יֵלֵךְ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַאי שֶׁהוּא מְלוּמָּד בְּנִסִּים וְאַחֲרָיו מִי יֵלֵךְ רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי Let Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai go to Rome, as he is accustomed to experiencing miracles. And who shall go after him, i.e., with him? Rabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Yosei.
אָמַר לָהֶם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי וְאִילּוּ הָיָה אַבָּא חֲלַפְתָּא קַיָּים יְכוֹלִין אַתֶּם לוֹמַר לוֹ תֵּן בִּנְךָ לַהֲרִיגָה אָמַר לָהֶם ר׳ שִׁמְעוֹן אִילּוּ הָיָה יוֹחַאי אַבָּא קַיָּים יְכוֹלִין אַתֶּם לוֹמַר לוֹ תֵּן בִּנְךָ לַהֲרִיגָה When Rabbi Yosei, Rabbi Elazar’s father, heard this suggestion, he said to the Sages: But if Abba Ḥalafta, my father, were alive, would you be able to say to him: Give your son to be killed? If so, how can you ask me to send my son to Rome, where he is likely to be killed? Rabbi Shimon said to the Sages: If Yoḥai, my father, were alive, would you be able to say to him: Give your son to be killed? Nevertheless, I am prepared to risk my life and go to Rome, and if so, Rabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Yosei should accompany me.
אֲמַר לְהוּ רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אֲנָא אָזְלִין דִּלְמָא עָנֵישׁ לֵיהּ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן דְּקָא מִסְתְּפֵינָא קַבֵּיל עֲלֵיהּ דְּלָא לִיעְנְשֵׁיהּ אֲפִילּוּ הָכִי עַנְשֵׁיהּ Upon hearing this, Rabbi Yosei said to the Sages: If so, I will go in place of my son. I do not want him to go with Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, as this is what I fear: My son Elazar is young and quick to answer, and I am concerned lest Rabbi Shimon, who is hot-tempered, will become angry with him and punish him. Rabbi Shimon accepted upon himself that he would not punish Rabbi Elazar. The Gemara notes that even so, Rabbi Shimon did punish him while they were on their journey.
כְּשֶׁהָיוּ מְהַלְּכִין בַּדֶּרֶךְ נִשְׁאֲלָה שְׁאֵלָה זוֹ בִּפְנֵיהֶם מִנַּיִן לְדַם הַשֶּׁרֶץ שֶׁהוּא טָמֵא עִקֵּם פִּיו רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי וְאָמַר וְזֶה לָכֶם הַטָּמֵא אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מֵעֲקִימַת שְׂפָתֶיךָ אַתָּה נִיכָּר שֶׁתַּלְמִיד חָכָם אַתָּה אַל יַחְזוֹר הַבֵּן אֵצֶל אָבִיו Why did Rabbi Shimon end up punishing Rabbi Elazar? When they were walking on the road, this following question was asked before them: From where is it derived with regard to blood of a creeping animal that it is impure? Rabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Yosei twisted his mouth to whisper and said: It is derived from the verse: “And these are they that are impure for you among the creeping animals” (Leviticus 11:29). Although Rabbi Elazar tried to whisper so that Rabbi Shimon would not hear, Rabbi Shimon said to him: From the twisting of your mouth and your answer it is clear that you are a Torah scholar. Nevertheless, it is prohibited for a student to issue a ruling of halakha in the presence of his teacher. Therefore, I curse you that the son will not return from this journey to his father.
