Tazria, Siman 1 תזריע, א׳
1 א

אִשָׁה כִּי תַזְרִיעַ וְיָלְדָה זָכָר. זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב: מִי יִתְּנֵנִי כְּיַרְחֵי קֶדֶם וְגוֹ' (איוב כט, ב). הַפָּסוּק הַזֶּה אִיּוֹב אָמַר. אֵימָתַי, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּאוּ עָלָיו הַיִּסּוּרִין. אָמַר, מִי יִתְּנֵנִי כְּיַרְחֵי קֶדֶם וּלְוַאי שֶׁהָיִיתִי כְּאוֹתָן הַיָּמִים שֶׁהָיִיתִי בִּמְעֵי אִמִּי. כִּימֵי אֱלוֹהַּ יִשְׁמְרֵנִי (איוב כט, ב), מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהַוָּלָד מִשְׁתַּמֵּר בִּמְעֵי אִמּוֹ. בְּהִלּוֹ נֵרוֹ עֲלֵי רֹאשִׁי, לְאוֹרוֹ אֵלֵךְ חֹשֶׁךְ (איוב כט, ג). מִכָּאן אַתְּ לָמֵד, שֶׁהָאוֹרָה לַתִּינוֹק כְּשֶׁהוּא בִּמְעֵי אִמּוֹ. כַּאֲשֶׁר הָיִיתִי בִּימֵי חָרְפִּי, בְּסוֹד אֱלוֹהַּ עֲלֵי אָהֳלִי (איוב כט, ד). כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהַגֶּשֶׁם מוֹחֶה בַּקַּרְקַע וּמְלַכְלֵךְ אוֹתָהּ, כָּךְ הַתִּינוֹק מְלַכְלֵךְ בִּמְעֵי אִמּוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר בְּסוֹד אֱלוֹהַּ עֲלֵי אָהֳלִי מְדַבֵּר בְּתִינוֹק וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁהַתִּינוֹק מְלֻכְלָךְ כָּךְ אָדָם מְלֻכְלָךְ מֵעֲוֹנוֹת וְהַצָּרוֹת בָּאוֹת עָלָיו. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה הוּא אוֹמֵר, מִי יִתְּנֵנִי כְּיַרְחֵי קֶדֶם, וּלְוַאי הָיוּ לִי אוֹתָן הַיְּרֵחִים וְהַיָּמִים שֶׁהָיִיתִי בִּמְעֵי אִמִּי. מָה אוֹמֵר בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה, כַּאֲשֶׁר הָיִיתִי בִּימֵי חָרְפִּי, אָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ, הַתִּינוֹק יוֹצֵא מִמְּעֵי אִמּוֹ מָלֵא רִירִין וּמָלֵא דָּם, וְהֵם מְחַבְּבִין אוֹתוֹ. וְכֵן מִנְהַג כָּל אִשָּׁה שֶׁתֵּלֵד, מְחַבְּבִין אוֹתוֹ הַוָּלָד. וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם הוּא זָכָר. הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר, אִשָּׁה כִּי תַּזְרִיעַ וְיָלְדָה זָכָר. אִשָּׁה כִּי תַּזְרִיעַ. זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב: אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי (תהלים קלט, ה). בְּמִי הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר, בְּאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, כְּתִיב בּוֹ בְּאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן שְׁתֵּי יְצִירוֹת שְׁנֵי יוּדִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיִּיצֶר ה' אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם (בראשית ב, ז), יְצִירָה אַחַת בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וִיצִירָה אַחַת לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. אֲבָל הַבְּהֵמָה וְהַחַיָּה וְהָעוֹף יְצִירָה אַחַת כְּתִיב בָּהֶן בְּיוּ״ד אַחַת, דִּכְתִיב: וַיִּצֶר ה' אֱלֹהִים מִן הָאֲדָמָה כָּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה (בראשית ב, יט). לְפִיכָךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר, אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אוֹמֵר, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית. מַה טַּעַם. דִּכְתִיב: וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מֵרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם (בראשית א, ב), זוֹ נַפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. לְפִיכָךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר, אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן פְּדָת אוֹמֵר, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי. כֵּיצַד, שִׁשָּׁה דְּבָרִים בָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וּבְהֵמָה וְחַיְתוֹ אָרֶץ, וְאָדָם וְחַוָּה. וְנַפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם נִבְרֵאת תְּחִלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה (בראשית ב, יט). וְאֵין נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֶלָּא נַפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה (בראשית ב, ז). הֱוֵי, קֹדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי. וְאָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי, שֶׁהָיָה עוֹסֵק בּוֹ כָּל יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי. הֱוֵי, אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי אָמַר, מַהוּ אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי. אֵלּוּ דּוּ פַּרְצוּפִין, זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם וְגוֹ' וַיִּקְרָא אֶת שְׁמָם וְגוֹ' (שם ה, ב), הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר, אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי. אָמַר אָדָם, אַחַר שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כָּל הַבְּהֵמוֹת וְהָעוֹפוֹת וְהַשְּׁקָצִים וְהָרְמָשִׂים, וְאַחַר כֵּן בָּרָא אוֹתִי. כָּךְ הַתִּינוֹק הַזֶּה עַד שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא מִמְּעֵי אִמּוֹ, הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְצַוֶּה אוֹתוֹ וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ: מִזֶּה תֹּאכַל וּמִזֶּה לֹא תֹּאכַל, וְזֶה לָכֶם הַטָּמֵא, אֶת זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ וְאֶת זֶה לֹא תֹּאכְלוּ. וּמִי שֶׁהוּא מְקַבֵּל עָלָיו בִּמְעֵי אִמּוֹ כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה וְאַחַר כֵּן נוֹלָד, לְכָךְ כְּתִיב: אִשָּׁה כִּי תַּזְרִיעַ.

