שמחה אינה נוהגת אלא בזמנה
the rejoicing that takes place on Purim is practiced only in its designated time, the fourteenth of Adar.
אמר רב מגילה בזמנה קורין אותה אפי' ביחיד שלא בזמנה בעשרה רב אסי אמר בין בזמנה בין שלא בזמנה בעשרה הוה עובדא וחש ליה רב להא דרב אסי
§ Rav said: One may read the Megilla in its proper time, i.e., on the fourteenth of Adar, even privately. However, when it is read not at its proper time, e.g., when the villages advance their reading to the day of assembly, it must be read with a quorum of ten, because the enactment allowing the Megilla to be read before its proper time was only made for a community. Rav Asi disagreed and said: Both at its proper time and not at its proper time, the Megilla must be read with a quorum of ten. The Gemara relates that there was an incident where Rav had to read the Megilla on Purim, and he was concerned for this opinion of Rav Asi and gathered ten men even though he was reading the Megilla in its proper time, on the fourteenth of Adar.
ומי אמר רב הכי והאמר רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב פורים שחל להיות בשבת ערב שבת זמנם ערב שבת זמנם והא שבת זמנם הוא אלא לאו הכי קאמר שלא בזמנם כזמנם מה זמנם אפי' ביחיד אף שלא בזמנם אפילו ביחיד
The Gemara asks: And did Rav actually say this, that when the Megilla is read not at its proper time, it can only be read with a quorum of ten? Didn’t Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, say in the name of Rav: If Purim occurs on Shabbat, Shabbat eve is the proper time for reading the Megilla? The Gemara expresses surprise with regard to the wording of Rav’s statement: Is Shabbat eve the proper time for reading the Megilla? Isn’t Shabbat itself its proper time? Rather, is it not true that this is what he said, i.e., that this is the way his statement should be understood: Reading the Megilla not at its proper time is like reading it at its proper time; just as at its proper time, it can be read even privately, so too, not at its proper time, it can be read even privately.
לא לענין מקרא מגילה בעשרה אלא מאי ערב שבת זמנם לאפוקי מדרבי דאמר הואיל ונדחו עיירות ממקומן ידחו ליום הכניסה הא קמ"ל דערב שבת זמנם הוא:
The Gemara rejects this argument: Rav’s statement was not made with regard to reading the Megilla with a quorum of ten. Rather, what is the meaning of Rav’s statement that Shabbat eve is the proper time? It was meant to exclude the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, who said: Since the readings in the large towns were already deferred from their usual date and the Megilla was not read on the fourteenth, they are deferred to the day of assembly. This statement of Rav teaches us that Shabbat eve is the proper time for these towns to read the Megilla, as stated in the mishna.
מתני׳ אי זו היא עיר גדולה כל שיש בה עשרה בטלנין פחות מכאן הרי זה כפר
MISHNA: What is considered a large city, where the Megilla is read on the fourteenth of Adar? Any city in which there are ten idlers. However, if there are fewer than that, it is considered a village, even if it has many inhabitants.
באלו אמרו מקדימין ולא מאחרין אבל זמן עצי כהנים ותשעה באב חגיגה והקהל מאחרין ולא מקדימין
It was with regard to these times for reading the Megilla that the Sages said that one advances the reading of the Megilla before the fourteenth of Adar and one does not postpone the reading to after its proper time. However, with regard to the time when families of priests donate wood for the fire on the altar, which were times those families would treat as Festivals; as well as the fast of the Ninth of Av; the Festival peace-offering that was brought on the Festivals; and the commandment of assembly [hakhel] of the entire Jewish people in the Temple courtyard on Sukkot in the year following the Sabbatical year to hear the king read the book of Deuteronomy; one postpones their observance until after Shabbat and does not advance their observance to before Shabbat.
