ילך ר' שמעון בן יוחאי שהוא מלומד בנסים ואחריו מי ילך ר"א בר ר' יוסי
Let Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai go to Rome, as he is accustomed to experiencing miracles. And who shall go after him, i.e., with him? Rabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Yosei.
אמר להם רבי יוסי ואילו היה אבא חלפתא קיים יכולין אתם לומר לו תן בנך להריגה אמר להם ר' שמעון אילו היה יוחאי אבא קיים יכולין אתם לומר לו תן בנך להריגה
When Rabbi Yosei, Rabbi Elazar’s father, heard this suggestion, he said to the Sages: But if Abba Ḥalafta, my father, were alive, would you be able to say to him: Give your son to be killed? If so, how can you ask me to send my son to Rome, where he is likely to be killed? Rabbi Shimon said to the Sages: If Yoḥai, my father, were alive, would you be able to say to him: Give your son to be killed? Nevertheless, I am prepared to risk my life and go to Rome, and if so, Rabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Yosei should accompany me.
אמר להו רבי יוסי אנא אזלין דלמא עניש ליה ר' שמעון דקא מסתפינא קביל עליה דלא ליענשיה אפילו הכי ענשיה
Upon hearing this, Rabbi Yosei said to the Sages: If so, I will go in place of my son. I do not want him to go with Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, as this is what I fear: My son Elazar is young and quick to answer, and I am concerned lest Rabbi Shimon, who is hot-tempered, will become angry with him and punish him. Rabbi Shimon accepted upon himself that he would not punish Rabbi Elazar. The Gemara notes that even so, Rabbi Shimon did punish him while they were on their journey.
כשהיו מהלכין בדרך נשאלה שאלה זו בפניהם מנין לדם השרץ שהוא טמא עקם פיו ר' אלעזר בר רבי יוסי ואמר (ויקרא יא, כט) וזה לכם הטמא אמר ליה ר' שמעון מעקימת שפתיך אתה ניכר שתלמיד חכם אתה אל יחזור הבן אצל אביו
Why did Rabbi Shimon end up punishing Rabbi Elazar? When they were walking on the road, this following question was asked before them: From where is it derived with regard to blood of a creeping animal that it is impure? Rabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Yosei twisted his mouth to whisper and said: It is derived from the verse: “And these are they that are impure for you among the creeping animals” (Leviticus 11:29). Although Rabbi Elazar tried to whisper so that Rabbi Shimon would not hear, Rabbi Shimon said to him: From the twisting of your mouth and your answer it is clear that you are a Torah scholar. Nevertheless, it is prohibited for a student to issue a ruling of halakha in the presence of his teacher. Therefore, I curse you that the son will not return from this journey to his father.
יצא לקראתו בן תמליון רצונכם אבוא עמכם בכה ר' שמעון ואמר מה שפחה של בית אבא נזדמן לה מלאך שלש פעמים ואני לא פעם אחת יבא הנס מכל מקום
The Gemara continues the story: As they were journeying, a demon named ben Temalyon emerged to greet them. He said to them: Do you wish that I will join you and come with you in order to help nullify this decree? When he saw that a demon was coming to help save the Jewish people, Rabbi Shimon cried and said: What, even for a maidservant of my father’s home, Hagar the Egyptian, who was Abraham’s handmaid, an angel was made available to appear to her three times to help her. Each of the three mentions of “and the angel of the Lord said unto her” (Genesis 16:9–11) in the story of Hagar is understood as a reference to a different angel. But I apparently do not deserve assistance from an angel even one time, but only help from a demon. In any case, let the miracle come and save the Jewish people, even if only through a demon.
קדים הוא על בברתיה דקיסר כי מטא התם אמר בן תמליון צא בן תמליון צא וכיון דקרו ליה נפק אזל אמר להון שאילו כל מה דאית לכון למישאל ועיילינהו לגנזיה לשקול כל דבעו אשכחו ההוא איגרא שקלוה וקרעוה
The demon ben Temalyon went before them and ascended into the emperor’s daughter and possessed her. When Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai arrived there, the emperor’s palace, he said: Ben Temalyon, emerge! Ben Temalyon, emerge! And once Rabbi Shimon called to him, ben Temalyon emerged and left the emperor’s daughter, and she was cured. When the emperor saw that Rabbi Shimon had cured his daughter, he said to them: Ask from me any reward that you want to ask. And he took them up to his treasury to take whatever they wanted. They found that letter there that contained the decrees against the Jewish people, and they took it and tore it up, and thereby nullified the decrees.
