Meilah 5aמעילה ה׳ א
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5aה׳ א

או היתר זריקה שנינו או היתר אכילה שנינו חזקיה אמר היתר שחיטה שנינו ר' יוחנן אמר היתר אכילה שנינו

Or was it fitness of sprinkling of the blood that we learned, i.e., once the blood is ready to be sprinkled, even if it was not sprinkled yet, the offering is no longer subject to the halakhot of misuse? Or was it fitness of consuming the meat of the offering that we learned? In other words, is it only after the blood was actually sprinkled properly, and the meat of the offering is permitted to be consumed by the priests, that the offering is no longer subject to the halakhot of misuse? The Gemara cites the different opinions with regard to this matter: Ḥizkiyya says: It was fitness of slaughtering that we learned, whereas Rabbi Yoḥanan says: It was fitness of consuming the meat of the offering that we learned.

א"ר זירא לא דייקא מתני' דלא כחזקיה ודלא כרבי יוחנן

The Gemara further discusses this matter. Rabbi Zeira says: The mishna is not precisely in accordance with the opinion of Ḥizkiyya nor precisely in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan, i.e., a close reading of the mishna does not conform to either of their interpretations of the phrase: A period of fitness.

תנן שלנה ושנטמאת ושיצאת לאו דלן דם וקתני אין מועלין בו

Rabbi Zeira elaborates: We learned in the mishna, in its list of examples of offerings that were disqualified after a period of fitness: A sacrificial animal that remained overnight after its blood was sacrificed on the altar and was therefore disqualified as notar, and one that was disqualified when it became ritually impure, and one that left the Temple courtyard and was thereby disqualified. Isn’t the case of remaining overnight referring to a situation where the blood remained overnight and was not sprinkled after it was collected in a cup? And yet the mishna teaches: One is not liable for misusing it, as there was a period of fitness.

וש"מ היתר זריקה שנינו

And therefore, one can learn from the mishna that it was fitness of sprinkling of the blood that we learned. Since the slaughtering and collecting of the blood was performed properly, the offering is no longer subject to the halakhot of misuse, despite the fact that the blood was not actually sprinkled. This is not in accordance with the opinion of Ḥizkiyya or with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan.

לא דלן בשר אבל דם איזדריק מש"ה קתני אין מועלין בו

The Gemara rejects this conclusion: No, the mishna is not referring to a case where the blood had not been sprinkled. Rather, it is dealing with a case where the meat was left overnight, but the blood had already been sprinkled properly. It is due to this that the mishna teaches: One is not liable for misusing it, as there was a period of fitness of consuming the meat, as stated by Rabbi Yoḥanan.

תנן ואיזו היא שלא היתה לה שעת הכושר לכהנים שנשחטה חוץ לזמנה וחוץ למקומה ושקבלו פסולין וזרקו את דמה

The Gemara further analyzes Rabbi Yehoshua’s statement. We learned in the mishna: And which is the sacrificial animal that did not have a period of fitness for the priests? It is a sacrificial animal that was slaughtered with the intent to partake of it or sprinkle its blood beyond its designated time, or outside its designated area, or one that those who are unfit for Temple service collected its blood for use in the sacrificial rite and sprinkled its blood.

ה"ד אילימא דזרקוהו פסולין וקבלוהו פסולין ל"ל עד דאיכא תרתי

What are the circumstances referred to in the mishna, with regard to people who are unfit for collecting and sprinkling the blood? If we say that the mishna is dealing with a case where the blood was both sprinkled by those who are unfit for Temple service and the blood was also collected by those who are unfit for Temple service, this is difficult: Why do I need to say that it is not disqualified until there are two actions, collecting and sprinkling, which were performed improperly? After all, the offering is disqualified as soon as those who are unfit for Temple service collect the blood.

