Ki Tavo, Siman 1 כי תבוא, א׳
1 א

הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ מְצַוְּךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת. זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב: בּוֹאוּ נִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְנִכְרָעָה נִבְרְכָה לִפְנֵי ה' עוֹשֵׂנוּ (תהלים צה, ו). וַהֲלֹא כְּרִיעָה בִּכְלַל הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה בִּכְלַל כְּרִיעָה, וּמַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר, נִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה נִכְרָעָה נִבְרְכָה. אֶלָּא צָפָה מֹשֶׁה בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְרָאָה שֶׁבֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ עָתִיד לֵחָרֵב וְהַבִּכּוּרִים עֲתִידִין לִפָּסֵק, עָמַד וְהִתְקִין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מִתְפַּלְּלִין שְׁלֹשָׁה פְּעָמִים בְּכָל יוֹם, לְפִי שֶׁחָבִיב תְּפִלָּה לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִכָּל מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים וּמִכֹּל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת. שֶׁכָּךְ כְּתִיב: תִּכּוֹן תְּפִלָּתִי קְטֹרֶת לְפָנֶיךָ מַשְׂאַת כַּפַּי מִנְחַת עָרֶב (תהלים קמא, ב). וּמֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָשָׂה כָּל מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּגְזַר עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא לִכָּנֵס לָאָרֶץ, הִתְפַּלֵּל וְאָמַר, אֶעְבְּרָה נָא וְאֶרְאֶה וְגוֹ' (דברים ג, כה). וְאָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אַל תּוֹסֶף דַּבֵּר אֵלַי עוֹד בַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה, עֲלֵה רֹאשׁ הַפִּסְגָּה (שם פסוקים כו-כז). לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ מְצַוְּךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת. מָה כְּתִיב לְמַעְלָה מִן הָעִנְיָן, הַשְׁקִיפָה מִמְּעוֹן קָדְשֶׁךָ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסִי בַּר חֲנִינָא, בּוֹא וּרְאֵה כַּמָּה מִתְחַטְּאִין, וְכַמָּה יֵשׁ לָהֶן פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לְעוֹשֵׁי מִצְוֹת. אָדָם יֵשׁ לוֹ עֵסֶק אֵצֶל מַלְכוּת, פְּעָמִים שֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן כַּמָּה מָמוֹן עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעִין אוֹתוֹ אֵצֶל הַמֶּלֶךְ. כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ אֵצֶל הַמֶּלֶךְ, סָפֵק עוֹשֶׂה שְׁאֵלָתוֹ, סָפֵק לֹא עוֹשֶׂה. אֲבָל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֵינוֹ כֵּן, אֶלָּא יוֹרֵד אָדָם לְתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ, רָאָה אֶשְׁכּוֹל שֶׁבִּכֵּר, תְּאֵנָה שֶׁבִּכְּרָה, רִמּוֹן שֶׁבִּכֵּר, מַנִּיחוֹ בַּסַּל וְהוֹלֵךְ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם וּבָא וְעוֹמֵד בְּאֶמְצַע הָעֲזָרָה וּמְבַקֵּשׁ רַחֲמִים עַל עַצְמוֹ וְעַל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: הַשְׁקִיפָה מִמְּעוֹן קָדְשֶׁךָ וְגוֹ'. וְלֹא עוֹד, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיָה אוֹמֵר, אֵינִי זָז מִכָּאן עַד שֶׁתַּעֲשֶׂה צָרְכִּי הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה, שֶׁכָּתוּב אַחֲרָיו, הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ מְצַוְּךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, יָצְתָה בַּת קוֹל וְאָמְרָה לוֹ, תִּזְכֶּה לַשָּׁנָה הַבָּאָה וְתָבִיא כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה, כְּאָדָם שֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן פְּרִי חָדָשׁ לַחֲבֵרוֹ, וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ: יְהִי רָצוֹן שֶׁתִּשְׁנֶּה וְתִתֵּן לִי לַשָּׁנָה הָאַחֶרֶת. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא, כַּמָּה מִתְחַטְּאִין עוֹשֵׂי מִצְוֹת לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא גּוֹזֵר גְּזֵרָה, וְצַדִּיקִים מְבַטְּלִין אוֹתָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: בַּאֲשֶׁר דְּבַר מֶלֶךְ שִׁלְטוֹן, וּמִי יֹאמַר לוֹ מַה תַּעֲשֶׂה (קהלת ח, ד). מִי הוּא. שׁוֹמֵר מִצְוָה לֹא יֵדַע דָּבָר רָע (שם פסוק ה), מַמְחֶה עַל יָדוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. וְכֵן בְּדָוִד הוּא אוֹמֵר, אָמַר אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, לִי דִּבֶּר צוּר יִשְׂרָאֵל, מוֹשֵׁל בָּאָדָם, צַדִּיק מוֹשֵׁל יִרְאַת אֱלֹהִים (ש״‎ב כג, ג). מַהוּ הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ. וְכִי עַד עַכְשָׁו לֹא צִוָּה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל. וַהֲלֹא אוֹתָהּ שָׁנָה שְׁנַת אַרְבָּעִים הָיְתָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיְהִי בְּאַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה בְּעַשְׁתֵּי עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ (דברים א, ג). וּמַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר, הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה. אֶלָּא כָּךְ אָמַר מֹשֶׁה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, בְּכָל יוֹם יְהֵא הַתּוֹרָה חֲבִיבָה עֲלֵיכֶם כְּאִלּוּ הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה קִבַּלְתֶּם אוֹתָהּ מֵהַר סִינָי. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר, וְהוֹדַעְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֵי בָּנֶיךָ (שם ד, ט). וּכְתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ, יוֹם אֲשֶׁר עָמַדְתָּ לִפְנֵי ה'. אֶת הַחֻקִּים, אֵלּוּ הַמִּדְרָשׁוֹת. וְאֶת הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים, אֵלּוּ הַדִּינִין. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֶת הַחֻקִּים וְאֶת הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים, לְרַבּוֹת קַלִּים וַחֲמוּרִים, גְּזֵרוֹת שָׁווֹת וְדִקְדּוּקֵי סוֹפְרִים. וְשָׁמַרְתָּ וְעָשִׂיתָ אוֹתָם, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, כָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה אַחַת לַאֲמִתּוֹ, מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ הִיא נְתוּנָה מֵהַר סִינַי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְשָׁמַרְתָּ וְעָשִׂיתָ. וּמַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אוֹתָם (ויקרא כה, יח). אֶלָּא כָּל הַמְּקַיֵּם אֶת הַתּוֹרָה וְעָשָׂה אוֹתָהּ לַאֲמִתּוֹ, כְּאִלּוּ הוּא תִּקְּנָהּ וּנְתָנָהּ מֵהַר סִינָי. וְעוֹד אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, כָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה תּוֹרָה לַאֲמִתָּה, מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ עָשָׂה אֶת עַצְמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְאוֹתִי צִוָּה ה' בָּעֵת הַהִוא לְלַמֵּד וְגוֹ' (דברים ד, יד). לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתָם לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא לַעֲשֹׂתְכֶם אוֹתָם (שם), מִכָּאן שֶׁמַּעֲלִין עָלָיו כְּאִלּוּ הוּא עָשָׂה וּבָרָא אֶת עַצְמוֹ. בְּכָל לְבָבְךָ, הֲרֵי הַכָּתוּב מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאַתֶּם מִתְפַּלְּלִים לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, לֹא יִהְיֶה לָכֶם שְׁתֵּי לְבָבוֹת, אֶחָד לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, וְאֶחָד לְדָבָר אַחֵר.