והיינו דאמר רבי אלעזר בר רבי יוסי אני ראיתיה בעיר [רומי] והוו עליה כמה טיפי דמים
The Gemara adds: And this is the background for that which Rabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Yosei said (Yoma 57a): I saw the Curtain of the Sanctuary in the city of Rome, and on the Curtain were several drops of blood from the bull and the goat of Yom Kippur. When the emperor took them into his treasury Rabbi Elazar saw the Temple vessels that the Romans had captured when they conquered Jerusalem, including the Curtain.
מתני׳ הפיגול והנותר אין מצטרפין מפני שהן שני שמות השרץ והנבלה וכן הנבלה ובשר המת אין מצטרפין זה עם זה לטמא אפילו בקל שבשניהן
MISHNA: Sacrificial meat that is piggul and sacrificial meat that is notar do not join together to constitute the requisite measure of an olive-bulk, due to the fact that they belong to two separate categories of prohibition. The flesh of the carcass of the creeping animal and the flesh of the animal carcass, and likewise the flesh of the animal carcass and the flesh of the corpse, do not join together to transmit ritual impurity, not even for the more lenient of the two impurities, i.e., the impurity that requires the greater measure.
גמ׳ אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל לא שנו אלא לטומאת הידים דמדרבנן היא אבל לענין אכילה מצטרפין דתניא ר' אליעזר אומר (שמות כט, לד) לא יאכל כי קדש הוא כל שבקדש פסול בא הכתוב ליתן לא תעשה על אכילתו
GEMARA: Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: The mishna taught that piggul and notar do not join together only with regard to the ritual impurity of the hands if one touched them, which is by rabbinic law. But with regard to the matter of eating, they do join together. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: The verse states with regard to leftover sacrificial food from meat and bread: “It shall not be eaten because it is sacred” (Exodus 29:34). This teaches with regard to anything sacred that has been disqualified for whatever reason, that the verse comes to apply a prohibition with regard to its consumption.
מתני׳ האוכל שנטמא באב הטומאה ושנטמא בולד הטומאה מצטרפין זה עם זה לטמא בקל שבשניהם כל האוכלים מצטרפין זה עם זה לפסול הגוייה כבחצי פרס כבמזון
MISHNA: The food that became ritually impure through contact with a primary source of ritual impurity, thereby assuming first-degree ritual impurity, and the food that became ritually impure through contact with a secondary source of ritual impurity, thereby assuming second-degree ritual impurity, join together to constitute the requisite measure of an egg-bulk to transmit impurity in accordance with the more lenient of the two, i.e., second-degree ritual impurity. All the ritually impure foods join together to constitute the requisite measure to disqualify the body [hageviyya] of one who eats half of a half-loaf-bulk [peras] of the impure foods from partaking of teruma.
שתי סעודות לעירוב וכביצה לטמא טומאת אוכלין וכגרוגרת להוצאת שבת וככותבת ביום הכפורים כל המשקין מצטרפין זו עם זו לפסול את הגוייה ברביעית וכמלא לוגמא ביום הכפורים
Likewise, all foods join together to constitute the requisite measure of food sufficient for two meals, to establish a joining of Shabbat boundaries; and to form the requisite measure of an egg-bulk, to render an item impure with the ritual impurity of food; and to form the measure of a dried fig-bulk, which establishes liability for carrying out food on Shabbat; and to form the volume of a large date, which establishes liability for eating on Yom Kippur. All the liquids join together to constitute the requisite measure to disqualify the body of one who drinks a quarter-log of ritually impure liquid from partaking of teruma; and to constitute the measure of a cheekful, which establishes liability for drinking on Yom Kippur.
גמ׳ תניא רבי שמעון אומר מה טעם שאפשר לשני שיעשה ראשון ומי קא עביד שני ראשון הא לא אפשר
GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon says: What is the reason that food with first-degree ritual impurity joins together with food that has second-degree ritual impurity? The reason is that it is possible for the food with second-degree impurity to render another food impure with first-degree impurity. The Gemara asks: But can a food with second-degree impurity render another food impure with first-degree impurity? That is not possible. If food impure with second-degree impurity touches other food, it renders that food impure with third-degree impurity, not first-degree impurity.
אמר רבא הכי קאמר מי גרם לשני לאו ראשון רב אשי אמר ראשון ושני לגבי שלישי בני חדא ביקתא אינון:
Rava said that this is what Rabbi Shimon is saying: What caused that food to become impure with second-degree impurity? Is it not that it was touched by food with first-degree impurity? Since they share a common source, they join together. Rav Ashi similarly said: Food impure with first-degree impurity and food impure with second-degree impurity, with regard to food impure with third-degree impurity, are considered like members of one house, i.e., they both lead to third-degree impurity, either directly or indirectly, and for this reason they join together.