Re'eh, Siman 1 ראה, א׳
1 א

רְאֵה אָנֹכִי. זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב: וְלָעָם הַזֶּה תֹּאמַר כֹּה אָמַר ה' הִנְנִי נוֹתֵן לִפְנֵיכֶם אֶת דֶּרֶךְ הַחַיִּים וְאֶת דֶּרֶךְ הַמָּוֶת (ירמיה כא, ח). וּכְתִיב: מַשְׂכִּיל לְאָסָף, הַאֲזִינָה עַמִּי תּוֹרָתִי, הַטּוּ אָזְנְכֶם לְאִמְרֵי פִי (תהלים עח, א). וּכְתִיב: רַק הִשָּׁמֵר לְךָ וּשְׁמֹר וְגוֹ' (דברים ד, ט). וּכְתִיב: יוֹם אֲשֶׁר עָמַדְתָּ וְגוֹ' (שם פסוק י). לְלַמֶּדְךָ, שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁמִּתְבַּטֵּל מִן הַתּוֹרָה, כְּאִלּוּ כּוֹפֵר בְּהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן תּוֹרָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעַסְקוּ בָּהּ יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְהָגִיתָ בּוֹ יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה וְגוֹ' (יהושע א, ח). וּכְתִיב: כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת ה' חֶפְצוֹ וְגוֹ' (תהלים א, ב). וְכָל הָעוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה וּמְקַיְּמָהּ, כְּאִלּוּ קִבְּלָהּ מֵהַר סִינַי. לְפִיכָךְ כְּתִיב: וְהוֹדַעְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֵי בָנֶיךָ (דברים ד, ט). וְסָמִיךְ לֵיהּ, יוֹם אֲשֶׁר עָמַדְתָּ וְגוֹ' (שם פסוק י). כְּשֶׁבָּא אָסָף, הִתְחִיל לוֹמַר, הַאֲזִינָה עַמִּי תּוֹרָתִי (תהלים עח, א). וְכֵן שְׁלֹמֹה אָמַר, כִּי לֶקַח טוֹב נָתַתִּי וְגוֹ' (משלי ד, ב). אָמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְאָסָף, וְכִי יֵשׁ תּוֹרָה אַחֶרֶת, שֶׁאַתָּה אוֹמֵר, הַאֲזִינָה עַמִּי תּוֹרָתִי. כְּבָר קִבַּלְנוּהָ מֵהַר סִינַי. אָמַר לָהֶם: פּוֹשְׁעֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹמְרִים: שֶׁהַנְּבִיאִים וְהַכְּתוּבִים אֵינָן תּוֹרָה, וְאֵינָם מַאֲמִינִין בָּהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְלֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ בְּקוֹל ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ לָלֶכֶת בְּתוֹרֹתָיו אֲשֶׁר נָתַן לְפָנֵינוּ בְּיַד עֲבָדָיו הַנְּבִיאִים (דניאל ט, י), הֲרֵי שֶׁהַנְּבִיאִים וּכְתוּבִים, תּוֹרָה הֵם. לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: הַאֲזִינָה עַמִּי תּוֹרָתִי. דָּבָר אַחֵר, הַאֲזִינָה עַמִּי תּוֹרָתִי. זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב: לֵב חָכָם יַשְׂכִּיל פִּיהוּ וְעַל שְׂפָתָיו וְגוֹ' (משלי טז, כג). כְּשֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל חוֹטְאִין, נִמְנָעִין מִכָּל טוּב. וּכְשֶׁזּוֹכִין מִן טוּב, מוֹסִיפִין תּוֹרָה. וְכֵן אַתְּ מוֹצֵא, כְּשֶׁעָשׂוּ אוֹתוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה, נִמְנְעוּ מִכָּל אוֹתָהּ טוֹבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר קָרַב אֶל הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיַּרְא אֶת הָעֵגֶל וְגוֹ' (שמות לב, יט). וּכְשֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ מֹשֶׁה רַחֲמִים עֲלֵיהֶם, אָמַר לֵיהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, מֹשֶׁה, לֹא בָּרָאתִי אֶת הָעוֹלָם אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל תּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וָאָשִׂים דְּבָרַי בְּפִיךָ וּבְצֵל יָדִי כִּסִּיתִיךָ וְגוֹ' (ישעיה נא, טז). וְהֵם הֵמִירוּ כְּבוֹדִי בְּתַבְנִית שׁוֹר, וְאַתָּה שִׁבַּרְתָּ אֶת הַלֻּחוֹת, וְהֵיאַךְ הָעוֹלָם עוֹמֵד בְּלֹא תּוֹרָה. אָמַר לוֹ: וּמָה אֶעֱשֶׂה. אָמַר לוֹ: פְּסָל לְךָ שְׁנֵי לוּחוֹת אֲבָנִים כָּרִאשׁוֹנִים. לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: לֵב חָכָם יַשְׂכִּיל פִּיהוּ. לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁעָמַד אָסָף, הִזְכִּיר לְמַעְלָה, נָחִיתָ כָּצֹּאן עַמֶּךָ וְגוֹ'. מַה כְּתִיב אַחֲרָיו. מַשְׂכִּיל לְאָסָף, הַאֲזִינָה עַמִּי תּוֹרָתִי.

