Menachot 85aמנחות פ״ה א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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85aפ״ה א

אלא לרבי יוחנן קשיא

Having reconciled all the apparent contradictions between the two baraitot according to the opinion of Reish Lakish, the Gemara asks: But according to Rabbi Yoḥanan, who holds inferior produce cannot be consecrated as first fruits, the first baraita is difficult, as it states that inferior produce can be consecrated.

תנאי היא דתניא שבגג ושבחורבה מביא וקורא שבעציץ ושבספינה אינו מביא כל עיקר:

The Gemara answers: The baraitot cited above contradict Rabbi Yoḥanan’s opinion. But there is a dispute between tanna’im with regard to this issue, as it is taught in a baraita: With regard to produce that grew on a roof, or that grew in a ruin, the owner brings it and recites the accompanying passage. With regard to produce that grew in a flowerpot, or that grew on a ship, the owner does not bring it at all. Rabbi Yoḥanan holds in accordance with that baraita.

וכולן אינן באות אלא מן המובחר כו': אמרי ליה יוחנא וממרא למשה תבן אתה מכניס לעפריים אמר להו אמרי אינשי למתא ירקא ירקא שקול:

§ The mishna states: And all meal offerings come only from the optimal produce. One of the places the mishna mentions as having good-quality produce is Aforayim. The superior quality of its produce was so well known that Aforayim was used as an example in colloquial aphorisms. In Moses and Aaron’s first meeting with Pharaoh, Aaron cast his staff to the ground, whereupon it turned into a serpent. Pharaoh’s necromancers then duplicated the feat using their incantations, only to then be confounded when Aaron’s staff swallowed up all of theirs (see Exodus 7:10–12). The Gemara relates the conversation that took place: Pharaoh’s two leading necromancers, Yoḥana and Mamre, said to Moses: Are you are bringing straw to Afarayim? Performing necromancy in Egypt, the world leader in sorcery, is like bringing straw to Afarayim, which is rich in the finest grains. Moses said to them: It is as people say: To a city rich in herbs, take herbs. If you want to guarantee that people will appreciate your merchandise, bring it to a place where they are familiar with it.

מתני׳ אין מביאין לא מבית הזבלים ולא מבית השלחים ולא מבית האילן ואם הביא כשר

MISHNA: Even when selecting grain for meal offerings from the locations mentioned in the previous mishna, one may not bring as a meal offering grain from a fertilized field, nor from an irrigated field, nor from a field of trees, as such fields do not produce grain of optimal quality. But if one did bring a meal offering of grain from such fields, it is fit.

כיצד הוא עושה נרה שנה ראשונה ובשנה שניה זורעה קודם לפסח שבעים יום והוא עושה סולת מרובה

How does one produce optimal-quality grain? He plows the field during the first year, but he does not sow it, and in the second year, he sows it seventy days before Passover, and in that manner it produces grain that will provide an abundance of fine, high-quality, flour.

כיצד בודק הגזבר מכניס ידו לתוכן עלה בה אבק פסולה עד שינפנה

How does the Temple treasurer inspect the flour to determine whether it is of sufficiently high quality? The treasurer inserts his hand into the flour. If, when he removes his hand, flour powder covers it, the flour is unfit, until one sifts it with a fine sifter, so that no powder will remain.

ואם התליעה פסולה:

And if the flour became wormy, it is unfit for use in a meal offering.

גמ׳ כיצד עושה נרה שנה ראשונה איבעיא להו היכי קאמר נרה שנה ראשונה ושניה נרה וזורעה או דלמא נרה שנה ראשונה ושניה זורעה בלא נרה

GEMARA: The mishna states: How does one produce optimal-quality grain? He plows the field during the first year, and in the second year he sows it. The Gemara clarifies what should be done in the second year: A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the tanna saying? Is he saying that he plows the field during the first year, and in the second year he plows it and sows it? Or perhaps he is saying that he plows the field during the first year, and in the second year he sows it without plowing it.

תא שמע דתניא אמר רבי יוסי אף חיטי כרזיים וכפר אחים אלמלא סמוכות לירושלים היו מביאין מהן לפי שאין מביאין את העומר אלא מן השדות המודרמות והמנונרות לכך שבהן חמה זורחת ומהן חמה שוקעת

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a resolution, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei says: Also concerning grain grown in Kerazayim and Kefar Aḥim, if only those places had been close to Jerusalem, they would have brought barley from them for the omer. As the halakha is that one brings the omer only from the southern fields and those that were plowed for that purpose, as upon such fields, the sun rises and shines, and from those fields, the sun also sets. In other words, those fields are exposed to a lot of sunlight, so they produce a superior-quality crop. Kerazayim and Kefar Aḥim were such fields, but they were too far from Jerusalem for their barley to be used for the omer offering.

כיצד עושה נרה שנה ראשונה ושניה חורש ושונה וזורעה קודם לפסח שבעים יום כדי שתהא סמוכה לחמה ועושה קנה זרת ושיבולת זרתיים

The baraita continues: How does one produce optimal-quality grain? He plows the field during the first year, and in the second year, he plows it once and then repeats the plowing a second time, and he sows it seventy days before Passover. It is done this way in order that the sowing will be done close to the time when the strength of the sun reaches its climax, and will thereby produce a high-quality crop in which the length of a stalk is a handspan and the ear itself is two handspans.

וקוצר ומעמר ודש וזורה ובורר וטוחן ומרקד ומביא אצל גזבר וגזבר מכניס ידו לתוכה אם עלתה בה אבק אומר לו חזור ונפה אותה שניה משום רבי נתן אמרו גזבר סך ידו שמן ומכניס לתוכה עד שמעלה כל אבקה

And then one reaps the grain and gathers it together into a pile, and then he threshes the grain and winnows it, and then he sorts the inedible admixture from the edible grain, and then he grinds the grain and sifts it and brings the flour produced to the Temple treasurer. And the treasurer inserts his hand into it in order to check its quality. If upon removing his hand powder covers it, the treasurer says to the owner: Go back and sift it a second time. The Sages say in the name of Rabbi Natan that the treasurer would perform a more thorough examination of the flour’s quality. He douses his hand with oil and then inserts it into the flour until all of its powder will be brought up.

קתני מיהת חורש ושונה

The Gemara explains that the baraita provides a resolution to the dilemma: In any event, the baraita teaches that during the second year, the owner of the field plows it once and then repeats the plowing. It is explicit, then, that during the second year the field should be plowed.

ולטעמיך מתניתין לא קתני שונה

The Gemara rejects this proof: But even according to your reasoning, ultimately the mishna does not teach that he plows the field and then repeats the plowing;