גמ׳ שוין והא אמרת ראשון למנורה והשאר למנחות אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי שוין שוין למנחות:
GEMARA: The Gemara asks: How can the mishna state that the second grade of the first harvest and the first grade of the second harvest are of equal quality? But didn’t you say that the first grade of each harvest is fit for kindling the Candelabrum and the rest are fit only for use in meal offerings? It would appear then that the first grade in any harvest is actually superior to the second grade of other harvests. To resolve this, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: What does the mishna mean when it states that they are of equal quality? It means that they are equal with regard to meal offerings, and there is no reason to choose one over the other.
אף [כל] המנחות היו בדין [וכו']: תנו רבנן (שמות כז, כ) זך אין זך אלא נקי רבי יהודה אומר כתית אין כתית אלא כתוש
§ The mishna teaches: Also with regard to all the meal offerings, it was logical that they should require refined olive oil. To dispel this notion, the verse states: “Refined pounded olive oil for illumination” (Leviticus 24:2). The Sages taught in a baraita with regard to the verse cited in the mishna: The word “refined” means nothing other than clean oil, which flows by itself from the olives without applying any pressure. Rabbi Yehuda says that the word “pounded” means nothing other than olives crushed with a mortar, but not with a millstone.
יכול יהא זך כתית פסול למנחות תלמוד לאמר (שמות כט, מ) ועשרון סולת בלול בשמן כתית אם כן מה תלמוד לאמר למאור אלא מפני החיסכון
One might have thought that refined, pounded oil is unfit for meal offerings, since the verse specifies that this oil is to be used for illumination. To dispel this notion, the verse states with regard to the meal offering brought with the daily offering: “And a tenth of fine flour, thoroughly mixed with a quarter of a hin of pounded oil” (Exodus 29:40). This indicates that pounded oil is fit to be used in meal offerings. If so, what is the meaning when the verse states that the refined pounded oil is “for illumination”? Rather, the Torah requires the use of refined pounded oil only for the Candelabrum, due to the sparing [haḥisakhon] of money, as the highest-quality oil is very expensive.
מאי חיסכון אמר רבי אלעזר התורה חסה על ממונן של ישראל
The Gemara asks: What is the reason for being sparing? Rabbi Elazar says: The intention is that the Torah spared the money of the Jewish people and did not require that the highest-quality oil be used for the meal offerings.
(ויקרא כד, ב) צו את בני ישראל ויקחו אליך שמן זית זך אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אליך ולא לי לא לאורה אני צריך:
§ The Gemara discusses the Candelabrum and other aspects of the Temple. The verse states: “Command the children of Israel, and they shall take for yourself refined pounded olive oil for illumination, to kindle the lamps continually” (Leviticus 24:2). Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says: God tells the Jewish people that the oil should be taken “for yourself,” to indicate that it is for their benefit and not for My benefit, as I do not need its light.
שלחן בצפון ומנורה בדרום אמר ר' זריקא אמר ר' אלעזר לא לאכילה אני צריך ולא לאורה אני צריך
Similarly, with regard to the Table of the shewbread, located in the north of the Sanctuary, and the Candelabrum, located in the south of the Sanctuary, Rabbi Zerika says that Rabbi Elazar says: God said to the Jewish people: I do not require the Table for eating, nor do I require the Candelabrum for its illumination. In evidence of this, the Candelabrum was not positioned close to the Table, as is done by one who sets a table with food in order to eat there.
(מלכים א ו, ד) ויעש לבית חלוני שקופים אטומים תנא שקופין [מבפנים] ואטומים [מבחוץ] לא לאורה אני צריך
With regard the Temple built by King Solomon, the verse states: “And he made for the House, windows narrow and broad” (I Kings 6:4). The Sages taught in a baraita: Typically, windows are constructed to widen toward the inside in order that the light from the outside would be dispersed throughout the room. For the Temple, God said: Make the windows narrow within and broad without, as I do not require its illumination. On the contrary, the light of the Temple is to be radiated outward.