(Deut. 11:26:) “See, I [am setting before you today a blessing and a curse]. This text is related (to Jer. 21:8), “And (to) [unto] this people you shall say, ‘Thus says the Lord, “See, I am setting before you the road of life and the road of death.”’” It is also written (in Ps. 78:1), “A maskil of Asaph. Give ear, O my people, to my Torah […].” And it is written (in Deut. 4:9-10), “Only take heed to yourself and watch [yourself closely, lest you forget the things that your eyes have seen and lest they depart from your heart all the days of your life; make them known to your children and to your children's children]: The day that you stood [before the Lord your God at Horeb]….” [This is] to tell you that [when] anyone despises the words of Torah, it is as though he were denying the Holy One, blessed be He,, because He only bestowed Torah so that Israel would be occupied with it day and night, as stated (in Josh. 1:8), “and you shall meditate on it (i.e., on the Torah) day and night.” And it is written (in Ps. 1:2), “But their delight is in the law (Torah) of the Lord, [and on his law (Torah) they meditate day and night].” And when anyone occupies himself with the Torah and fulfills it, [it is] as though he had received it from Sinai. It is therefore written (in Deut. 4:9), “make them known to your children […],” and adjacent to it (in Deut. 4:10), “The day that you stood before the Lord your God….” When Asaph came, he began to say (in Ps. 78:1) “Give ear, O my people, to my Torah.” So also did Solomon say (in Prov. 4:2), “For I gave you good instruction; [do not abandon my Torah].” Israel said to Asaph, “Is there another Torah, such that you say (in Ps. 78:1), ‘Give ear, O my people, to my Torah?’ We have already received it from Mount Sinai.” He said to them, “The sinners of Israel say that the Prophets and the Writings are not Torah, and they do not believe in them, as stated (in Dan. 9:10), “And we have not obeyed the voice of the Lord our God by walking in His Torah, which He set before us at the hand of His servants the prophets.” Ergo, the Prophets and the Writings are Torah. As so is it stated (in Ps. 78:1), “Give ear, O my people, to my Torah (in this case to a writing of Asaph).” Another interpretation (of Ps. 78:1), “Give ear, O my people, to my Torah.” This text is related (to Prov. 16:23), “The heart of a wise person, instructs his mouth […].” When Israel sins, they are withheld from anything good; and so you find that, when they committed the act (of the golden calf), everything good was withheld from them, as stated (in Exod. 32:19), “And it came to pass that as soon as he drew near unto the camp and saw the calf [and the dancing, Moses burned with anger; so he threw down the tablets from his hands and shattered them at the foot of the mountain].” Then when Moses sought mercy for them, the Holy One, blessed be He, said to him, “Moses, I created the world only for Torah, as stated (in Is. 51:16), “Moreover, I have put My words (i.e., the Torah) in your mouth …, [so that I may plant the heavens and lay the foundations of the earth].” But they have exchanged My glory for the image of a bull,1Cf. Ps. 106:20. and you have broken the tablets; so how will the world continue without Torah? He said to Him, “What shall I do?” He said to him (in Deut. 10:1), “Carve out two tablets of stone like the first ones.” It is therefore said (in Prov. 16:23), “The heart of a wise person, instructs his mouth….” For that reason, when Asaph [was alive], he mentioned above (in Ps. 77:21), “You led Your people like a flock [by the hand of Moses and Aaron].”2It is Ps. 77:1 that designates this Psalm as a work of Asaph. Then after that it is written (in Ps. 78:1), “A maskil (a psalm of wisdom) of Asaph.”