Ki Tisa, Siman 31 כי תשא, ל״א
1 א

פְּסָל לְךָ. אֵימָתַי יָרַד מֹשֶׁה מִן הָהָר? אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר שַׁלּוּם, מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים יוֹם עָשָׂה מֹשֶׁה אֵצֶל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. כֵּיצַד? בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לְצֵאת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגוֹ' (שמות יט, א). בְּשִׁשָּׁה בַּחֹדֶשׁ נָתַן לָהֶם עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, וּכְתִיב בּוֹ: וּמֹשֶׁה עָלָה אֶל הָאֱלֹהִים (שמות יט, ב). וְעָשָׂה שָׁם אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם, עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה מִסִּיוָן וְשִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר מִתַּמּוּז, הֲרֵי אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם. יָרַד בְּשִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר בְּתַמּוּז, רָאָה אֶת הָעֵגֶל וְשִׁבֵּר אֶת הַלּוּחוֹת, וְרִדָּה אֶת הַסְּרוּחִין שְׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר וְתִשְׁעָה עָשָׂר. וְחָזַר וְעָלָה בְּעֶשְׂרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיְהִי מִמָּחֳרָת וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל הָעָם אַתֶּם חֲטָאתֶם חֲטָאָה גְדֹלָה וְעַתָּה אֶעֱלֶה אֶל ה' וְגוֹ'. וּכְתִיב: וַיָּשָׁב מֹשֶׁה אֶל ה' וַיֹּאמַר אָנָּא חָטָא הָעָם הַזֶּה חֲטָאָה גְדֹלָה וְגוֹ', עָשָׂה שָׁם עֲשָׂרָה מִן תַּמּוּז וְכָל חֹדֶשׁ אָב, הֲרֵי אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם. עָלָה בְּרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אֱלוּל כְּשֶׁאָמַר לוֹ פְּסָל לְךָ וֶהְיֵה נָכוֹן לַבֹּקֶר וְגוֹ', וַיִּפְסֹל וַיַּשְׁכֵּם מֹשֶׁה בַבֹּקֶר וַיַּעַל. עָשָׂה שָׁם אֱלוּל כֻּלּוֹ וַעֲשָׂרָה מִתִּשְׁרֵי וְיָרַד בֶּעָשׂוֹר. וְהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁרוּיִים בִּתְפִלָּה וְתַעֲנִית, וּבוֹ בַּיּוֹם נֶאֱמַר לוֹ לְמֹשֶׁה: סָלַחְתִּי כִּדְבָרֶךָ (במדבר יד, כ). וּקְבָעוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא סְלִיחָה וּמְחִילָה לְדוֹרוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר (ויקרא טז, ל). וּמִיָּד צִוָּה לוֹ לְמֹשֶׁה, וְעָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ.

Hew these two tablets of stone (Exod. 34:1). When did Moses descend from the mountain? R. Judah the son of Shalum said: Moses remained on the mountain with the Holy One, blessed be He, for one hundred and twenty days. How did he arrive at this conclusion? From the verse In the third month after the children of Israel were gone out of the land of Egypt (Exod. 19:1). On the sixth day of that month He gave him the Ten Commandments, as it is written concerning him: And Moses went up into the mountain of God (ibid. 24:13). He remained there for forty days, that is, the twenty-four days of the month of Sivan and the sixteen days of the month of Tammuz—totaling forty days in all. He descended from the mountain on the seventeenth day of Tammuz, and on the eighteenth day and nineteenth day he saw the calf, broke the tablets, and halted their revelry. On the twentieth day he turned and ascended once again, as is said: And it came to pass on the morrow that Moses said unto the people: “Ye have sinned a great sin; and now I will go up unto the Lord” (ibid. 32:30). And it is written: And Moses returned unto the Lord and said: “Oh, this people have sinned a great sin” (ibid, v. 31). He remained there the ten days of the month of Tammuz and the entire month of Av, totaling another forty days. He went up on the first day of the month of Elul when He told him: Hew thee these two tablets … and be ready by the morning (ibid. 34:1–2). And he hewed … and Moses rose up early in the morning, and went up unto Mount Sinai (ibid., v. 4). He stayed there throughout the month of Elul and until the tenth day of Tishri (another ten days). On the tenth day of Tishri he descended while the Israelites were praying and fasting. On that day He said to him: I have pardoned according to thy word (Num. 14:20). Then the Holy One, blessed be He, established that day as the day of forgiveness and pardon for the future generations (Yom Kippur), as it is said: For on this day shall atonement be made for you, to cleanse you (Lev. 16:30). Thereupon He commanded Moses: Let them make Me a Sanctuary (Exod. 25:8).

2 ב

פְּסָל לְךָ וֶהְיֵה נָכוֹן לַבֹּקֶר. כָּךְ בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה, וַיְהִי בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בִּהְיֹת הַבֹּקֶר וְגוֹ' (שמות כה, ח). וְכָאן: וְגַם אִישׁ אַל יֵרָא. הַלּוּחוֹת רִאשׁוֹנוֹת עַל שֶׁנִּתְּנוּ בְּפֻמְבֵּי, לְפִיכָךְ שָׁלְטָה בָּהֶם עַיִן הָרַע וְנִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ. וְכָאן אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא: אֵין לְךָ יָפֶה מִן הַצְּנִיעוּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וּמָה ה' דּוֹרֵשׁ מִמְּךָ כִּי אִם עֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁפָּט וְאַהֲבַת חֶסֶד וְהַצְנֵעַ לֶכֶת (מיכה ו, ח).

Hew thee and … and be ready by the morning (ibid. 34:1–2). With reference to the first tablets, it is written: And it came to pass on the third day, when it was morning, that there were thunders and lightning (ibid. 19:16). But with regard to the second tablets, it is said: Neither let any man be seen (ibid. 34:3). Because the first tablets were given openly, the evil inclination prevailed over them, and (for that reason) they were broken. But in this instance (the second tablets) the Holy One, blessed be He, said: There is nothing more desirable than humility, as it is said: And what doth the Lord require of thee: only to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with the God (Mic. 6:8).