יָצָא לִקְרָאתוֹ בֶּן תְּמַלְיוֹן רְצוֹנְכֶם אָבוֹא עִמָּכֶם בָּכָה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן וְאָמַר מַה שִּׁפְחָה שֶׁל בֵּית אַבָּא נִזְדַּמֵּן לָהּ מַלְאָךְ שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים וַאֲנִי לֹא פַּעַם אַחַת יָבֹא הַנֵּס מִכׇּל מָקוֹם The Gemara continues the story: As they were journeying, a demon named ben Temalyon emerged to greet them. He said to them: Do you wish that I will join you and come with you in order to help nullify this decree? When he saw that a demon was coming to help save the Jewish people, Rabbi Shimon cried and said: What, even for a maidservant of my father’s home, Hagar the Egyptian, who was Abraham’s handmaid, an angel was made available to appear to her three times to help her. Each of the three mentions of “and the angel of the Lord said unto her” (Genesis 16:9–11) in the story of Hagar is understood as a reference to a different angel. But I apparently do not deserve assistance from an angel even one time, but only help from a demon. In any case, let the miracle come and save the Jewish people, even if only through a demon.
קְדֵים הוּא עַל בִּבְרַתֵּיהּ דְּקֵיסָר כִּי מְטָא הָתָם אָמַר בֶּן תְּמַלְיוֹן צֵא בֶּן תְּמַלְיוֹן צֵא וְכֵיוָן דִּקְרוֹ לֵיהּ נְפַק אֲזַל אֲמַר לְהוֹן שְׁאִילוּ כׇּל מָה דְּאִית לְכוֹן לְמִישְׁאַל וְעַיְּילִינְהוּ לְגִנְזֵיהּ לִשְׁקוֹל כֹּל דְּבָעוּ אַשְׁכַּחוּ הָהוּא אִיגְּרָא שַׁקְלוּהָ וּקְרָעוּהָ The demon ben Temalyon went before them and ascended into the emperor’s daughter and possessed her. When Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai arrived there, the emperor’s palace, he said: Ben Temalyon, emerge! Ben Temalyon, emerge! And once Rabbi Shimon called to him, ben Temalyon emerged and left the emperor’s daughter, and she was cured. When the emperor saw that Rabbi Shimon had cured his daughter, he said to them: Ask from me any reward that you want to ask. And he took them up to his treasury to take whatever they wanted. They found that letter there that contained the decrees against the Jewish people, and they took it and tore it up, and thereby nullified the decrees.
וְהַיְינוּ דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אֲנִי רְאִיתִיהָ בָּעִיר רוֹמִי וַהֲווֹ עָלֶיהָ כַּמָּה טִיפֵּי דָמִים The Gemara adds: And this is the background for that which Rabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Yosei said (Yoma 57a): I saw the Curtain of the Sanctuary in the city of Rome, and on the Curtain were several drops of blood from the bull and the goat of Yom Kippur. When the emperor took them into his treasury Rabbi Elazar saw the Temple vessels that the Romans had captured when they conquered Jerusalem, including the Curtain.
מַתְנִי׳ הַפִּיגּוּל וְהַנּוֹתָר אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן שְׁנֵי שֵׁמוֹת הַשֶּׁרֶץ וְהַנְּבֵלָה וְכֵן הַנְּבֵלָה וּבְשַׂר הַמֵּת אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה לְטַמֵּא אֲפִילּוּ בַּקַּל שֶׁבִּשְׁנֵיהֶן MISHNA: Sacrificial meat that is piggul and sacrificial meat that is notar do not join together to constitute the requisite measure of an olive-bulk, due to the fact that they belong to two separate categories of prohibition. The flesh of the carcass of the creeping animal and the flesh of the animal carcass, and likewise the flesh of the animal carcass and the flesh of the corpse, do not join together to transmit ritual impurity, not even for the more lenient of the two impurities, i.e., the impurity that requires the greater measure.
גְּמָ׳ אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל לֹא שָׁנוּ אֶלָּא לְטוּמְאַת הַיָּדַיִם דְּמִדְּרַבָּנַן הִיא אֲבָל לְעִנְיַן אֲכִילָה מִצְטָרְפִין דְּתַנְיָא רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר לֹא יֵאָכֵל כִּי קֹדֶשׁ הוּא כֹּל שֶׁבַּקֹּדֶשׁ פָּסוּל בָּא הַכָּתוּב לִיתֵּן לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה עַל אֲכִילָתוֹ GEMARA: Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: The mishna taught that piggul and notar do not join together only with regard to the ritual impurity of the hands if one touched them, which is by rabbinic law. But with regard to the matter of eating, they do join together. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: The verse states with regard to leftover sacrificial food from meat and bread: “It shall not be eaten because it is sacred” (Exodus 29:34). This teaches with regard to anything sacred that has been disqualified for whatever reason, that the verse comes to apply a prohibition with regard to its consumption.