אע"פ שאמרו מקדימין ולא מאחרין מותרין בהספד ובתענית ומתנות לאביונים א"ר יהודה אימתי מקום שנכנסין בשני ובחמישי אבל מקום שאין נכנסין לא בשני ולא בחמישי אין קורין אותה אלא בזמנה:
The mishna continues: Even though the Sages said that one advances the time for reading the Megilla and one does not postpone the reading, one is permitted to eulogize and fast on these days, as they are not actually Purim; nevertheless, gifts for the poor are distributed on this day. Rabbi Yehuda said: When is the Megilla read on the day of assembly, before the fourteenth of Adar? In a place where the villagers generally enter town on Monday and Thursday. However, in a place where they do not generally enter town on Monday and Thursday, one may read the Megilla only in its designated time, the fourteenth of Adar.
גמ׳ תנא עשרה בטלנין שבבית הכנסת:
GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that a large city is one that has ten idlers. It was taught in a baraita: The ten idlers that are mentioned here are ten idlers that are in the synagogue, i.e., men who do not have professional responsibilities other than to sit in the synagogue and attend to communal religious needs. The presence of ten such men establishes a location as a prominent city.
באלו אמרו מקדימין ולא מאחרין: מ"ט אמר רבי אבא אמר שמואל אמר קרא ולא יעבור
We learned in the mishna: It was with regard to these times for reading the Megilla that the Sages said that one advances the reading of the Megilla and one does not postpone it. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? Rabbi Abba said that Shmuel said: The verse states: “The Jews ordained, and took upon them, and upon their seed, and upon all who joined themselves to them, and it shall not pass, that they should keep these two days” (Esther 9:27), which indicates that the designated time must not pass without the reading of the Megilla.
ואמר רבי אבא אמר שמואל מנין שאין מונין ימים לשנים שנא' (שמות יב, ב) לחדשי השנה חדשים אתה מונה לשנים ואי אתה מונה ימים לשנים
Having mentioned a teaching of Rabbi Abba in the name of Shmuel, the Gemara cites another of his statements: And Rabbi Abba said that Shmuel said: From where is it derived that one does not count days to make up years, i.e., a year is considered to be comprised of either twelve or thirteen lunar months, and not 365 days? As it is stated: “Of the months of the year” (Exodus 12:2), which indicates that you count months to make up years, but you do not count days to make up years.
ורבנן דקיסרי משום ר' אבא אמרו מנין שאין מחשבין שעות לחדשים שנא' (במדבר יא, כ) עד חדש ימים ימים אתה מחשב לחדשים ואי אתה מחשב שעות לחדשים:
The Gemara adds: And the Sages of Caesarea said in the name of Rabbi Abba: From where is it derived that one does not calculate hours to reckon the months? A lunar cycle takes approximately twenty-nine and a half days, but a calendar month is considered to be twenty-nine or thirty full days and not precisely a lunar cycle. As it is stated: “Until a month of days” (Numbers 11:20), which indicates that you calculate days to reckon the months, but you do not calculate hours to reckon the months.
אבל זמן עצי כהנים ותשעה באב וחגיגה והקהל מאחרין ולא מקדימין: תשעה באב אקדומי פורענות לא מקדמי חגיגה והקהל משום דאכתי לא מטא זמן חיובייהו
§ We learned in the mishna: However, with regard to the time when families of priests donate wood for the fire on the altar, the fast of the Ninth of Av, the Festival peace-offering, and the commandment of assembly [hakhel ], one postpones their observance until after Shabbat and does not advance their observance to before Shabbat. The Gemara explains the reason for this halakha with respect to each item mentioned in the mishna. The fast of the Ninth of Av is not advanced because one does not advance calamity; since the Ninth of Av is a tragic time, its observance is postponed as long as possible. The Festival peace-offering and the commandment of assembly [hakhel ] are not advanced because the time of their obligation has not yet arrived, and it is impossible to fulfill mitzvot before the designated time has arrived.
