Meilah 2aמעילה ב׳ א
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Meilah
2aב׳ א

מתני׳ קדשים ששחטן בדרום מועלין בהן שחטן בדרום וקיבל דמן בצפון בצפון וקיבל דמן בדרום

MISHNA: Offerings of the most sacred order that were disqualified before their blood was sprinkled on the altar, e.g., if one slaughtered them in the south of the Temple courtyard, and not in the north as required, are subject to the following halakha: One is liable for misusing them, i.e., one who derives benefit from them must bring a guilt offering and pay the principal and an additional one-fifth of their value. If he improperly slaughtered them in the south of the courtyard and properly collected their blood in the north, or even if he properly slaughtered them in the north of the courtyard but improperly collected their blood in the south, although the more significant rite was performed improperly, one is liable for misuse if he derives benefit from the animals.

שחט ביום וזרק בלילה בלילה וזרק ביום או ששחטן חוץ לזמנו וחוץ למקומו מועלין בהן

The same halakha that applies if the location of the sacrificial rites was altered likewise applies if the time of those rites was altered. Accordingly, if one properly slaughtered them during the day and improperly sprinkled their blood at night, or if he improperly slaughtered them at night and properly sprinkled their blood during the day, one is liable for misuse if he derives benefit from the animals. Or in a case where one slaughtered them with the intent to partake of their meat or sprinkle their blood beyond its designated time, rendering it piggul, or outside its designated area, disqualifying the offering, he is liable for misusing them if he derives benefit from the animals.

כלל א"ר יהושע כל שהיה לה שעת היתר לכהנים אין מועלין בה וכל שלא היה לה שעת היתר לכהנים מועלין בה

Rabbi Yehoshua stated a principle with regard to misuse of disqualified sacrificial animals: With regard to any sacrificial animal that had a period of fitness to the priests before it was disqualified, one is not liable for misusing it. Misuse applies specifically to items consecrated to God, which are not permitted for human consumption at all. Once the offering was permitted for consumption by the priests, it is no longer in that category. And with regard to any sacrificial animal that did not have a period of fitness for the priests before it was disqualified, one is liable for misusing it if he derives benefit from it, as it remained consecrated to God throughout.

איזו היא שהיה לה שעת היתר לכהנים שלנה ושנטמאה ושיצאה

Which is the sacrificial animal that had a period of fitness for the priests? This category includes a sacrificial animal whose meat remained overnight after its blood was presented on the altar and therefore came to have the status of notar and was therefore disqualified, and one that was disqualified when it became ritually impure, and one that left the Temple courtyard and was thereby disqualified. All of these disqualifications transpired after consumption of the sacrificial meat was permitted, and therefore one who derives benefit from these offerings is not liable for misuse.

ואיזו היא שלא היה לה שעת היתר לכהנים שנשחטה חוץ לזמנה חוץ למקומה ושקיבלו פסולין וזרקו את דמה

And which is the sacrificial animal that did not have a period of fitness for the priests? It is a sacrificial animal that was slaughtered with the intent to partake of it or sprinkle its blood beyond its designated time, or outside its designated area, or one that those unfit for Temple service collected and sprinkled its blood. All of these disqualifications took effect before consumption of the sacrificial meat was permitted. The offerings therefore remain consecrated to God, and one is liable for misuse if he derives benefit from them.

גמ׳ קתני קדשי קדשים ששחטן בדרום מועלין בהן פשיטא משום דשחיטתן בדרום אפיקינון מידי מעילה

GEMARA: The mishna teaches: With regard to offerings of the most sacred order that were disqualified before their blood was sprinkled on the altar, e.g., if one slaughtered them in the south of the Temple courtyard, one who derives benefit from them is liable for misusing them. The Gemara asks: Isn’t it obvious? Just because their slaughter was performed in the south, should we revoke their status as subject to the halakhot of misuse?

איצטריך סד"א הואיל ואמר עולא א"ר יוחנן קדשים שמתו יצאו מידי מעילה דבר תורה ה"נ קדשי קדשים לגבי דרום כמה דחנקינון דמי

The Gemara answers: It was necessary for the mishna to mention the case of slaughtering them in the south, as it might enter your mind to say that since Ulla says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Sacrificial animals that died without being sacrificed are excluded from being subject to the halakhot of misuse by Torah law, so too, in the case of offerings of the most sacred order that were improperly slaughtered in the south, they are considered as though they were strangled to death, and therefore they are no longer subject to misuse.

