Menachot 73aמנחות ע״ג א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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73aע״ג א

תלמוד לומר (ויקרא ז, ט) וכל המנחה אשר תאפה בתנור לכל בני אהרן תהיה איש כאחיו

The verse states: “And every meal offering that is baked in the oven…shall all the sons of Aaron have, each man like the other” (Leviticus 7:9–10). This verse emphasizes that the sons of Aaron must divide the meal offering equally among themselves, without exchanging it for a portion of any other offering.

יכול לא חלקו מנחות כנגד זבחים שלא קמו תחתיהן בדלות אבל יחלקו מנחות כנגד עופות שהרי קמו תחתיהן בדלות תלמוד לומר (ויקרא ז, ט) וכל נעשה במרחשת לכל בני אהרן תהיה

The baraita continues: One might have thought that they may not receive a share of meal offerings in exchange for portions of animal offerings since they do not substitute for them in the case of poverty. One who is too poor to afford to bring an animal offering, e.g., in the case of a sin offering determined on a sliding scale, does not bring a meal offering in its stead. Since meal offerings are not brought in place of animal offerings, there is clearly no connection between them. But perhaps they may receive a share of meal offerings in exchange for portions of bird offerings, since they do substitute for them in the case of poverty. If one is so destitute that he cannot afford to bring a bird offering he brings a meal offering. Therefore, the same verse states: “And all that is prepared in the deep pan…shall all the sons of Aaron have,” again emphasizing that all must have an equal share in that meal offering.

יכול לא יחלקו מנחות כנגד עופות שהללו מיני דמים והללו מיני קמחים יחלקו עופות כנגד זבחים שהללו והללו מיני דמים תלמוד לומר (ויקרא ז, ט) ועל מחבת לכל בני אהרן תהיה

The baraita continues: One might have thought that they may not receive a share of meal offerings in exchange for portions of bird offerings since these, i.e., bird offerings, are types of offerings that involve blood sprinkled on the altar, and those, i.e., meal offerings, are types of offerings made of flour. But perhaps they may receive a share of portions of bird offerings in exchange for portions of animal offerings, since both categories are types of offerings that involve blood sprinkled on the altar. Therefore, the same verse states: “And on a pan…shall all the sons of Aaron have,” a seemingly superfluous phrase, which teaches that one may not receive a share even of bird offerings in exchange for portions of animal offerings.

יכול לא יחלקו עופות כנגד זבחים שהללו עשייתן ביד והללו עשייתן בכלי אבל יחלקו מנחות כנגד מנחות שאלו ואלו עשייתן ביד תלמוד לאמר (ויקרא ז, י) וכל מנחה בלולה בשמן לכל בני אהרן תהיה

The baraita continues: One might have thought that they may not receive a share of bird offerings in exchange for portions of animal offerings because with regard to these, i.e., the birds, their processing, i.e., killing, is executed by hand, by pinching the nape of the neck, and with regard to those, i.e., the animals, their processing, i.e., killing, is executed with a utensil, by slaughtering with a knife. But perhaps they may receive a share of meal offerings in exchange for portions of other meal offerings, since the processing of both these and those are carried out by hand. Therefore, the next verse states: “And every meal offering mixed with oil…shall all the sons of Aaron have” (Leviticus 7:10).

יכול לא יחלקו מחבת כנגד מרחשת ומרחשת כנגד מחבת שזו מעשיה קשין וזו מעשיה רכין אבל יחלקו מחבת כנגד מחבת ומרחשת כנגד מרחשת תלמוד לומר (ויקרא ז, י) וחרבה לכל בני אהרן תהיה

The baraita continues: One might have thought that they may not receive a share of a meal offering prepared on a pan in exchange for portions of a meal offering prepared in a deep pan, or portions of a meal offering prepared in a deep pan in exchange for portions of a meal offering prepared on a pan, since the actions with this pan result in a hard product, and the actions with that deep pan result in a soft product. But perhaps they may receive a share of a meal offering prepared on a pan in exchange for the portions of a different meal offering prepared on a pan, or a share of a meal offering prepared in a deep pan in exchange for portions of a different meal offering prepared in a deep pan. Therefore, the same verse states: “Or dry, shall all the sons of Aaron have” (Leviticus 7:10).

יכול לא יחלקו בקדשי קדשים אבל יחלקו בקדשים קלים תלמוד לומר (ויקרא ז, י) איש כאחיו ואם על תודה כשם שאין חולקין בקדשי קדשים כך אין חולקים בקדשים קלים

The baraita continues: One might have thought that they may not receive a share of offerings of the most sacred order, e.g., meal offerings, in exchange for a portion of another similar offering, but they may receive a share of offerings of lesser sanctity in exchange for a portion of another similar offering. Therefore, the same verse states with regard to meal offerings: “Shall all the sons of Aaron have, one as well as another” (Leviticus 7:10), and near it appears the verse: “If he offers it for a thanks offering” (Leviticus 7:12), from which is derived: Just as one may not receive a share of one offering in exchange for a portion of another similar offering in the case of offerings of the most sacred order, so too, one may not receive a share of one offering in exchange for a portion of another similar offering in the case of offerings of lesser sanctity, e.g., a thanks offering.

איש איש חולק ואפילו בעל מום ואין קטן חולק ואפילו תם

The baraita further expounds this verse: It states: “One as well as another [ish ke’aḥiv],” which teaches that with regard to priests, a man [ish] who is an adult receives a share even if he is blemished, but a priest who is a minor may not receive a share even if he is unblemished. This baraita evidently interprets the verse: “And every meal offering, mixed with oil, or dry, shall all the sons of Aaron have, one as well as another” (Leviticus 7:10), as referring to the prohibition against priests exchanging shares of offerings. If so, how does Ḥizkiyya state that this verse is referring to the priests’ eating of the remainder of the omer offering and the meal offering of a sota?

