Korach, Siman 4 קרח, ד׳
1 א

בֶּן יִצְהַר בֶּן קְהָת בֶּן לֵוִי. וְלָמָּה לֹא כְתִיב בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹ בֶּן יִשְׂרָאֵל. זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב: בְּסוֹדָם אֶל תָּבֹא נַפְשִׁי וְגוֹ' (בראשית מט, ו). בְּסוֹדָם אֶל תָּבֹא נַפְשִׁי, אֵלּוּ הַמְּרַגְּלִים. בִּקְהָלָם אֶל תֵּחַד כְּבוֹדִי (שם), זֶה קֹרַח. אָמַר יַעֲקֹב לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, לֹא בַּמְּרַגְּלִים וְלֹא בְּמַחֲלֻקְתּוֹ שֶׁל קֹרַח יִזָּכֵר שְׁמִי עַל אוֹתָן רְשָׁעִים שֶׁעֲתִידִים לְהַכְעִיס. וְאֵימָתַי יִכָּתֵב שְׁמִי עֲלֵיהֶם. כְּשֶׁהֵם מִתְיַחֲסִין וְעוֹמְדִין עַל הַדּוּכָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: בֶּן תַּחַת בֶּן אֲסִיר בֶּן אֲבִיאָסָף בֶּן קֹרַח בֶּן יִצְהָר בֵּן קְהָת בֶּן לֵוִי בֶּן יִשְׂרָאֵל (דה״‎א ו, כב-כג). וְדָתָן וַאֲבִירָם. מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ חֲכָמֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לַבְּרָכָה, אוֹי לָרָשָׁע וְאוֹי לִשְׁכֵנוֹ, שֶׁהָרֵי דָּתָן וַאֲבִירָם נֶאֶבְדוּ בְּמַחֲלֻקְתּוֹ שֶׁל קֹרַח, לְפִי שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁכֵנִים לְקֹרַח, שֶׁהָיָה שָׁרוּי בַּדָּרוֹם, דִּכְתִיב: מִשְׁפְּחוֹת בְּנֵי קְהָת יַחֲנוּ עַל יֶרֶךְ הַמִּשְׁכָּן תֵּימָנָה (במדבר ג, כט). דִּגְלוֹ שֶׁל רְאוּבֵן סָמוּךְ לָהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: דֶּגֶל מַחֲנֵה רְאוּבֵן תֵּימָנָה (שם ב, י), וְנִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ עִמָּהֶם. אֲבָל דִּגְלוֹ שֶׁל יְהוּדָה וְדִגְלוֹ שֶׁל יִשָּׂשׂכָר וּזְבוּלֻן, שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁרוּיִם בַּמִּזְרָח, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְהַחוֹנִים קֵדְמָה מִזְרָחָה דֶּגֶל מַחֲנֵה יְהוּדָה (שם פסוק ג), וּכְתִיב: וְעָלָיו מַטֵּה יִשָּׂשׂכָר (שם פסוק ה), וְהָיוּ שְׁכֵנִים לְמֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו, דִּכְתִיב: וְהַחוֹנִים לִפְנֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן קֵדְמָה לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד מִזְרָחָה מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו (שם ג, לח). לְפִי שֶׁהָיוּ אֵלּוּ סְמוּכִין לַתּוֹרָה, לְפִיכָךְ זָכוּ לִהְיוֹת בְּנֵי תּוֹרָה, דִּכְתִיב: יְהוּדָה מְחוֹקְקִי (תהלים ס, ט). וּכְתִיב: וּמִבְּנֵי יִשָּׂשׂכָר יוֹדְעֵי בִּינָה לְעִתִּים (דה״‎א יב, לג). וּכְתִיב: וּמִזְּבוּלֻן מוֹשְׁכִים בְּשֵׁבֶט סוֹפֵר (שופטים ה, יד). וְדָתָן וַאֲבִירָם שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁכֵנִים לְקֹרַח בַּעַל הַמַּחֲלֹקֶת, לָקוּ עִמּוֹ וְאָבְדוּ מִן הָעוֹלָם. וַיִּקָּהֵל עֲלֵיהֶם קֹרַח. אָמַר לָהֶם: רַב לָכֶם כִּי כָּל הָעֵדָה כֻּלָּם קְדוֹשִׁים, וְכֻלָּם שָׁמְעוּ בְּסִינַי, אֲנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ. וּמַדּוּעַ תִּתְנַשְּׂאוּ. אִלְמָלֵא אַתֶּם שְׁמַעְתֶּם לְבַדְּכֶם וְהֵם לֹא שָׁמְעוּ, הֱיִיתֶם אוֹמְרִים. עַכְשָׁו כֻּלָּם קְדוֹשִׁים, וּמַדּוּעַ תִּתְנַשְּׂאוּ. מִיָּד נִזְדַּעְזֵעַ מֹשֶׁה מִפְּנֵי הַמַּחֲלֹקֶת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכְּבָר הָיָה בְּיָדָן סִרָחוֹן רְבִיעִי. מָשָׁל לְמַה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה. לְבֶן מֶלֶךְ שֶׁסָּרַח עַל אָבִיו, וּפִיֵּס עָלָיו אוֹהֲבוֹ פַּעַם אַחַת וּשְׁתַּיִם וְשָׁלֹש. כְּשֶׁסָּרַח פַּעַם רְבִיעִית, נִתְרַשְּׁלוּ יְדֵי אוֹהֲבוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ, אָמַר, כַּמָּה פְּעָמִים אֲנִי מַטְרִיחַ אֶת הַמֶּלֶךְ. אַף כָּאן עָשָׂה מֹשֶׁה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. חָטְאוּ בָּעֵגֶל, וַיְחַל מֹשֶׁה (שמות לב, יא). בַּמִּתְאוֹנְנִים, וְיִתְפַּלֵּל מֹשֶׁה (במדבר יא, ב). בַּמְּרַגְּלִים, וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל ה' וְשָׁמְעוּ מִצְרַיִם (שם יד, יג). בְּמַחֲלֻקְתוֹ שֶׁל קֹרַח, נִתְרַשְּׁלוּ יָדָיו. אָמַר, כַּמָּה אוּכַל לְהַטְרִיחַ אֶת הַמָּקוֹם. לְפִיכָךְ, וַיִּשְׁמַע מֹשֶׁה וַיִּפֹּל עַל פָּנָיו.