(ויקרא כד, ג) מחוץ לפרכת העדות באהל מועד עדות הוא לכל באי עולם שהשכינה שורה בישראל
God instructed Aaron to kindle the Candelabrum: “Outside the Curtain of the testimony in the Tent of Meeting” (Leviticus 24:3). The dividing curtain is referred to here as: The Curtain of the testimony, to indicate that the illumination of the Candelabrum is testimony to all of humanity that the Divine Presence rests among the Jewish people.
ואם תאמר לאורה אני צריך והלא כל ארבעים שנה שהלכו ישראל במדבר לא הלכו אלא לאורו אלא עדות הוא לכל באי עולם שהשכינה שורה בישראל
And if you question this and say: How is this testimony; perhaps the Candelabrum is lit for illumination? To this God would respond: Do I need its light? But isn’t it so that for all forty years that the Jewish people walked in the wilderness of Sinai until they entered Eretz Yisrael, they walked exclusively by His light, i.e., from the pillar of fire that guided them at night. If God provides light for others, he certainly does not need it Himself. Rather, evidently, the illumination of the Candelabrum is testimony to all of humanity that the Divine Presence rests among the Jewish people.
מאי עדותה אמר רבא זה נר מערבי שנותנין בה שמן כנגד חברותיה וממנה היה מדליק ובה היה מסיים:
What provides its testimony? Rava says: The testimony is provided by the westernmost lamp of the Candelabrum, in which they place a quantity of oil equivalent to that placed in the other lamps, and nevertheless it continues to burn longer than any of the other lamps. It burns so long that every evening, from it the priest would kindle the Candelabrum, i.e., he lit that westernmost lamp first, and the following morning, with it he would conclude the preparation of the lamps for the following evening’s lighting, because it remained alight longer than any of the other lamps. This perpetual miracle was testimony to God’s continuous presence among His people.
מתני׳ מאין היו מביאין את היין קדוחים ועטולין אלפא ליין שניה להן בית רימה ובית לבן בהר וכפר סיגנא בבקעה כל ארצות היו כשרות אלא מיכן היו מביאין
MISHNA: From where would they bring the wine for libations? Keduḥim and Attulin are the primary sources for wine. Secondary to them is Beit Rima and Beit Lavan, located in the mountain, and the village of Signa, located in the valley. All the regions were valid sources for wine; but it was from here, i.e., the aforementioned locations, that they would bring the wine.
אין מביאין לא מבית הזבלים ולא מבית השלחים ולא ממה שנזרע ביניהן ואם הביא כשר אין מביאין הליסטיון ואם הביא כשר אין מביאין ישן דברי רבי וחכמים מכשירין אין מביאין לא מתוק ולא מעושן ולא מבושל ואם הביא פסול ואין מביאין מן הדליות אלא מן הרגליות ומן הכרמים העבודין
One may not bring libations of wine that come from a fertilized vineyard, or from an irrigated vineyard, or from a vineyard in which grain was sown between the vines. But if one did bring a libation from such wine, it is valid. One may not bring libations from sweet wine made from sun-dried grapes [hilyasteyon], but if one did bring a libation from such wine, it is valid. One may not bring wine aged for one year; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, but the Rabbis deem it valid. One may not bring libations from sweet wine, nor from wine produced from smoked grapes, nor libations from boiled wine, and if one did bring a libation from such wine, it is not valid. And one may not bring wine produced from grapes suspended on stakes or trees; rather, one brings it from grapes at foot height, i.e., that rest on the ground, which are superior-quality grapes, and from vineyards that are cultivated, i.e., where one hoes beneath the vines twice a year.
ולא כונסין אותו בחצבין גדולים אלא בחביות קטנות ואינו ממלא את החבית עד פיה כדי שיהא ריחו נודף
And when producing wine for libations, one should not collect the wine into large barrels, as it causes the wine to spoil; rather, it should be placed in small casks. And one does not fill up the cask until its mouth; rather, one leaves some empty space so that its fragrance will collect there and diffuse when the lid is opened.
אינו מביא מפיה מפני
One should not bring libations from wine that rests at the mouth of the cask due to