(Lev. 12:2:) “When a woman emits her seed and bears a male.” This text is related (to Job 29:2), “O that I were as in the months of old, [as in the days when God watched over me]!” In regard to this verse, Job spoke it when the afflictions had come upon him. He said, “’O that I were as in the months of old,’ and would that I had the days which I had when I was in my mother's belly!” “As in the days when God watched over me!” [These words] teach that the infant is watched over while it is in its mother's belly. (Job 29:3:) “When His light shone over my head […].” From here you learn that the infant has light in its mother's belly. (Job 29:4:) “When I was in the days of my youth (horef),1Horef also means “winter.” Buber notes here that in the following simile, the infant in the womb is being protected in the womb as the winter rain protects the soil. when God's company was over my tent.” [These words teach about the infant.] Just as the rain is at work in the soil for it to become muddy, so the infant is muddy in its mother's womb. Another interpretation [of] “when God's company was over my tent”: These words teach about the infant. Just as the infant gets muddy, so is a person muddied by sins, so that misfortunes come upon him. At that time [Job] said (in Job 29:2), “’O that I were as in the months of old, as in the days when God watched over me,’ and would that I had the days which I had when I was in my mother's belly!” What does he finally say (in vs. 4)? “When I was in the days of my youth.” R. Abbahu said, “The infant comes out of the mother's belly covered with slime and covered with blood; yet everyone praises and cherishes it, especially when it is a male.”2Tanh., Lev. 8:11; PRK 9:6. Ergo (in Lev. 12:2), “When a woman emits her seed and bears a male.” (Lev. 12:2:) “When a woman emits her seed.” [This text is related to (Ps. 139:5),] “You have formed me behind and before.” The text speaks of the first Adam.3Cf. Gen. R. 8:1; 14:5; Lev. R. 14:1; M. Pss. 139:6. R. Johanan said, “It is written about him that there were two creations. There is a double y (i.e., a double yod in Gen. 2:7), ‘The Lord God formed (yytsr) the human.’ One formation is in this world, and one is for the world to come. But in the case of cattle, wild beasts, and birds, for them [only] one formation is written (without a double y in Gen. 2:19), ‘So out of the earth the Lord God formed (ytsr) all the wild beasts of the field [and all the birds of the heavens].’ It therefore says (in Ps. 139:5), ‘You have formed me behind and before.’” R. Simeon ben Laqish says, “Behind (in the sense of what comes] before the act of [his] creation. What is the reason? It is written (in Gen. 1:2), ‘and the spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters’; this spirit was the soul of the first Adam. It therefore says (in Ps. 139:5), ‘You have formed me behind and before.’” R. Eleazar ben Pedat says, “Behind [refers] to an [later] event of the sixth day, and before [refers] to an [earlier] event of the sixth day. How so? Because the Holy One, blessed be He, created six things on the sixth day. They were these: (1) the soul; (2) wild beasts; (3) cattle; (4) beasts of the earth; (5) Adam; and (6) Eve. Now Adam's soul was created first, as stated (in Gen. 1:24), ‘a living soul.’ Living soul can only be the soul of Adam, since it is stated (in Gen. 2:7), ‘and the human (Adam) became a living soul.’ Hence, before [refers] to the [first] event of the sixth day, and behind [refers] to the sixth day, since [the Holy One, blessed be He,] was occupied with him all of the sixth day. Ergo (in Ps. 139:5), ‘You have formed me behind and before.’ Behind [refers] to an event of the sixth day, and before [refers] to an event of the sixth day.” R. Samuel bar Nahman said, “What is the meaning of ‘You have formed me behind and before?’ Having two faces, male and female. Hence it says (in Ps. 139:5), ‘You have formed me behind and before.’”4Ber. 61a; ‘Eruv. 18a. Adam said, “After the Holy One, blessed be He, had created all the cattle and wild beasts, He created me.” So it is with the infant. Before it comes forth from its mother's belly, the Holy One, blessed be He, commands it, “Eat of this, do not eat of that, (in Lev. 11:29) ‘this shall be unclean for you.’” Then after it takes upon itself in its mother's belly all the commandments which are in the Torah, [only] after that it is born. Thus it is stated (in Lev. 12:2), “When a woman emits her seed and bears a male.”