Ki Teitzei, Siman 10 כי תצא, י׳
1 א

וַיְזַנֵּב בְּךָ, הִכָּה אוֹתָן מַכַּת זָנָב. וְאַתְיָא כִּי הָא דְּאָמַר רַבִּי חִינְנָא בַּר שִׁיקְלָא, מֶה הָיוּ בֵּית עֲמָלֵק עוֹשִׂין. חוֹתְכִין מִילוֹתֵיהֶן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְזוֹרְקִין כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה וְאוֹמְרִין, בָּזֶה בָּחַרְתָּ, הֱוֵי לְךָ מַה שֶּׁבָּחַרְתָּ. לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל יוֹדְעִין מַה טִּיבָהּ שֶׁל זְמוֹרָה, עַד שֶׁבָּא עֲמָלֵק וְלִמְּדָהּ לָהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְהִנָּם שֹׁלְחִים אֶת הַזְּמוֹרָה אֶל אַפָּם (יחזקאל ח, יז). וּמִמִּי לְמָדָהּ. מֵעֵשָׂו זְקֵנוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיֹּאמֶר הֲכִי קָרָא שְׁמוֹ יַעֲקֹב (בראשית כז, לו), חִכֵּךְ בִּגְרוֹנוֹ וְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַזְּמוֹרָה. כָּל הַנֶּחֱשָׁלִים אַחֲרֶיךָ, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבָּנָן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אָמְרוּ, אִם זָכוּר הוּא עַל מַעֲשֵׂינוּ, נַעַבְדֶנּוּ. וְאִם לָאו, נִמְרֹד בּוֹ. וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר, אִם מַסְפִּיק לָנוּ מְזוֹנוֹתֵינוּ כְּמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהוּא שָׁרוּי בַּמְּדִינָה וְאֵין הַמְּדִינָה חָסֵר כְּלוּם, נַעַבְדֶנּוּ. וְאִם לָאו, נִמְרֹד בּוֹ. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי, מְסִיחִין אָנוּ בִּלְבָבֵנוּ, אִם הוּא יוֹדֵעַ מָה אָנוּ מְסִיחִין בִּלְבָבֵנוּ, נַעַבְדֶנּוּ. וְאִם לָאו, נִמְרֹד בּוֹ. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, בְּלִבָּם הָיוּ מְסִיחִין, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נוֹתֵן לָהֶם שֶׁאֱלָתָם. מַה טַּעַם. וַיְנַסּוּ אֵל בִּלְבָבָם לִשְׁאָל אֹכֶל לְנַפְשָׁם (תהלים עח, יח). וּמַה כְּתִיב שָׁם. וַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיִּשְׂבְּעוּ מְאֹד וְגוֹ' (שם פסוק כט). דָּבָר אַחֵר, כָּל הַנֶּחֱשָׁלִים אַחֲרֶיךָ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבָּנָן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כָּל מִי שֶׁהָיָה נִכְוֶה, הָיָה נִשּׁוֹל. וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר, כָּל מִי שֶׁהָיָה הֶעָנָן פּוֹלְטוֹ, הָיָה נִשּׁוֹל. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי, שֵׁבֶט דָּן שֶׁפָּלְטוֹ הֶעָנָן, הָיוּ כֻּלָּם עוֹבְדֵי עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְאַתָּה עָיֵף וְיָגֵעַ וְלֹא יָרֵא אֱלֹהִים. עָיֵף, בַּצָּמָא. וְיָגֵעַ, בַּדֶּרֶךְ. וְלֹא יָרֵא אֱלֹהִים, רַבִּי פִּנְחָס בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אוֹמֵר, מָסֹרֶת אַגָּדָה הִיא, בְּיַד בָּנֶיהָ שֶׁל רָחֵל עֵשָׂו נוֹפֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אִם לֹא יִסְחָבוּם צְעִירֵי הַצֹּאן (ירמיה מט, כ). וְלָמָּה קוֹרֵא אוֹתָם צְעִירֵי הַצֹּאן. לְפִי שֶׁהֵן קְטַנֵּיהֶם שֶׁל שְׁבָטִים. וּלְכָךְ אָמַר מֹשֶׁה לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ, בָּחַר לָנוּ אֲנָשִׁים (שמות יז, ט). מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מִשֵּׁבֶט יוֹסֵף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ: אֶת הָאֱלֹהִים אֲנִי יָרֵא (בראשית מב, יח). וּבְעֵשָׂו כְּתִיב: וְלֹא יָרֵא אֱלֹהִים. זֶה כָּתוּב בּוֹ נַעַר, וְזֶה כָּתוּב בּוֹ קָטֹן. זֶה כָּתוּב בּוֹ נַעַר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְהוּא נַעַר אֶת בְּנֵי בִלְהָה (שם לז, ב). וְזֶה כָּתוּב בּוֹ קָטֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: הִנֵּה קָטֹן נְתַתִּיךָ בַּגּוֹיִם (עובדיה א, ב). זֶה גָּדַל בֵּין שְׁנֵי צַדִּיקִים וְלֹא לָמַד מִמַּעֲשֵׂיהֶם, וְזֶה גָּדַל בֵּין שְׁנֵי רְשָׁעִים וְלֹא לָמַד מִמַּעֲשֵׂיהֶם. זֶה קִבֵּל בְּכוֹרָה מִמַּעֲשָׂיו הַטּוֹבִים, וְזֶה אִבֵּד בְּכוֹרָתוֹ מִמַּעֲשָׂיו הָרָעִים. זֶה כִּלְכֵּל אֶת אֶחָיו, וְזֶה בִּקֵּשׁ לַהֲרֹג אֶת אָחִיו. זֶה גָּדַר עַצְמוֹ מִן הָעֶרְוָה וּמִשְּׁפִיכוּת דָּמִים, וְזֶה טִנֵּף עַצְמוֹ בְּעֶרְוָה וּבִשְׁפִיכוּת דָּמִים. זֶה הוֹדָה בִּתְחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וֵאלֹהִים פָּקֹד יִפְקֹד אֶתְכֶם (בראשית, נכד). וְזֶה כָּפַר בִּתְחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ לָמוּת (שם כה, לב). זֶה נָתַן נַפְשׁוֹ עַל כְּבוֹד אִמּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְאַחַר נִגַּשׁ יוֹסִף וְרָחֵל וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ (שם לג, ז). וְזֶה בִּקֵּשׁ לַהֲרֹג אֶת אִמּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְשִׁחֵת רַחֲמָיו (עמוס א, יא). לְכָךְ יִפֹּל זֶה בְּיַד זֶה. וְאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, עוֹמְדִים כָּל שָׂרֵי הַשְּׁבָטִים לְהִזְדַּוֵּג עִם שָׂרוֹ שֶׁל עֵשָׂו וְאֵינוֹ נוֹפֵל בְּיָדָם, לְפִי שֶׁלְּכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מְסַלְּקוֹ בִּתְשׁוּבָה. לִרְאוּבֵן אוֹמֵר, אַתָּה נֶחְשַׁדְתָּ עַל פִּילֶגֶשׁ אָבִיךָ. וּלְשִׁמְעוֹן וּלְלֵוִי, אַף אַתֶּם הֲרַגְתֶּם אֶת שְׁכֶם. לִשְׁאָר הַשְּׁבָטִים, אַתֶּם מְכַרְתֶּם אֶת אֲחִיכֶם וּבִקַּשְׁתֶּם לְהָרְגוֹ. לִיהוּדָה, אַף אַתָּה נֶחְשַׁדְתָּ עַל תָּמָר כַּלָּתְךָ. וּלְבִנְיָמִין אָמַר, אַתָּה נֶחְשַׁדְתָּ עַל פִּילֶגֶשׁ בַּגִּבְעָה. כֵּיוָן שֶׁשָּׂרוֹ שֶׁל עֵשָׂו בָּא וּמִזְדַּוֵּג לוֹ, מִיָּד נוֹפֵל לְפָנָיו, שֶׁאֵין לוֹ תְּשׁוּבָה לַהֲשִׁיבוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב: וְהָיָה בֵית יַעֲקֹב אֵשׁ וּבֵית יוֹסֵף לֶהָבָה וּבֵית עֵשָׂו לְקַשׁ (עובדיה א, יח).