ההוא מכל נפקא והא אפיקתיה לכדרבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אלא ההוא מוכל

The Gemara answers: With regard to the prohibition against exchanging priestly shares, that is derived from the term: “Every meal offering.” By contrast, Ḥizkiyya derives his principle with regard to these two meal offerings from the rest of the verse. The Gemara asks: But haven’t you already derived from the word “every” that which Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, states, that when one vows to offer a meal offering baked in an oven, all the baked items must be of a uniform type, either loaves or wafers (see 63b)? The Gemara answers: Rather, that halakha concerning the exchange of shares of offerings is derived from the addition of the word “and,” in the term: “And every [vekhol] meal offering.”

רבינא אמר אתיא מדתני לוי דתני לוי (במדבר יח, ט) לכל קרבנם ולכל מנחתם ולכל חטאתם ולכל אשמם

§ Ravina said: According to the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, the source for the halakha that the omer offering and the meal offering of a sota are eaten comes from the baraita that Levi teaches, as Levi teaches: The verse states with regard to the priestly gifts: “This shall be yours of the most sacred items, reserved from the fire: Every offering of theirs, and every meal offering of theirs, and every sin offering of theirs, and every guilt offering of theirs, which they may restore to Me, shall be most holy for you and for your sons” (Numbers 18:9). The word “every” in each clause includes a number of additional offerings that are eaten by the priests.

כל קרבנם לרבות לוג שמן של מצורע סלקא דעתך אמינא (במדבר יח, ט) מן האש כתב רחמנא קמ"ל

The Torah states: “Every offering of theirs,” to include the log of oil that accompanies the guilt offering of a recovered leper, teaching that it is also eaten by the priests. As, it might enter your mind to say that since the Merciful One writes in this verse: “From the fire,” this would exclude this oil, which is not brought onto the altar. Therefore, the verse teaches us: “Every offering,” to include the leper’s oil.

לכל מנחתם לרבות מנחת העומר ומנחת קנאות סלקא דעתך אמינא (שמות כט, לג) ואכלו אותם אשר כופר בהם אמר רחמנא והאי להתיר קא אתיא ואידך נמי לברר קא אתיא קמ"ל

The baraita continues expounding the verse: “And every meal offering of theirs,” serving to include the omer meal offering, and the meal offering of jealousy brought by a sota, teaching that they are also eaten by the priests. As, it might enter your mind to say that since the Merciful One states: “And they shall eat those wherewith atonement was made” (Exodus 29:33), the verse thereby indicates that the priests may eat only those offerings that help the owner achieve atonement. And this omer comes to permit eating from the new grain (see Leviticus 23:9–14), not to achieve atonement; and concerning the other offering, i.e., the meal offering of a sota, as well, it comes to clarify whether or not the accused woman is guilty of adultery, but not to achieve atonement. Therefore, the verse teaches us: “Every meal offering,” to teach that these two meal offerings are included.

(במדבר יח, ט) לכל חטאתם לרבות חטאת העוף סלקא דעתך אמינא נבילה היא קמ"ל

The baraita continues to expound the verse. The verse states: “And every sin offering of theirs,” to include a bird sin offering, teaching that it is also eaten by the priests. As, it might enter your mind to say: The priests may not eat it because it is an unslaughtered animal carcass, as it is killed by pinching the nape of the neck (see Leviticus 5:8), not by conventional slaughter. Therefore, the verse teaches us: “Every sin offering,” teaching that bird sin offerings are included.

(במדבר יח, ט) לכל אשמם לרבות אשם נזיר ואשם מצורע אשם מצורע בהדיא כתיב ביה (ויקרא יד, יג) כי כחטאת האשם הוא לכהן

The baraita continues to expound the verse. The Torah states: “And every guilt offering of theirs,” to include the guilt offering of the nazirite who has become ritually impure (see Numbers 6:12) and the guilt offering of the leper, teaching that they are also eaten by the priests. The Gemara objects: With regard to the guilt offering of the leper, it is explicitly written with regard to it: “For as the sin offering is the priest’s, so is the guilt offering” (Leviticus 14:13), which already teaches that it is eaten by the priests.

אלא לרבות אשם נזיר כאשם מצורע סלקא דעתך אמינא להכשיר קא אתי קמ"ל

The Gemara answers: Rather, the verse serves to include the guilt offering of the nazirite, stating that its status is like the guilt offering of the leper. As, it might enter your mind to say: The guilt offering of the nazirite is not sacrificed for atonement, but rather it comes to prepare the nazirite to begin his period of naziriteship anew, and therefore its meat would not be eaten by the priests. Therefore, the verse teaches us: “Every guilt offering,” teaching that the guilt offering of the nazirite is included.

(במדבר יח, ט) אשר ישיבו זה גזל הגר (במדבר יח, ט) לך היא ולבניך שלך היא ולבניך אפילו לקדש בו את האשה

The baraita concludes: “This shall be yours of the most sacred items…which they may restore”; this is referring to an item stolen from a convert who has no heirs and subsequently dies. In this case, the stolen item is given to the priests together with an additional one-fifth of its worth. The phrase “for you and for your sons” means that it is yours and your sons’ personal property, and it may be used even to betroth a woman with it, and it does not belong to the Temple treasury.

אמר רב הונא

§ Rav Huna said: