכֵן לַכִּירַיִם, וְכֵן לָרֵחַיִם, הִכְנִיס תַּרְנְגוֹלִין לְתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת, וְעָשָׂה מָקוֹם לְזִבְלוֹ עָמֹק שְׁלֹשָׁה אוֹ גָבוֹהַּ שְׁלֹשָׁה, הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲזָקָה:

What are usages which are effective in establishing title through possession and what are usages which are not effecting in establishing title through possession? If a man put a beast in a courtyard, or an oven or stoves or mill-stones, or reared fowl [in a courtyard] or put his manure in a courtyard, this is not effective in establishing title through possession. But if he built for his beast a partition ten hand-breadths high, so too for an oven, so too for a stove, so too for a mill-stone, [or] he brought fowl inside the house, or prepared for his manure a place three hand-breadths deep or three hand-breadths high, this is effective in establishing title through possession.

6 ו

הַמַּרְזֵב אֵין לוֹ חֲזָקָה, וְיֵשׁ לִמְקוֹמוֹ חֲזָקָה. הַמַּזְחִילָה יֶשׁ לָהּ חֲזָקָה. סֻלָּם הַמִּצְרִי אֵין לוֹ חֲזָקָה, וְלַצּוֹרִי יֶשׁ לוֹ חֲזָקָה. חַלּוֹן הַמִּצְרִית אֵין לָהּ חֲזָקָה, וְלַצּוֹרִית יֶשׁ לָהּ חֲזָקָה. אֵיזוֹ הִיא חַלּוֹן הַמִּצְרִית, כָּל שֶׁאֵין רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם יָכוֹל לִכָּנֵס לְתוֹכָהּ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם יֶשׁ לָהּ מַלְבֵּן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם יָכוֹל לִכָּנֵס לְתוֹכָהּ, הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲזָקָה. הַזִּיז, עַד טֶפַח, יֶשׁ לוֹ חֲזָקָה, וְיָכוֹל לִמְחוֹת. פָּחוֹת מִטֶּפַח, אֵין לוֹ חֲזָקָה, וְאֵין יָכוֹל לִמְחוֹת:

A gutter spout cannot cause title through possession [so that the spout may still be moved] but title through possession may be claimed to its place [so that the place must be left for its present purpose]. A gutter can give title through possession. An Egyptian ladder cannot give title through possession but a Tyrian ladder can. An Egyptian window cannot give title through possession but a Tyrian window can. What is an Egyptian window? Any through which a man’s head may not enter. Rabbi Judah says: “If it has a frame, even though a man’s head cannot enter through it, it can give title through possession.” A projection, if it extends a handbreadth or more can give title through possession, and the other [into whose premises it projects] can protest against it. But if it is less than a handbreadth it cannot give title through possession and the other cannot protest against it.

7 ז

לֹא יִפְתַּח אָדָם חַלּוֹנוֹתָיו לַחֲצַר הַשֻּׁתָּפִין. לָקַח בַּיִת בְּחָצֵר אַחֶרֶת, לֹא יִפְתְּחֶנָּה לַחֲצַר הַשֻּׁתָּפִין. בָּנָה עֲלִיָּה עַל גַּבֵּי בֵיתוֹ, לֹא יִפְתָּחֶנָּה לַחֲצַר הַשֻּׁתָּפִין. אֶלָּא אִם רָצָה, בּוֹנֶה אֶת הַחֶדֶר לִפְנִים מִבֵּיתוֹ, וּבוֹנֶה עֲלִיָּה עַל גַּבֵּי בֵיתוֹ וּפוֹתְחָהּ לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ. לֹא יִפְתַּח אָדָם לַחֲצַר הַשֻּׁתָּפִין פֶּתַח כְּנֶגֶד פֶּתַח וְחַלּוֹן כְּנֶגֶד חַלּוֹן. הָיָה קָטָן, לֹא יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ גָדוֹל. אֶחָד, לֹא יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ שְׁנָיִם. אֲבָל פּוֹתֵחַ הוּא לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים פֶּתַח כְּנֶגֶד פֶּתַח וְחַלּוֹן כְּנֶגֶד חַלּוֹן. הָיָה קָטָן, עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ גָדוֹל. אֶחָד, עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ שְׁנָיִם:

One may not make a window to open into a jointly held courtyard. If he bought a house in another [and adjoining] courtyard he may not open it into a jointly held courtyard. If he built an upper room over his house he may not make it open into the jointly held courtyard; But, if he wishes, he may build another room within his house or build an upper room over his house and make it open into his own house. In a jointly held courtyard a man may not build a door directly opposite another’s door, or a window directly opposite another’s window. If the window was small he may not make it larger; if it was a single window he may not make it into two. But in the public domain he may open a door opposite another’s door, or a window opposite another’s window. If the window was small he may make it larger; if it was a single window he may make it into two.

8 ח

אֵין עוֹשִׂין חָלָל תַּחַת רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, בּוֹרוֹת שִׁיחִין וּמְעָרוֹת. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מַתִּיר כְּדֵי שֶׁתְּהֵא עֲגָלָה מְהַלֶּכֶת וּטְעוּנָה אֲבָנִים. אֵין מוֹצִיאִין זִיזִין וּגְזֻזְטְרָאוֹת לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אֶלָּא אִם רָצָה כּוֹנֵס לְתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ וּמוֹצִיא. לָקַח חָצֵר וּבָהּ זִיזִין וּגְזֻזְטְרָאוֹת, הֲרֵי זוֹ בְחֶזְקָתָהּ:

One may not hollow out a space underneath the public domain [such as] cisterns, trenches or caves. Rabbi Eliezer permits it if it is such that a wagon loaded with stones can [safely] go over it. Projections and balconies may not be built into the public domain; but if a man wishes to build a [projection or balcony] he may withdraw [his wall] within his own domain and build out from it. If he bought a courtyard in which were already projections and balconies, his right to maintain them may not be disputed.