(Deut. 25:18, cont.:) And he cut off (rt.: znb) all who were lagging behind you. He smote them with a blow to the tail (rt.: znb).51The word can also denote the penis. See PR 7:3; 12:10, 13; 13:1. And this agrees with what R. Hanina bar Shilqa, said, “What did the House of Amalek do to Israel?52Below, section 14. They cut off their penes and flung them heavenward, as they said, ‘This is what You have chosen, take for Yourself what You have chosen.” As Israel did not know what the nature of spit was, until Amalek came and taught them, as stated (with reference to Ezek. 8:17), “here they were sending the spit in their faces.” From whom did he learn it? From his grandfather Esau, as stated (in Gen. 27:36), “And he said, ‘Is he not (hky) rightly named Jacob?’”53Gen. R. 67:4. He rubbed (rt.: hkk) his throat and brought out the spit. (Deut. 25:18), “All who were lagging behind you.” R. Judah, R. Nehemiah, and the masters [differed]. R. Judah said, “They said, ‘If He is master over all of out deeds, we will serve Him; but if not, we will revolt against Him.’” R. Nehemiah said, “They said, ‘If He furnishes us with our food like a king who is living in the province, such that the province lacks nothing at all, we will serve Him; but if not, we will revolt against Him.’” And the masters said, “They said, “’If we have a thought in our hearts and He knows what we are thinking, we will serve Him; but if not, we will revolt against Him.’” R. Berekhyah said in the name of R. Levi, “In their heart they had a thought, and the Holy One, blessed be He, granted them their request.” And what is the evidence? (Ps. 78:18:) “They tested God in their heart by asking food for themselves.” See what [else] is written there (in vs. 29), “So they ate and were very full.” Another interpretation (of Deut. 25:18), “all who were lagging behind you”: R. Judah, R. Nehemiah and the masters [differ].54PRK 3:12; PR 12:13, cont.; PRE 44; Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, Exod. 17:8 and Deut. 25:18. R. Judah says, “Whoever was overcome was discarded.” R. Nehemiah says, “Whomever the cloud vomited up was discarded.” And the rabbis say, “It was the tribe of Dan that the cloud vomited up, [as] they all served idols, as stated55The reference is to the idol which the Danites took from Micah. See Jud. 17–18. (Deut. 25:18, cont.), ‘when you were tired and weary, and did not fear God.’” [You were] tired from thirst and weary from the road, and you did not fear God.56Above, Gen. 7:15; 8:5; 12:13; Tanh., Gen. 12:14; Deut. 6:10, cont.; PRK 3:13; PR 13:4; Gen. R. 73:7; cf. BB 123b. R. Pinhas said in the name of R. Samuel bar Nahman, “It is a transmitted aggada [that] Esau will fall at the hand of the children of Rachel (Joseph and Benjamin), as stated (in Jer. 49:20), ‘Surely the youngest of the flock shall drag them away.’ Why does it call them the youngest of the flock? Because they were the youngest of the tribes.” Hence, Moses said to Joshua (Exod. 17:9), “Choose men for us.” As he was [descended from] Joseph, about whom it is written (Gen. 42:18), “I fear God.” And about Esau, it is written (Deut. 25:18), “and did not fear God.” Youth is written with reference to the one and small is written with reference to the other (i.e., with reference to Esau). Youth is written with reference to the one (in Gen. 37:2), “since he (Joseph) was a youth with the children of Bilhah [and with the children of Zilpah].” And small is written with reference to the other (in Obad. 1:2), “I will surely make you (Edom) smallest among the nations.” The one (Esau) grew up with two who were righteous (i.e., with Isaac and Rebekah) and did not learn from their deeds, while the other grew up with two who were wicked (i.e., Potiphar and Pharaoh) and did not learn from their deeds. The one received the birthright as a result of his good deeds, while the other lost his birthright from his evil deeds. The one supported his brothers, while the other sought to kill his brother. The one fenced himself away from sexual immorality and from the spilling of blood, while the other sullied himself with sexual immorality and the spilling of blood. The one conceded to the revival of the dead, as stated (Gen. 50:24), “God will surely remember you”; while the other denied the revival of the dead, as stated (Gen. 25:32), “Behold, I am going to die.” The one offered his life for his mother’s honor, as stated (Gen. 33:7), “and after, Joseph and Rachel came forward and bowed”; while the other sought to kill his mother, as stated (Amos 1:11), “and he destroyed his uterus.”57This is a homiletical translation of the verse, which would otherwise be translated as, AND HE REPRESSED HIS PITY. Therefore, the one (Esau) will fall by the hand of the other (Jospeh). And R. Johanan said, “All of the ministering angels sought to battle with the ministering angel of Esau, but he would not fall by their hand, as he would remove each and every one with a response: To Reuben, he says, ‘You were suspected about your father’s concubine.’ To Simeon and Levi, ‘You also killed [the inhabitants of] Shekhem.’ To the other tribes, ‘You sold your brother and sought to kill him.’ To Judah, ‘You were also suspected about your daughter-in-law, Tamar.’ To Benjamin he said, ‘You were suspected about the concubine in Giveah.’ When the ministering angel of [Joseph] came and battled with him, he immediately fell in front of him, as he had no response to answer him. This is what is written (Obad 1:18), “And the House of Jacob shall be fire, and the House of Joseph flame, and the House of Esau shall be straw.”