(Deut. 26:16:) “This day the Lord your God is commanding you to perform.” This text is related (to Ps. 95:6), “Come, let us bow down and bend, let us kneel before the Lord our Maker!” But is not bending included in bowing down; and bowing down in bowing? So what does the instruction mean by “let us bow down and bend and kneel down?” Moses simply foresaw that the Temple was going to be destroyed and that the firstfruits were going to cease. He arose and arranged for Israel to pray three times on every day, because prayer is more pleasing to the Holy One, blessed be He, than all of the good works and all of the sacrifices. It is so written (Ps. 141:2), “Take my prayer as an offering of incense, my upraised hands as an evening sacrifice.” And when it was decreed for Moses not to enter the land in spite of all of his good works, he began to pray, and he said (in Deut. 3:25), “Please let me cross over and see [the good land].” The Holy One, blessed be He, said to him (in vss. 26-27), “Enough from you; do not ever speak unto Me on this matter again. Go up to the top of Pisgah.” It is therefore stated (in 26:16), “[This day] the Lord your God is commanding you to perform….”1I.e., to obey the command to go up to the top of Pisgah. Although the midrash understands the performance in reference to this one command, the simple understanding of the biblical text is that it is speaking about performing statutes and ordinances. What is written above the matter (in vs. 15)? “Look down from Your holy dwelling, [from the heavens and bless Your people].” R. Abbahu said in the name of R. Jose bar Hanina, “How spoiled and how great a pretext are given to those who perform the commandments [for doing so]: If someone has business with the empire, there are times when he gives some money, until they have him reach the king. When he does reach the king, he has doubts whether he will fulfill his request or not. The Holy One, blessed be He, however, is not like that. Rather when one goes down into his field [and] sees a [grape] cluster that has ripened early, a fig that has ripened early, a pomegranate that has ripened early, he puts it in a basket, goes to Jerusalem and enters and stands in the [Temple] courtyard; he [then] asks mercy for himself, for Israel, and for the land of Israel. Thus it is stated (in Deut. 26:15), ‘Look down from your holy dwelling, [from the heavens and bless your people].’ And not only that, but he would say, “I am not moving from here until You perform my requirements this day,’ as it is written next to it (in vs. 16), ‘This day the Lord your God is commanding you to perform.’” Resh Laqish said, “A heavenly voice (bat qol) comes forth and says, ‘You shall do it again on this day in the coming year.’ [He is] like one who gives fresh fruit to his friend, and [the friend] says to him, ‘Would that you would do this again, and give me some next year.’” R. Hiya bar Abba said, “How spoiled are those who perform the commandments in front of the Holy One, blessed be He. As the Holy One blessed be He, enacts a decree and the righteous ones annul it. As it is stated (Eccl. 8:4), ‘Inasmuch as a king’s command is authoritative, and who can say to him, “What are you doing.”’ Who is it [that can say it]? (Eccl. 8:5:) ‘One who obeys commandments will not know a bad thing,’ he can object to the Holy One, blessed be He.” And so with David, he said (II Sam. 23:3), “The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spoke about me, ‘He that rules over men must be righteous, ruling in the fear of God.”1See Moed Katan 16b, where this verse is explained as saying that the righteous one rules over God. [(Deut. 26:16:) “This day the Lord your God is commanding you to perform…].” What is the meaning of this day? Had the Holy One, blessed be He, not given a command to Israel until now? And was not this the fortieth year (since they left Egypt), as stated (in Deut. 1:3), “And it came to pass in the fortieth year….” Then what is the meaning of the words, “this day?” Simply that Moses spoke to Israel as follows, “On each and every day, let the Torah be dear to you, as if you had received it this day from Mount Sinai.” Moreover, it is written in another place (i.e., in Deut. 4:9), “make them known to your children….” Then it is written (in vs. 10), “The day that you stood before the Lord [your God at Horeb].” (Deut. 26:16, cont.:) “These statutes,” these are the midrashic commentaries; “and these ordinances,” these are the court decisions. Another interpretation (of Deut. 26:16), “these statutes and these ordinances: [They are meant] to include light and heavy [commandments], inferences from analogy, and fine points of scribal exegesis. (Deut. 26:16, cont.:) “So you are to be diligent in doing them.” R. Johanan said, “When anyone performs a single commandment truthfully, Scripture ascribes it to him as if it had been given [to him] from Mount Sinai, as stated (Deut. 26:16), ‘So you are to be diligent in doing.’” Then what is the meaning of (in Lev. 25:18), “and you shall do (which can also be read as, make) them?” Rather, anyone that observes the Torah and does it truthfully, it as if he arranged it and gave it from Mount Sinai. And R. Johanan also said, “Anyone who does [what is written in] the Torah truthfully, Scripture ascribes it to him as if he had made himself; as stated (in Deut. 4:14), ‘At that time the Lord commanded me to impart [to you laws and rules to make you do].’ It does not say, ‘to do them,’ but “to make you, do them.’ From here [we learn] that Scripture ascribes it to him as if he made and created himself.” (Deut. 26:16, cont.:) “With all your heart.” Behold Scripture warns Israel and says to them, “When you pray to the Holy One, blessed be He, you shall not have two hearts, one in the presence of the Holy One, blessed be He, and one for something else.”2See Ben Sira 1:28 (25).