הַשּׂוֹכֵר אֶת הַפּוֹעֵל לַעֲשׂוֹת עִמּוֹ בְיֵין נֶסֶךְ, שְׂכָרוֹ אָסוּר. שְׂכָרוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת עִמּוֹ מְלָאכָה אַחֶרֶת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הֲעֲבֵר לִי חָבִית שֶׁל יֵין נֶסֶךְ מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם, שְׂכָרוֹ מֻתָּר. הַשׂוֹכֵר אֶת הַחֲמוֹר לְהָבִיא עָלֶיהָ יֵין נֶסֶךְ, שְׂכָרָהּ אָסוּר. שְׂכָרָהּ לֵישֵׁב עָלֶיהָ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִנִּיחַ הַגּוֹי לְגִינוֹ עָלֶיהָ, שְׂכָרָהּ מֻתָּר: In the case of a gentile who hires a Jewish laborer to work with wine used for an idolatrous libation with him, his wage is forbidden, i.e., it is prohibited for the Jew to derive benefit from his wage. If the gentile hired him to do other work with him, even if he said to him while he was working with him: Transport the barrel of wine used for a libation for me from this place to that place, his wage is permitted, i.e., the Jew is permitted to derive benefit from the money. With regard to a gentile who rents a Jew’s donkey to carry wine used for a libation on it, its rental fee is forbidden. If he rented it to sit on it, even if a gentile placed his jug of wine used for a libation on it, its rental fee is permitted.
יֵין נֶסֶךְ שֶׁנָּפַל עַל גַּבֵּי עֲנָבִים, יְדִיחֵן וְהֵן מֻתָּרוֹת. וְאִם הָיוּ מְבֻקָּעוֹת, אֲסוּרוֹת. נָפַל עַל גַבֵּי תְאֵנִים אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי תְמָרִים, אִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶן בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם, אָסוּר. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּבַיְתוֹס בֶּן זוֹנָן שֶׁהֵבִיא גְרוֹגָרוֹת בִּסְפִינָה, וְנִשְׁתַּבְּרָה חָבִית שֶׁל יֵין נֶסֶךְ וְנָפַל עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן, וְשָׁאַל לַחֲכָמִים וְהִתִּירוּם. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁבַּהֲנָאָתוֹ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם, אָסוּר. כֹּל שֶׁאֵין בַּהֲנָאָתוֹ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם, מֻתָּר, כְּגוֹן חֹמֶץ שֶׁנָּפַל עַל גַּבֵּי גְרִיסִין: In the case of wine used for a libation that fell on grapes, one rinses them and they are permitted. But if the grapes were cracked, they are forbidden. In a case where the wine fell on figs or on dates, if there is sufficient wine in them to impart flavor, they are forbidden. And there was an incident involving Boethus ben Zunen, who transported dried figs in a ship, and a barrel of wine used for a libation broke and fell on them, and he asked the Sages as to the halakha, and the Sages deemed the figs permitted. This is the principle: Anything that benefits from a forbidden item imparting flavor to it, i.e., the forbidden item contributes a positive taste to it, is forbidden, and anything that does not benefit from a forbidden item imparting flavor to it is permitted, such as forbidden vinegar that fell onto split beans, as the flavor imparted by the vinegar does not enhance the taste of the beans.
נָכְרִי שֶׁהָיָה מַעֲבִיר עִם יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּדֵּי יַיִן מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם, אִם הָיָה בְחֶזְקַת הַמִּשְׁתַּמֵּר, מֻתָּר. אִם הוֹדִיעוֹ שֶׁהוּא מַפְלִיג, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁתֹּם וְיִסְתֹּם וְיִגֹּב. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְתַּח וְיָגוּף וְתִגֹּב: With regard to a gentile who was transporting barrels of wine from one place to another place together with a Jew, if the wine was under the presumption of being supervised, it is permitted. But if the Jew notified him that he was going far away, the wine is forbidden if the Jew left for a sufficient amount of time for the gentile to bore a hole [sheyishtom] in the barrel, seal it again with plaster, and for the plaster to dry. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: The wine is forbidden only if it was sufficient time for the gentile to open the barrel by removing the stopper altogether, stop it again by making a new stopper, and for the new stopper to dry.