אלא לאו דקבלוהו פסולין וזרקוהו כשרים וקתני מועלין בו

Rather, is it not referring to a case where the blood was collected by those who are unfit for Temple service but sprinkled by those who are fit? And the mishna thereby teaches us that it is only in this case that one is liable for misusing it. This is due to the fact that there was no period of fitness for sprinkling the blood. By contrast, had the blood been collected by those who are fit for Temple service, where the blood is fit for sprinkling, the offering would no longer be subject to the halakhot of misuse, even if it was sprinkled by those who are unfit for Temple service.

ש"מ היתר זריקה שנינו

If so, one can learn from the mishna that it is fitness of sprinkling of the blood that we learned. In other words, already at this stage the offering is no longer subject to the halakhot of misuse, despite the fact that the blood was not actually sprinkled. This is not in accordance with the opinion of Ḥizkiyya or the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan.

מתקיף לה רב יוסף ואי ס"ד איכא לפלוגי הכי הא דתנן התם

Rav Yosef objects to this interpretation of the mishna: But if it enters your mind that there is a way to make this distinction in the mishna, between a case where the blood was collected by those who are unfit for Temple service and sprinkled by those who are fit and a situation where it was collected by those who are fit for Temple service and sprinkled by those who are unfit, then this would present a difficulty with regard to that which we learned in a mishna there (Zevaḥim 92a).

חטאת פסולה אין דמה טעון כיבוס בין שהיתה לה שעת הכושר ונפסלה ובין שלא היתה לה שעת הכושר ונפסלה

The Gemara cites the relevant mishna: With regard to a disqualified sin offering, its blood does not cause a garment to require laundering whether the offering had a period of fitness when its blood was fit for presentation or whether it did not have a period of fitness. In either case, as the offering is currently unfit, its blood does not require laundering.

אי זו היא שהיתה לה שעת הכושר ונפסלה שלנה ושנטמאת או שיצאה

The mishna proceeds to explain: Which offering is the disqualified sin offering that had a period of fitness and was then disqualified? It is one that was left overnight and then became disqualified as notar; or it is one that became ritually impure; or it is one that left the Temple courtyard.

איזוהי שלא היתה לה שעת הכושר שנשחטה חוץ למקומה חוץ לזמנה ושקבלו פסולין וזרקו את דמה

Which offering is the disqualified sin offering that did not have a period of fitness? It is one that was slaughtered with the intent to eat it or present its blood beyond its designated time or outside its designated area; or it is one whose blood was collected by people disqualified for Temple service and they sprinkled its blood.

היכי דמי אילימא דקבלוהו פסולין וזרקו פסולין הוא דאין דמה טעון כיבוס הא קבלוהו וזרקו כשרים דמה טעון כיבוס

Rav Yosef analyzes this mishna: What are the circumstances of the mishna’s case? If we say that the mishna is referring specifically to a situation where the blood was both collected by those who are unfit for Temple service and also sprinkled by those who are unfit for Temple service, and it is only in such a case that its blood does not cause a garment to require laundering, it may be inferred that if the blood was collected by those who are fit for Temple service and sprinkled by those who are unfit, or collected by those who are unfit and sprinkled by those who are fit, then its blood does cause a garment to require laundering. But this inference is difficult: It is not possible to interpret the mishna in such a manner, as that conclusion is incorrect.

קרי כאן (ויקרא ו, כ) אשר יזה מדמה ולא שכבר הוזה אלא לאו דוקא

The Gemara explains why the above conclusion is untenable: Read here the verse that states, with regard to laundering a garment on which the blood of a sin offering was sprayed: “And if any of its blood is sprinkled on a garment, you shall wash that upon which it was sprinkled in a holy place” (Leviticus 6:20). The Sages infer from the verse that this halakha applies only to the blood of a sin offering that has not yet been sprinkled, and not to blood of a sin offering whose blood had already been sprinkled. Rather, one can conclude that the language of the mishna with regard to the topic of the blood of a sin offering is not exact, as the same halakha applies even if the blood was collected and sprinkled by those who are fit.