מַתְנִי׳ הָאוֹכֶל שֶׁנִּטְמָא בְּאַב הַטּוּמְאָה וְשֶׁנִּטְמָא בִּוְלַד הַטּוּמְאָה מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה לְטַמֵּא בַּקַּל שֶׁבִּשְׁנֵיהֶם כׇּל הָאוֹכָלִים מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה לִפְסוֹל הַגְּוִיָּיה כְּבַחֲצִי פְרָס MISHNA: The food that became ritually impure through contact with a primary source of ritual impurity, thereby assuming first-degree ritual impurity, and the food that became ritually impure through contact with a secondary source of ritual impurity, thereby assuming second-degree ritual impurity, join together to constitute the requisite measure of an egg-bulk to transmit impurity in accordance with the more lenient of the two, i.e., second-degree ritual impurity. All the ritually impure foods join together to constitute the requisite measure to disqualify the body [hageviyya] of one who eats half of a half-loaf-bulk [peras] of the impure foods from partaking of teruma.
כְּבִמְזוֹן שְׁתֵּי סְעוּדוֹת לְעֵירוּב וּכְבֵיצָה לְטַמֵּא טוּמְאַת אוֹכָלִין וְכִגְרוֹגֶרֶת לְהוֹצָאַת שַׁבָּת וּכְכוֹתֶבֶת בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים כׇּל הַמַּשְׁקִין מִצְטָרְפִין זוֹ עִם זוֹ לִפְסוֹל אֶת הַגְּוִיָּיה בִּרְבִיעִית וְכִמְלֹא לוּגְמָא בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים Likewise, all foods join together to constitute the requisite measure of food sufficient for two meals, to establish a joining of Shabbat boundaries; and to form the requisite measure of an egg-bulk, to render an item impure with the ritual impurity of food; and to form the measure of a dried fig-bulk, which establishes liability for carrying out food on Shabbat; and to form the volume of a large date, which establishes liability for eating on Yom Kippur. All the liquids join together to constitute the requisite measure to disqualify the body of one who drinks a quarter-log of ritually impure liquid from partaking of teruma; and to constitute the measure of a cheekful, which establishes liability for drinking on Yom Kippur.
גְּמָ׳ תַּנְיָא רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר מָה טַעַם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁיֵּעָשֶׂה רִאשׁוֹן וּמִי קָא עָבֵיד שֵׁנִי רִאשׁוֹן הָא לָא אֶפְשָׁר GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon says: What is the reason that food with first-degree ritual impurity joins together with food that has second-degree ritual impurity? The reason is that it is possible for the food with second-degree impurity to render another food impure with first-degree impurity. The Gemara asks: But can a food with second-degree impurity render another food impure with first-degree impurity? That is not possible. If food impure with second-degree impurity touches other food, it renders that food impure with third-degree impurity, not first-degree impurity.
אָמַר רָבָא הָכִי קָאָמַר מִי גָּרַם לַשֵּׁנִי לָאו רִאשׁוֹן רַב אָשֵׁי אָמַר רִאשׁוֹן וְשֵׁנִי לְגַבֵּי שְׁלִישִׁי בְּנֵי חֲדָא בִּיקְתָּא אִינּוּן: Rava said that this is what Rabbi Shimon is saying: What caused that food to become impure with second-degree impurity? Is it not that it was touched by food with first-degree impurity? Since they share a common source, they join together. Rav Ashi similarly said: Food impure with first-degree impurity and food impure with second-degree impurity, with regard to food impure with third-degree impurity, are considered like members of one house, i.e., they both lead to third-degree impurity, either directly or indirectly, and for this reason they join together.