הַמַּנִּיחַ יֵינוֹ בְקָרוֹן אוֹ בִסְפִינָה וְהָלַךְ לוֹ בְקַפַּנְדַּרְיָא, נִכְנַס לַמְּדִינָה וְרָחַץ, מֻתָּר. אִם הוֹדִיעוֹ שֶׁהוּא מַפְלִיג, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁתֹּם וְיִסְתֹּם וְיִגֹּב. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְתַּח וְיָגוּף וְתִגֹּב. הַמַּנִּיחַ נָכְרִי בַחֲנוּת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא וְנִכְנָס, מֻתָּר. וְאִם הוֹדִיעוֹ שֶׁהוּא מַפְלִיג, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִשְׁתֹּם וְיִסְתֹּם וְיִגֹּב. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְתַּח וְיָגוּף וְתִגֹּב: With regard to one who placed his wine in a wagon or on a ship with a gentile, and went on his way by a shortcut [bekappendarya], such that the gentile does not know when the Jew will encounter him, even if the Jew entered the city and bathed, the wine is permitted, because the gentile would not use the wine for a libation, for fear the owner might catch him at it. If the Jew informed the gentile that he was going away for a long period of time, the wine is forbidden if it was sufficient time for the gentile to bore a hole in the barrel, seal it again with plaster, and for the plaster to dry. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: It is forbidden only if it was sufficient time for him to open the barrel by removing the stopper altogether, stop it again, and for the new stopper to dry. With regard to one who left a gentile in his shop, even if the Jew went out and came in and was not there all the time, the wine is permitted. But if the Jew informed the gentile that he was going away for a long period of time, the wine is forbidden if it was sufficient time for the gentile to bore a hole in the barrel, seal it again with plaster, and for the plaster to dry. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: The wine is forbidden only if it was sufficient time for him to open the barrel, stop it again, and for the new stopper to dry.
הָיָה אוֹכֵל עִמּוֹ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְהִנִּיחַ לְגִינָה עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, וּלְגִינָה עַל הַדֻּלְבְּקִי, וְהִנִּיחוֹ וְיָצָא, מַה שֶּׁעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, אָסוּר. וּמַה שֶּׁעַל הַדֻּלְבְּקִי, מֻתָּר. וְאִם אָמַר לוֹ הֱוֵי מוֹזֵג וְשׁוֹתֶה, אַף שֶׁעַל הַדֻּלְבְּקִי אָסוּר. חָבִיּוֹת פְּתוּחוֹת, אֲסוּרוֹת. סְתוּמוֹת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְתַּח וְיָגוּף וְתִגֹּב: If a Jew was eating with a gentile at the table, and left jugs [laginin] of wine on the table and a jug on the side table [hadulebaki], and he left it and went out, what is on the table is forbidden, as it is likely that the gentile handled it, whereas what is on the side table is permitted. But if the Jew said to the gentile: Mix water with the wine and drink, even the jug that is on the side table is forbidden. Similarly, open barrels are forbidden, but sealed barrels are permitted unless the Jew was out of the room for sufficient time for the gentile to open the barrel by removing the stopper, and stop it again by making a new stopper, and for the new stopper to dry.
בַּלֶּשֶׁת גּוֹיִם שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לָעִיר בִּשְׁעַת שָׁלוֹם, חָבִיּוֹת פְּתוּחוֹת, אֲסוּרוֹת. סְתוּמוֹת, מֻתָּרוֹת. בִּשְׁעַת מִלְחָמָה, אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ מֻתָּרוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין פְּנַאי לְנַסֵּךְ: In the case of a military unit [boleshet] that entered a city, if it entered during peacetime, then after the soldiers leave the open barrels of wine are forbidden, but the sealed barrels are permitted. If the unit entered in wartime, both these barrels and those barrels are permitted, because in wartime there is no time to pour wine for libations, and one can be certain that the soldiers did not do so.
אֻמָּנִין שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁשָּׁלַח לָהֶם נָכְרִי חָבִית שֶׁל יֵין נֶסֶךְ בִּשְׂכָרָן, מֻתָּרִים לוֹמַר לוֹ תֵּן לָנוּ אֶת דָּמֶיהָ. וְאִם מִשֶּׁנִּכְנְסָה לִרְשׁוּתָן, אָסוּר. הַמּוֹכֵר יֵינוֹ לַנָּכְרִי, פָּסַק עַד שֶׁלֹּא מָדַד, דָּמָיו מֻתָּרִין. מָדַד עַד שֶׁלֹּא פָסַק, דָּמָיו אֲסוּרִין. נָטַל אֶת הַמַּשְׁפֵּךְ וּמָדַד לְתוֹךְ צְלוֹחִיתוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי, וְחָזַר וּמָדַד לְתוֹךְ צְלוֹחִיתוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, אִם יֶשׁ בּוֹ עַכֶּבֶת יַיִן, אָסוּר. הַמְעָרֶה מִכְּלִי אֶל כְּלִי, אֶת שֶׁעֵרָה מִמֶּנּוּ, מֻתָּר. וְאֶת שֶׁעֵרָה לְתוֹכוֹ, אָסוּר: With regard to Jewish craftsmen to whom a gentile sent a barrel of wine used for a libation in lieu of their wage, it is permitted for them to say to him: Give us its monetary value instead. But once it has entered into their possession, it is prohibited for them to say so, as that would be tantamount to selling the wine to the gentile and deriving benefit from it. In the case of a Jew who sells his wine to a gentile, if he fixed a price before he measured the wine into the gentile’s vessel, deriving benefit from the money paid for the wine is permitted. It is not tantamount to selling wine used for a libation, as the gentile purchased the wine before it became forbidden, and the money already belonged to the Jew. But if the Jew measured the wine into the gentile’s vessel, thereby rendering it forbidden, before he fixed a price, the money paid for the wine is forbidden. In a case where a Jew took a funnel and measured wine into a gentile’s jug, and then measured wine with the same funnel into a Jew’s jug, if there is a remnant of wine left in the funnel, the wine measured into the Jew’s jug is forbidden, as some of the wine that was measured into the gentile’s jug is mixed in it. In the case of one who pours wine from one vessel into another vessel, the wine left in the vessel from which he poured is permitted, but the wine in the vessel into which he poured is forbidden.
יֵין נֶסֶךְ אָסוּר, וְאוֹסֵר בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא. יַיִן בְּיַיִן וּמַיִם בְּמַיִם, בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא. יַיִן בְּמַיִם וּמַיִם בְּיַיִן, בְּנוֹתֵן טָעַם. זֶה הַכְּלָל, מִין בְּמִינוֹ, בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ. וְשֶׁלֹּא בְמִינוֹ, בְּנוֹתֵן טָעַם: Wine used for a libation is forbidden, and any amount of it renders other wine forbidden if they are mixed together. Wine used for a libation that became mixed with wine, or water that was used for an idolatrous libation that became mixed with ordinary water, renders the mixture forbidden with any amount of the forbidden wine or water; but wine used for a libation that became mixed with water, or water used for a libation that became mixed with wine renders the mixture forbidden only if the forbidden liquid is sufficient to impart flavor to the mixture, i.e., for the wine to flavor the water or for the water to dilute the wine to an extent that can be tasted. This is the principle: A substance in contact with the same type of substance renders the mixture forbidden with any amount of the forbidden substance, but a substance in contact with a different type of substance renders the mixture forbidden only in a case where it imparts flavor to it.
אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין, וְאוֹסְרִין בְּכָל שֶׁהֵן. יֵין נֶסֶךְ, וַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, וְעוֹרוֹת לְבוּבִין, וְשׁוֹר הַנִּסְקָל, וְעֶגְלָה עֲרוּפָה, וְצִפֹּרֵי מְצֹרָע, וּשְׂעַר נָזִיר, וּפֶטֶר חֲמוֹר, וּבָשָׂר בְּחָלָב, וְשָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ, וְחֻלִּין שֶׁנִּשְׁחֲטוּ בָעֲזָרָה, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין וְאוֹסְרִין בְּכָל שֶׁהֵן: These following items are themselves forbidden, and any amount of them renders other items with which they become mixed forbidden: Wine used for a libation; and objects of idol worship; and hides with a tear opposite the heart, indicating the idolatrous practice of sacrificing hearts of live animals. And this halakha also applies to an ox that has been condemned to be stoned (see Exodus 21:28), from which it is prohibited to derive benefit even before its sentence is carried out; and it applies to a heifer whose neck is broken when a person is found killed in an area between two cities and the murderer is unknown (see Deuteronomy 21:1–9), which is likewise forbidden from the time it is taken down to the river to be killed. In these cases, if the animal becomes mixed in a herd of similar animals, all of the animals in the herd are forbidden. And this halakha also applies to birds designated for the purification of a leper (Leviticus 14:1–6), and the shorn hair of a nazirite (Numbers 6:18), and a firstborn donkey (Exodus 13:13), and meat that was cooked in milk (Exodus 23:19), and the scape-goat of Yom Kippur (Leviticus 16:7–10), and the meat of a non-sacred animal that was slaughtered in the Temple courtyard. All of these are forbidden themselves, and any amount of them renders a mixture forbidden.
יֵין נֶסֶךְ שֶׁנָּפַל לְבוֹר, כֻּלּוֹ אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, יִמָּכֵר כֻּלּוֹ לְנָכְרִי, חוּץ מִדְּמֵי יֵין נֶסֶךְ שֶׁבּוֹ: In the case of wine used for a libation that fell into a wine cistern, it is prohibited to derive benefit from all of the wine in the cistern, even if the volume of the wine used for a libation was tiny in comparison to the volume of the wine in the cistern. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: All of the wine in the cistern may be sold to a gentile, and the money paid for it is permitted except for the value of the wine used for a libation that is included in it.
גַּת שֶׁל אֶבֶן שֶׁזִּפְּתָהּ גּוֹי, מְנַגְּבָהּ וְהִיא טְהוֹרָה. וְשֶׁל עֵץ, רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, יְנַגֵּב. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, יִקְלֹף אֶת הַזֶּפֶת. וְשֶׁל חֶרֶס, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּלַף אֶת הַזֶּפֶת, הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה: In the case of a stone winepress that a gentile lined with pitch and then poured wine onto the pitch to neutralize its flavor, one may cleanse it and it is pure, i.e., wine pressed in it is permitted. And if the winepress is fashioned of wood, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: One may cleanse it, but the Rabbis say: One must peel off the pitch completely. And if the winepress is of earthenware, even if one peeled off the pitch, this press is forbidden.
הַלּוֹקֵחַ כְּלֵי תַשְׁמִישׁ מִן הַגּוֹי, אֶת שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְהַטְבִּיל, יַטְבִּיל. לְהַגְעִיל, יַגְעִיל. לְלַבֵּן בָּאוּר, יְלַבֵּן בָּאוּר. הַשַּׁפּוּד וְהָאַסְכְּלָה, מְלַבְּנָן בָּאוּר. הַסַּכִּין, שָׁפָהּ וְהִיא טְהוֹרָה: One who purchases cooking utensils from the gentiles must prepare them for use by Jews in the following manner: With regard to those utensils whose manner of preparation is to immerse them in a ritual bath, as they require no further preparation, he must immerse them accordingly. With regard to those utensils whose manner of preparation is to purge them with boiling water, as those utensils are used with boiling water, e.g., pots, he must purge them accordingly. With regard to those whose manner of preparation is to heat until white-hot in the fire, as they are used for grilling, he must heat them until white-hot in the fire. Therefore, with regard to the spit [hashappud] and the grill [veha’askela], he must heat them until white-hot in the fire. With regard to the knife, he must polish it and it is rendered pure.