(Numb. 16:1:) “[Korah who is] the son of Izhar [who is] the son of Kohath [who is] the son of Levi betook himself.” But there is not written "the son of Jacob" [or] "the son of Israel."18Numb. R. 18:5; cf.Gen. R. 98:5. This text is related (to Gen. 49:6), “Let not my soul come into their council,” i.e., that of the spies; “and let not my glory be joined with their congregation,” i.e., that of Korah. Jacob said to the Holy One, blessed be He, “Master of the world, with reference to the spies and with reference to the dissension of Korah, let not my name be mentioned [in connection with] those evil men, who are going to cause provocation. So when should my name (Israel) be joined upon them? When they are joined together to stand on the dais (as Levitical singers), as stated (I Chron. 6:[17,] 22–23) ‘[These are the ones whom David put in charge of song in the house of the Lord….] The son of Assir [who is] the son of Ebiasaph [who is] the son of Korah [who is] the son of Izhar [who is] the son of Kohath [who is] the son of Levi [who is] the son of Israel.’” (Numb. 16:1, cont.:) “Along with Dathan and Abiram.” From here the sages said, “Woe to the wicked one, [and] woe to his neighbor.”19Numb. R. 18:5, cont.; see Neg. 12:6; Sifra to Lev.14:40 (157: Metsora‘, pereq 4); ARN, A, 9; cf. ARN, B, 16; Numb.R. 3:12; Suk. 56b; above, Numb.1:13. As see that Dathan and Abiram were destroyed by the dissent of Korah, because they were neighbors of Korah. As he was dwelling to the south (of the tabernacle), as stated (in Numb. 3:29), “The families of the Children of Kohath were to camp along the side of the tabernacle to the south.” The standard of Reuben was near them, as stated (in Numb. 2:10), “The standard of the camp of Reuben shall be to the south.” However, the standard of Judah was in the east, and with him were Issachar and Zebulun, as stated (in Numb. 2:3), “Now these camping in front to the east shall be the standard of the camp of Judah.” And near them were Moses, Aaron, and his children, as written (in Numb. 3:38), “Those who camped before the tabernacle, in front before the tent of meeting to the east, were Moses, Aaron, and his children.” Because these were near the Torah, they were therefore worthy to be Torah scholars, as written (in Ps. 60:9), “Judah is my lawgiver.”20Mehoqeq. Most translations render the word as scepter, since kingship was what Judah actually attained. And it is [also] written (in I Chron. 12:33), “And from the Children of Issachar, those who had an understanding of the times.” And it is [also] written (in Jud. 5:14), “and from Zebulon those who wield the scribal pen.” But Dathan and Abiram, who were neighbors to Korah – the one responsible for the dissent – were struck with him and perished from the world. (Numb. 16:19:) “And Korah gathered [the whole community] against them.” He said to them (in Numb. 16:3), “’You have gone too far, for all the congregation are holy, every one of them.’21Numb. R. 18:6. Moreover, every one of them heard on Sinai (in Exod. 20:2 = Deut. 5:6), ‘I am the Lord your God.’ (Numb. 16:3, cont.:) ‘So why do you elevate yourselves?’” Immediately Moses trembled, because it was already the fourth transgression on their hands. It is comparable to a king's son who had transgressed against his father. Now his friend effected a reconciliation with him once,22Rt.: PSY. See the Gk.: peithein, peisai in the aorist. twice, and three times. When he transgressed a fourth time, the king's friend became discouraged. He said, “How many times shall I bother the king?” So also [it was with] Moses towards Israel. They had sinned with the calf, and (according to Exod. 32:11) “Moses implored.” In the case of the murmurers, (according to Numb. 11:2) “Moses prayed.” In the case of the spies, (according to Numb. 14:13), “Moses said unto the Lord, when the Egyptians hear [what happened].” [So] in the case of Korah's dissension, he became discouraged. He said, “How often can I bother the Omnipresent?” Therefore (in Numb. 16:4), “When Moses heard this, he fell on his face.”