קמ"ל קדשים שמתו לא חזו כלל אבל דרום נהי דאינו ראוי לקדשי קדשים אבל ראוי הוא לקדשים קלים

Consequently, the mishna teaches us that although they were slaughtered improperly, they are not considered to have the status of sacrificial animals that died, as those are not fit at all. But with regard to slaughtering an animal in the south, although this is not fitting for offerings of the most sacred order, yet the act is still classified as slaughter of sacrificial animals, as slaughter in the south is fitting for offerings of lesser sanctity.

ל"ל למיתני כל הני

§ The Gemara asks: Why do I need the mishna to teach all of these different cases? It could have mentioned just one case, from which one would have derived the principle that even in a situation where the rite of the offering is not performed in the proper manner, the animal can still be subject to the halakhot of misuse.

צריכי אי תנא שחטן בדרום וקיבל דמן בצפון הכא דאית בהו מעילה משום דקבלה בצפון הוא אבל שחטן בצפון וקיבל דמן בדרום הואיל וקיבל בדרום הוא נפיק מידי מעילה

The Gemara explains: All these cases are necessary. If the mishna had taught only the case of one who improperly slaughtered them in the south of the courtyard and properly collected their blood in the north, one might have thought that it is only here, in this case, that the animals are subject to the halakhot of misuse, as the collection of the blood was in the north. But if he slaughtered them in the north and collected their blood in the south, since the collection, which is a more fundamental rite than the slaughter, is in the south, one might think that they are removed from the status of being subject to the halakhot of misuse. Therefore, the mishna mentions that case as well.

ואי תנא האי ה"א יממא זמן הקרבה הוא אבל שחטה בלילה וזרק ביום לילה לאו זמן הקרבה והאי דשחט בלילה [אימא] דנפיק מידי מעילה

And if the mishna had taught only these aforementioned cases, I would say that only in such situations is the offering subject to the halakhot of misuse, as they were at least sacrificed during the day, which is the appropriate time for sacrifice. But if one slaughtered an offering at night and sprinkled its blood during the day, it would not be subject to the halakhot of misuse, as night is not the appropriate time for sacrifice, and therefore in this case of one who slaughtered at night, the animal is removed from its status of being subject to the halakhot of misuse.

ואי תנא שחטה בלילה ה"א הואיל וקבל דמה ביום אית בה מעילה אבל שחטן ביום וזרק דמן בלילה הואיל ולאו זמן הקרבה הוא כמאן דחנקינון דמי ולא אית בהו מעילה קמשמע לן

And if the mishna had taught only the case where he slaughtered it at night and collected the blood during the day, I would say: Since he collected the blood during the day, as required, the offering retains its status and is subject to the halakhot of misuse. But if he slaughtered animals during the day and sprinkled their blood, which is the main act of sacrifice, at night, since it is not a time fit for sacrifice, it is considered as though they were strangled, and they are not subject to the halakhot of misuse. Therefore, the mishna teaches us all of these cases.

חוץ לזמנו וחוץ למקומו למאי חזו

§ The mishna teaches: If one slaughtered sacrificial animals with the intent to partake of their meat or sprinkle their blood beyond its designated time, rendering them piggul, or outside its designated area, disqualifying them, he is liable for misusing them if he derives benefit from them. The Gemara asks: For what are these sacrificial animals fit? Since they are unfit for both sacrifice and consumption by the priests, even in the case of offerings of lesser sanctity, why are they considered as consecrated items that are subject to misuse?

הואיל ומרצין לפיגולין

The Gemara answers: Since sprinkling their blood on the altar renders them accepted in that they receive their status of being subject to piggul, therefore they have still not entirely lost their sanctified status and are subject to misuse. In other words, an offering with regard to which there was an improper intention is rendered piggul only if all its permitting factors, one of which is sprinkling the blood, are performed properly (see Zevaḥim 28b). The fact that its permitting factors are important for the purpose of rendering it subject to piggul shows that the offering has not lost its consecrated status.