תנא חגיגה וכל זמן חגיגה מאחרין בשלמא חגיגה דאי מיקלע בשבתא מאחרינן לה לבתר שבתא אלא זמן חגיגה מאי היא
It was taught in a baraita: One postpones the Festival peace-offering and the entire time period of the Festival peace-offering. The Gemara attempts to clarify this statement: Granted that when the baraita says that the Festival peace-offering is postponed, it means that if a Festival occurs on Shabbat, when the Festival peace-offering cannot be sacrificed, one postpones it until after Shabbat and sacrifices the offering on the intermediate days of the Festival. However, what is the meaning of the phrase: The time period of the Festival peace-offering?
אמר רב אושעיא הכי קאמר חגיגה בשבת ועולת ראייה אפילו ביו"ט דזמן חגיגה מאחרין
Rav Oshaya said: This is what the baraita is saying: One postpones the Festival peace-offering if the Festival occurs on Shabbat, and one postpones the burnt-offering of appearance even due to the Festival itself. Despite the fact that a Festival day is the time for sacrificing a Festival peace-offering, the burnt-offering of appearance may not be sacrificed until after the Festival day.
מני ב"ש היא דתנן [ב"ש אומרים] מביאין שלמים ביו"ט ואין סומכין עליהן
The Gemara adds: Whose opinion is reflected in the mishna according to Rav Oshaya’s explanation? It is the opinion of Beit Shammai, as we learned in a mishna (Beitza 19a) that Beit Shammai say: One may bring peace-offerings on a Festival day to be sacrificed in the Temple. Most portions of a peace-offering are eaten by the priests and the individual who brought the offering. Consequently, its slaughter is considered food preparation, which is permitted on a Festival day. And one may not place his hands on the head of the offering, as that includes leaning with all one’s might upon the animal, which is prohibited on a Festival.
אבל לא עולות וב"ה אומרים מביאין שלמים ועולות וסומכין עליהן
However, burnt-offerings may not be brought at all on the Festival. Since they are not eaten, their slaughter is not considered food preparation, and it therefore constitutes a prohibited labor on the Festival. Beit Hillel disagree and say: One may bring both peace-offerings and burnt-offerings on a Festival day, and one may even place his hands on them.
רבא אמר חגיגה כל זמן חגיגה מאחרין טפי לא דתנן מי שלא חג ביו"ט הראשון של חג חוגג והולך את כל הרגל כולו ויום טוב האחרון של חג עבר הרגל ולא חג אינו חייב באחריותו
Rava said that the baraita should be understood as follows: One postpones the Festival peace-offering for the entire time period of the Festival peace-offering, i.e., for the entire duration of the Festival. However, it may not be postponed for longer than this. As we learned in a mishna (Ḥagiga 9a): One who did not offer the Festival peace-offering on the first Festival day of the festival of Sukkot may offer the Festival peace-offering for the duration of the entire pilgrimage Festival, including the intermediate days and the last day of the Festival. If the pilgrimage Festival has passed and he did not yet bring the Festival peace-offering, he is not obligated to pay restitution for it. The obligation is no longer in force, and he therefore is not liable to bring another offering as compensation.
רב אשי אמר חגיגה וכל זמן חגיגה מאחרין ואפי' עצרת דחד יומא מאחרין דתנן מודים שאם חל עצרת להיות בשבת שיום טבוח אחר השבת
Rav Ashi said that the baraita should be understood as follows: The Festival peace-offering may be postponed for the entire time period of a Festival peace-offering. This indicates that even if Shavuot, which is one day, occurs on Shabbat, one postpones the Festival peace-offering and offers it on one of the six days after Shavuot. As we learned in a mishna (Ḥagiga 17a): Beit Hillel concede that if Shavuot occurs on Shabbat, the day of slaughter is after Shabbat. Since the Festival peace-offering and the burnt-offering of appearance cannot be sacrificed on Shabbat, they are slaughtered after Shabbat. This indicates that the Festival peace-offering may be slaughtered after the Festival day of Shavuot, as is the case on the other Festivals.
אמר רבי אלעזר אמר רבי חנינא רבי נטע נטיעה בפורים
Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Ḥanina said: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did several unusual things: He planted a sapling on Purim, and was not concerned about performing labor and thereby possibly denigrating the day.